National Academies Press: OpenBook

High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations (2018)

Chapter: Appendix B: Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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Page 138
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
×
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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Page 141

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B Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters The report chapters and sections noted in Table B.1 address the specified tasks, but often there are other sections of the report also address aspects of the task. 138

Appendix B 139 TABLE B.1 Task Report Statement of Task Report Chapter(s) and Section(s) Task 1 Assessment of the critical drill-through equipment fastener systems and the appropriateness of materials and coatings selected for incorporation into fasteners, for optimal performance for subsea environment operating conditions. The assessment should address the following questions and issues: Task 1.1 Are existing industry best practices and BSEE Chapter 2, Fastener Design regulations adequate enough to ensure that Appendix J, Safety Factors for Flange fasteners will perform satisfactorily in the subsea Bolts conditions under which they are expected to be Chapter 3, Regulatory Considerations used? and Other Industry Practices Chapter 4, Gaps in US Human System Integration in the Oil and Gas Industry Task 1.2 What additional steps should be taken to improve Chapter 2, Fastener Design the development and implementation of best Chapter 2, Fastener Life Cycle practices and regulations governing fastener Chapter 3, Fastener Standards and performance for critical drill-through equipment for Specifications subsea applications? Chapter 3, Quality Assurance Options Chapter 4, Human Systems Integration and Fasteners Appendix J Task 1.3 What are the best techniques and practices Chapter 2, entire chapter to address the design, load, fatigue loading, Chapter 3, entire chapter material properties (YS, UTS, elongation, Appendix J hardness) requirements, coating selection, cathodic protection, QA/QC, quality management systems (QMS) oversight of subcontracted vendor manufacturing process issues (procurement-forging, manufacturing, heat treatment, coating processes, etc.), fastener failure type and failure reporting, and failure analysis techniques for use in managing fastener use and quality? Task 1.4 Options for optimal material specifications for Chapter 2, Options for Improving inclusion in relevant industry standards for future the Selection of Bolting Material use and implementation of fasteners used for Properties subsea oil and gas applications. Chapter 3, Fastener Standards and Specifications Task 1.5 Identification of best practices from other industries Chapter 3, Regulatory Considerations like refinery, both onshore and offshore, aerospace, and Other Industry Practices aviation, nuclear industry, military, naval (submarine Chapter 4, Human Systems Integration and ship), pipeline, and automotive. in other Industries and Countries Task 1.6 Risk Assessment timelines and protocols for Chapter 2, Fastener Life Cycle replacing existing in-service sub-sea fasteners (e.g. Appendix J, Safety Factors for Flange replace all offshore bolts of concern based on risk, Bolts age, etc.).

140 H i g h - P e r f o r m a n c e B o lt i n g Te c h n o l o g y TABLE B.1 Continued Task Report Statement of Task Report Chapter(s) and Section(s) Task 1.7 Data collection needs: who collects the failure data; Chapter 2, Fastener Life Cycle when is the failure data collected; when, to whom Chapter 5, Testing Protocol and how is the failure data reported? Task 2 Design issues and human-systems interaction Chapter 2, Fastener Life Cycle factors. This analysis will not be limited to the Chapter 4, entire chapter technical components but will also encompass the entire system and bolt lifecycle (design, procurement, manufacturing, installation, maintenance, commissioning, and operation), including the human components. Specific emphasis will be placed on the management of the manufacturing process from the first tier OEM down through the second, third, fourth, etc., sub tier sub- contractors. Task 3.1 Options on improving safety of offshore drilling and Chapter 2, Fastener Life Cycle pipeline operations as related to the use of fasteners Chapter 3, Fastener Standards and for critical drill through equipment components like Specifications the lower marine riser package (LMRP) (connector) and pipeline fasteners. Task 3.2 Identify options for reducing or eliminating the Chapter 2, Fastener Life Cycle identified gaps for fastener manufacture, and Chapter 5, New Fastener Designs provide valuable insight on how/if alternative Chapter 5, Coating Technologies fastener designs are capable of improving safety of offshore drilling and pipeline operations. Task 3.3 Options on the methodology for the selection for Chapter 2, Options for Improving material properties (such as hardness, yield, UTS, the Selection of Bolting Material etc.), and other critical parameters identified by the Properties industry standards or codes, in accordance with the subsea bolt application and operating environment Task 3.4 Options encompassing the use of both domestic Chapter 2, Fastener Design and international standards and regulations that Chapter 3, Fastener Standards and are in place today on fasteners to BSEE on how Specifications to proceed or how the existing industry standards Chapter 3, Quality Assurance Options should be modified to address project findings, or Appendix J how BSEE should structure a 30 CFR 250 regulation to require these conditions should be met. Task 4 Evaluation of the performance of fastener Chapter 2, entire chapter systems currently in use including the process of Chapter 4, Human Systems Integration manufacturing (e.g. smelting, casting, drawing, heat and Fasteners treatment, coatings, mechanical/material properties, Chapter 4, Human Interactions with performance properties-shear stress, fatigue life, Subsea Fasteners etc.), corrosion protection (cathodic protection) Appendix J installation (e.g., torqueing), maintenance and inspection processes associated with fastener systems.

Appendix B 141 TABLE B.1 Continued Task Report Statement of Task Report Chapter(s) and Section(s) Task 5 The subsea environmental effects (seawater salinity Chapter 2, Ductile and Brittle Failure along with high pressure/high temperature in Modes presence of CO2, Cl- or H2S,) on the mechanical Appendix G, Subsea Environmental properties of bolts and corrosion resistance. Factors for Fastener Design Task 6 The impact of cathodic protection systems on Chapter 2, Cathodic Protection and fastener performance in a subsea environment. Hydrogen Cracking Chapter 2, Cluster Failures Task 7 Identification of the similarities and differences in Appendix H, Bolting Regulations & industry standards related to the design, material Standards specification for strength, hardness, coatings, Comparison not done—see corrosion resistance performance in atmospheric explanation in Preface as well as subsea application conditions, cathodic protection, performance and maintenance requirements as related to fastener systems worldwide. Task 8 Evaluation of alternative fastener designs used Chapter 3, Regulatory Considerations globally by the oil and gas and pipeline industry and Other Industry Practices. (Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), other offshore Chapter 5, Coating Technologies and areas, onshore), refineries, aerospace, aviation, New Fastener Designs nuclear, Naval (submarine, ship), automotive, and/ or other industries, etc. Identification of ideas and concepts taken from industries outside of oil and gas which can be integrated into the offshore oil and gas community to effect improvements on safety and environmental protection.

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Commercially significant amounts of crude oil and natural gas lie under the continental shelf of the United States. Advances in locating deposits, and improvements in drilling and recovery technology, have made it technically and economically feasible to extract these resources under harsh conditions. But extracting these offshore petroleum resources involves the possibility, however remote, of oil spills, with resulting damage to the ocean and the coastline ecosystems and risks to life and limb of those performing the extraction. The environmental consequences of an oil spill can be more severe underwater than on land because sea currents can quickly disperse the oil over a large area and, thus, cleanup can be problematic.

Bolted connections are an integral feature of deep-water well operations. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations summarizes strategies for improving the reliability of fasteners used in offshore oil exploration equipment, as well as best practices from other industrial sectors. It focuses on critical bolting—bolts, studs, nuts, and fasteners used on critical connections.

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