A RESEARCH REVIEW OF
INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE
THE PERSISTENCE AND
RESILIENCE OF CORAL REEFS
Committee on Interventions to Increase the Resilience of Coral Reefs
Ocean Studies Board
Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies
A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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This activity was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Award Number WC133R17CQ0031 and Paul G. Allen Family Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48535-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48535-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25279
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25279.
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COMMITTEE ON INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE THE RESILIENCE OF CORAL REEFS
STEPHEN R. PALUMBI, Chair, Stanford University, California
KENNETH R. N. ANTHONY, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland
ANDREW C. BAKER, University of Miami, Florida
MARISSA L. BASKETT, University of California, Davis
DEBASHISH BHATTACHARYA, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
DAVID G. BOURNE, James Cook University and Australian Institute of Maine Science, Queensland
NANCY KNOWLTON, Smithsonian Institution (retired), Washington, District of Columbia
CHERYL A. LOGAN, California State University, Monterey Bay
KERRY A. NAISH, University of Washington, Seattle
ROBERT H. RICHMOND, University of Hawaii at Manoa
TYLER B. SMITH, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas
KATHERINE VON STACKELBERG, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
SUSAN ROBERTS, Director, Ocean Studies Board
EMILY TWIGG, Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board
ANDREA HODGSON, Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences
LIANA VACCARI, Mirzayan Fellow (through April 2018)
TRENT CUMMINGS, Senior Program Assistant, Ocean Studies Board
OCEAN STUDIES BOARD
LARRY A. MAYER, Chair, University of New Hampshire, Durham
KEVIN R. ARRIGO, Stanford University, California
CLAUDIA BENITEZ-NELSON, University of South Carolina, Columbia
THOMAS R. CHANCE, ASV Global, LLC, Broussard, Louisiana
RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park
SARAH W. COOKSEY, State of Delaware, Dover
JAMES A. ESTES, University of California, Santa Cruz
DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
PATRICK HEIMBACH, The University of Texas at Austin
SUSAN E. HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
S. BRADLEY MORAN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
STEVEN A. MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg
JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California
H. TUBA ÖZKAN-HALLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis
RUTH M. PERRY, Shell Exploration & Production Company, Houston, Texas
MARTIN D. SMITH, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
MARK H. SPALDING, The Ocean Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia
MARGARET SPRING, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California
DOUGLAS WARTZOK, Florida International University, Miami
LISA D. WHITE, University of California, Berkeley, and San Francisco State University
ROBERT S. WINOKUR, Michigan Tech Research Institute, Silver Spring, Maryland
SUSAN ROBERTS, Director
STACEE KARRAS, Program Officer
EMILY TWIGG, Program Officer
TRENT CUMMINGS, Senior Program Assistant
SHELLY FREELAND, Financial Associate
BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES
JAMES P. COLLINS, Chair, Arizona State University, Tempe
A. ALONSO AGUIRRE, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia
ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Marshall, Virginia
DOMINIQUE BROSSARD, University of Wisconsin–Madison
ROGER D. CONE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
NANCY D. CONNELL, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, Baltimore, Maryland
SEAN M. DECATUR, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio
JOSEPH R. ECKER, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California
SCOTT V. EDWARDS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
GERALD EPSTEIN, National Defense University, Washington, District of Columbia
ROBERT J. FULL, University of California, Berkeley
ELIZABETH HEITMAN, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas
MARY E. MAXON, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California
ROBERT NEWMAN, Independent Consultant, Washington, District of Columbia
STEPHEN J. O’BRIEN, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida
CLAIRE POMEROY, Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, New York, New York
MARY E. POWER, University of California, Berkeley
SUSAN RUNDELL SINGER, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida
LANA SKIRBOLL, Sanofi, Baltimore, Maryland
DAVID R. WALT, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
FRANCES SHARPLES, Director
KATIE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer
ANDREA HODGSON, Program Officer
JO HUSBANDS, Senior Scholar
KEEGAN SAWYER, Senior Program Officer
AUDREY THEVENON, Program Officer
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This Consensus Study Report was greatly enhanced by discussions with participants at the committee’s meetings and workshops as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge, especially, the efforts of those who gave presentations at the committee workshops, who are listed in Appendix B. The committee would also like to thank David Mead, Australian Institute of Marine Science; Jorge Mendoza-Torres, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Britta Schaffelke, Australian Institute of Marine Science; and Joanna Walczak, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David Karl, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Holly Greening, CoastWise Partners. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.