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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A RESEARCH REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE THE PERSISTENCE AND RESILIENCE OF CORAL REEFS Committee on Interventions to Increase the Resilience of Coral Reefs Ocean Studies Board Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- istration under Award Number WC133R17CQ0031 and Paul G. Allen Family F ­ oundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48535-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48535-5 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25279 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi. org/10.17226/25279.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON INTERVENTIONS TO INCREASE THE RESILIENCE OF CORAL REEFS STEPHEN R. PALUMBI, Chair, Stanford University, California KENNETH R. N. ANTHONY, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland ANDREW C. BAKER, University of Miami, Florida MARISSA L. BASKETT, University of California, Davis DEBASHISH BHATTACHARYA, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey DAVID G. BOURNE, James Cook University and Australian Institute of Maine Science, Queensland NANCY KNOWLTON, Smithsonian Institution (retired), Washington, District of Columbia CHERYL A. LOGAN, California State University, Monterey Bay KERRY A. NAISH, University of Washington, Seattle ROBERT H. RICHMOND, University of Hawaii at Manoa TYLER B. SMITH, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas KATHERINE VON STACKELBERG, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director, Ocean Studies Board EMILY TWIGG, Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board ANDREA HODGSON, Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences LIANA VACCARI, Mirzayan Fellow (through April 2018) TRENT CUMMINGS, Senior Program Assistant, Ocean Studies Board v

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD LARRY A. MAYER, Chair, University of New Hampshire, Durham KEVIN R. ARRIGO, Stanford University, California CLAUDIA BENITEZ-NELSON, University of South Carolina, Columbia THOMAS R. CHANCE, ASV Global, LLC, Broussard, Louisiana RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park SARAH W. COOKSEY, State of Delaware, Dover JAMES A. ESTES, University of California, Santa Cruz DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California PATRICK HEIMBACH, The University of Texas at Austin SUSAN E. HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts S. BRADLEY MORAN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks STEVEN A. MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California H. TUBA ÖZKAN-HALLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis RUTH M. PERRY, Shell Exploration & Production Company, Houston, Texas MARTIN D. SMITH, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina MARK H. SPALDING, The Ocean Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia MARGARET SPRING, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California DOUGLAS WARTZOK, Florida International University, Miami LISA D. WHITE, University of California, Berkeley, and San Francisco State University ROBERT S. WINOKUR, Michigan Tech Research Institute, Silver Spring, Maryland Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director STACEE KARRAS, Program Officer EMILY TWIGG, Program Officer TRENT CUMMINGS, Senior Program Assistant SHELLY FREELAND, Financial Associate vi

BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES JAMES P. COLLINS, Chair, Arizona State University, Tempe A. ALONSO AGUIRRE, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Marshall, Virginia DOMINIQUE BROSSARD, University of Wisconsin–Madison ROGER D. CONE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor NANCY D. CONNELL, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, Baltimore, Maryland SEAN M. DECATUR, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio JOSEPH R. ECKER, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California SCOTT V. EDWARDS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts GERALD EPSTEIN, National Defense University, Washington, District of Columbia ROBERT J. FULL, University of California, Berkeley ELIZABETH HEITMAN, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas MARY E. MAXON, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, California ROBERT NEWMAN, Independent Consultant, Washington, District of Columbia STEPHEN J. O’BRIEN, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida CLAIRE POMEROY, Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, New York, New York MARY E. POWER, University of California, Berkeley SUSAN RUNDELL SINGER, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida LANA SKIRBOLL, Sanofi, Baltimore, Maryland DAVID R. WALT, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Staff FRANCES SHARPLES, Director KATIE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer ANDREA HODGSON, Program Officer JO HUSBANDS, Senior Scholar KEEGAN SAWYER, Senior Program Officer AUDREY THEVENON, Program Officer vii

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was greatly enhanced by discussions with participants at the committee’s meetings and workshops as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge, especially, the efforts of those who gave presentations at the committee workshops, who are listed in Appendix B. The committee would also like to thank David Mead, Australian Institute of Marine Science; Jorge Mendoza-­ Torres, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Britta Schaffelke, Australian Institute of Marine Science; and Joanna Walczak, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Mark Baird, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Iliana Baums, The Pennsylvania State University Joanie Kleypas, National Center for Atmospheric Research ix

x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Todd LaJeunesse, The Pennsylvania State University Mikhail Matz, The University of Texas at Austin Raquel Peixoto, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Jennifer Smith, Scripps Institution of Oceanography George Somero, Stanford University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclu- sions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David Karl, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Holly Greening, CoastWise Partners. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examina- tion of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully consid- ered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 17 Global Climate Stressors, 18 Disease, 24 Local Stressors and Stress Prevention, 26 Future Global Climate Projections, 31 Study Task and Approach, 34 2 GENETIC AND REPRODUCTIVE INTERVENTIONS 41 Managed Selection, 42 Managed Breeding, 48 Gamete and Larval Capture and Seeding, 62 Coral Cryopreservation, 66 Genetic Manipulation, 68 3 PHYSIOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS 77 Pre-exposure, 78 Algal Symbiont Manipulation, 86 Microbiome Manipulation, 95 Antibiotics, 103 Phage Therapy, 107 Antioxidants, 110 Nutritional Supplementation, 113 xi

xii CONTENTS 4 CORAL POPULATION AND COMMUNITY INTERVENTIONS 119 Managing Coral Predators, Competitors, and Facilitators, 120 Managed Relocation, 120 5 ENVIRONMENTAL INTERVENTIONS 143 Shading of Coral Reefs, 144 Mixing of Cool Water, 150 Abiotic Ocean Acidification Interventions, 152 Seagrass Meadows and Macroalgal Beds, 156 6 CONCLUSION 163 Guiding Themes, 164 Considerations for Implementation, 172 REFERENCES 177 GLOSSARY 227 APPENDIXES A Committee and Staff Biographies 233 B Information-Gathering Meeting Agendas 239

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A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs Get This Book
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Coral reef declines have been recorded for all major tropical ocean basins since the 1980s, averaging approximately 30-50% reductions in reef cover globally. These losses are a result of numerous problems, including habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, disease, and climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions and the associated increases in ocean temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been implicated in increased reports of coral bleaching, disease outbreaks, and ocean acidification (OA). For the hundreds of millions of people who depend on reefs for food or livelihoods, the thousands of communities that depend on reefs for wave protection, the people whose cultural practices are tied to reef resources, and the many economies that depend on reefs for fisheries or tourism, the health and maintenance of this major global ecosystem is crucial.

A growing body of research on coral physiology, ecology, molecular biology, and responses to stress has revealed potential tools to increase coral resilience. Some of this knowledge is poised to provide practical interventions in the short-term, whereas other discoveries are poised to facilitate research that may later open the doors to additional interventions. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs reviews the state of science on genetic, ecological, and environmental interventions meant to enhance the persistence and resilience of coral reefs. The complex nature of corals and their associated microbiome lends itself to a wide range of possible approaches. This first report provides a summary of currently available information on the range of interventions present in the scientific literature and provides a basis for the forthcoming final report.

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