National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 6 Conclusion
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

References

Abedon, S. T., P. García, P. Mullany, and R. Aminov. 2017. Phage therapy: Past, present and future. Frontiers in Microbiology 8:981.

Abrego, D., M. J. H. van Oppen, and B. L. Willis. 2009. Onset of algal endosymbiont specificity varies among closely related species of Acropora corals during early ontogeny. Molecular Ecology 18(16):3532-3543. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04276.x.

Adam, T. C., D. E. Burkepile, B. I. Ruttenberg, and M. J. Paddack. 2015. Herbivory and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs: Knowledge gaps and implications for management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 520:1-20.

Agostini, S., Y. Suzuki, B. E. Casareto, Y. Nakano, M. Hidaka, and N. Badrun. 2009. Coral symbiotic complex: Hypothesis through vitamin B12 for a new evaluation. Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies 11:1-11.

Agostini, S., Y. Suzuki, T. Higuchi, B. Casareto, K. Yoshinaga, Y. Nakano, and H. Fujimura. 2012. Biological and chemical characteristics of the coral gastric cavity. Coral Reefs 31(1):147-156. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-011-0831-6.

Ahlm, L., A. Jones, W. C. Stjern, H. Muri, B. Kravitz, and J. E. Kristjánsson. 2017. Marine cloud brightening—As effective without clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(21):13071-13087. DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-13071-2017.

Ainsworth, T. D., S. F. Heron, J. C. Ortiz, P. J. Mumby, A. Grech, D. Ogawa, C. M. Eakin, and W. Leggat. 2016. Climate change disables coral bleaching protection on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 352(6283):338-342. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac7125.

Aitken, S. N., and M. C. Whitlock. 2013. Assisted gene flow to facilitate local adaptation to climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 44(1):367-388. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135747.

Albright, R., and C. Langdon. 2011. Ocean acidification impacts multiple early life history processes of the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides. Global Change Biology 17(7):2478-2487. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02404.x.

Albright, R., J. Benthuysen, N. Cantin, K. Caldeira, and K. Anthony. 2015. Coral reef metabolism and carbon chemistry dynamics of a coral reef flat. Geophysical Research Letters 42(10):3980-3988. DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063488.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Albright, R., L. Caldeira, J. Hosfelt, L. Kwiatkowski, J. K. Maclaren, B. M. Mason, Y. Nebuchina, A. Ninokawa, J. Pongratz, K. L. Ricke, T. Rivlin, K. Schneider, M. Sesboüé, K. Shamberger, J. Silverman, K. Wolfe, K. Zhu, and K. Caldeira. 2016. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification. Nature 531(7594):362-365. DOI: 10.1038/nature17155.

Albright, R., Y. Takeshita, D. A. Koweek, A. Ninokawa, K. Wolfe, T. Rivlin, Y. Nebuchina, J. Young, and K. Caldeira. 2018. Carbon dioxide addition to coral reef waters suppresses net community calcification. Nature 555:516. DOI: 10.1038/nature25968.

Allen, H. K. 2017. Alternatives to antibiotics: Why and how. National Academy of Medicine Perspectives. https://nam.edu/alternatives-to-antibiotics-why-and-how. Accessed July 23, 2018.

Allendorf, F. W., and R. S. Waples. 1996. Conservation and genetics of salmonid fishes. In Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Avise, J. C. and J. L. Hamrick, eds. New York: Chapman and Hall.

Allendorf, F. W., R. F. Leary, P. Spruell, and J. K. Wenburg. 2001. The problems with hybrids: Setting conservation guidelines. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16(11):613-622.

Alterskjær, K., J. E. Kristjánsson, and O. Seland. 2012. Sensitivity to deliberate sea salt seeding of marine clouds—Observations and model simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(5):2795-2807. DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-2795-2012.

Anthony, K. R. N. 2016. Coral reefs under climate change and ocean acidification: Challenges and opportunities for management and policy. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 41:59-81. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-environ-110615-085610.

Anthony, K. R. N., S. R. Connolly, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2007. Bleaching, energetics, and coral mortality risk: Effects of temperature, light, and sediment regime. Limnology and Oceanography 52(2):716-726. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2007.52.2.0716.

Anthony, K. R. N., D. I. Kline, G. Diaz-Pulido, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2008. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(45):17442-17446. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0804478105.

Anthony, K. R. N., M. O. Hoogenboom, J. A. Maynard, A. G. Grottoli, and R. Middlebrook. 2009. Energetics approach to predicting mortality risk from environmental stress: A case study of coral bleaching. Functional Ecology 23(3):539-550. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01531.x.

Anthony, K. R. N., J. A. Maynard, G. Diaz-Pulido, P. J. Mumby, P. A. Marshall, L. Cao, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2011. Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience. Global Change Biology 17(5):1798-1808. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02364.x.

Anthony, K. R. N., G. Diaz-Pulido, N. Verlinden, B. Tilbrook, and A. J. Andersson. 2013. Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Biogeosciences 10(7):4897-4909. DOI: 10.5194/bg-10-4897-2013.

Anthony, K. R. N., P. A. Marshall, A. Abdulla, R. Beeden, C. Bergh, R. Black, C. M. Eakin, E. T. Game, M. Gooch, N. A. Graham, A. Green, S. F. Heron, R. van Hooidonk, C. Knowland, S. Mangubhai, N. Marshall, J. A. Maynard, P. McGinnity, E. McLeod, P. J. Mumby, M. Nystrom, D. Obura, J. Oliver, H. P. Possingham, R. L. Pressey, G. P. Rowlands, J. Tamelander, D. Wachenfeld, and S. Wear. 2015. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change. Global Change Biology 21(1):48-61. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12700.

Anthony, K. R. N., L. K. Bay, R. Costanza, J. Firn, J. Gunn, P. Harrison, A. Heyward, P. Lundgren, D. Mead, T. Moore, P. J. Mumby, M. J. H. van Oppen, J. Robertson, M. C. Runge, D. J. Suggett, B. Schaffelke, D. Wachenfeld, and T. Walshe. 2017. New interventions are needed to save coral reefs. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1(10):1420-1422. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0313-5.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Araki, H., and C. Schmid. 2010. Is hatchery stocking a help or harm?: Evidence, limitations and future directions in ecological and genetic surveys. Aquaculture 308:S2-S11. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.05.036.

Armstrong, D. P., and P. J. Seddon. 2008. Directions in reintroduction biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(1):20-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2007.10.003.

Aronson, R. B., and W. F. Precht. 2001a. Applied paleoecology and the crisis on Caribbean coral reefs. Palaios 16(3):195-196.

Aronson, R. B., and W. F. Precht. 2001b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. In The Ecology and Etiology of Newly Emerging Marine Diseases. Porter, J. W., ed. New York: Springer.

Arrigoni, R., F. Benzoni, T. I. Terraneo, A. Caragnano, and M. L. Berumen. 2016. Recent origin and semi-permeable species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Stylophora from the Red Sea. Scientific Reports 6. DOI: 10.1038/srep34612.

Aswani, S., P. Mumby, A. Baker, P. Christie, L. McCook, R. Steneck, and R. Richmond. 2015. Scientific frontiers in the management of coral reefs. Frontiers in Marine Science 2(50). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00050.

Atad, I., A. Zvuloni, Y. Loya, and E. Rosenberg. 2012. Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea. Coral Reefs 31(3):665-670.

Augustin, R., K. Schröder, A. P. M. Rincón, S. Fraune, F. Anton-Erxleben, E.-M. Herbst, J. Wittlieb, M. Schwentner, J. Grötzinger, and T. M. Wassenaar. 2017. A secreted antibacterial neuropeptide shapes the microbiome of Hydra. Nature Communications 8(1):698.

Ayre, D. J., and T. P. Hughes. 2000. Genotype diversity and gene flow in brooding and spawning corals along the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Evolution 54(5):1590-1605. DOI: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00704.x.

Babcock, R. C., and A. J. Heyward. 1986. Larval development of certain gamete-spawning scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs 5(3):111-116. DOI: 10.1007/bf00298178.

Babcock, R. C., and L. Smith. 2000. Effects of sedimentation on coral settlement and survivorship. Presented at 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia.

Bahr, K. D., P. L. Jokiel, and K. S. Rodgers. 2016. Influence of solar irradiance on underwater temperature recorded by temperature loggers on coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 14(5):338-342. DOI: 10.1002/lom3.10093.

Baird, A. H., and D. P. Thomson. 2018. Coral reproduction at Hall Bank, a high latitude coral assemblage in Western Australia. Aquatic Biology 27:55-63. DOI: 10.3354/ab00696.

Baird, A. H., R. Bhagooli, P. J. Ralph, and S. Takahashi. 2009a. Coral bleaching: The role of the host. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(1):16-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.09.005.

Baird, A. H., J. R. Guest, and B. L. Willis. 2009b. Systematic and biogeographical patterns in the reproductive biology of scleractinian corals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40(1):551-571. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120220.

Baird, A. H., B. Sommer, and J. S. Madin. 2012. Pole-ward range expansion of Acropora spp. along the east coast of Australia. Coral Reefs 31(4):1063. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-012-0928-6.

Baird, A. H., V. R. Cumbo, J. Figueiredo, and S. Harii. 2013. A pre-zygotic barrier to hybridization in two con-generic species of scleractinian corals. F1000Research 2. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2-193.v2.

Bak, R. P. M., M. J. E. Carpay, and E. D. de Ruyter van Steveninck. 1984. Densities of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum before and after mass mortalities on the coral reefs of Curacao. Marine Ecology Progress Series 17(1):105-108.

Baker, A. C. 2001. Reef corals bleach to survive change. Nature 411:765. DOI: 10.1038/35081151.

Baker, A. C. 2003. Flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis: Diversity, ecology, and biogeography of Symbiodinium. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34(1):661-689. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132417.

Baker, A. C., C. J. Starger, T. R. McClanahan, and P. W. Glynn. 2004. Corals’ adaptive response to climate change. Nature 430:741. DOI: 10.1038/430741a.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Baker, A. C., P. W. Glynn, and B. Riegl. 2008. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 80(4):435-471. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.09.003.

Ban, S. S., N. A. Graham, and S. R. Connolly. 2014. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs. Global Change Biology 20(3):681-697. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12453.

Barlow, C. 2010. Paleoecology and the assisted migration debate: Why a deep-time perspective is vital. www.torreyaguardians.org/assisted_migration_paleoecology.html. Accessed October 24, 2018.

Barnes, D., and B. Chalker. 1990. Calcification and photosynthesis in reef-building corals and algae. In Coral Reefs. Ecosystems of the World. Dubinsky, Z., ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Barshis, D. J., J. T. Ladner, T. A. Oliver, F. O. Seneca, N. Traylor-Knowles, and S. R. Palumbi. 2013. Genomic basis for coral resilience to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(4):1387-1392. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1210224110.

Barson, N. J., T. Aykanat, K. Hindar, M. Baranski, G. H. Bolstad, P. Fiske, C. Jacq, A. J. Jensen, S. E. Johnston, S. Karlsson, M. Kent, T. Moen, E. Niemelä, T. Nome, T. F. Næsje, P. Orell, A. Romakkaniemi, H. Sægrov, K. Urdal, J. Erkinaro, S. Lien, and C. R. Primmer. 2015. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon. Nature 528:405. DOI: 10.1038/nature16062.

Barton, J. A., B. L. Willis, and K. S. Hutson. 2017. Coral propagation: A review of techniques for ornamental trade and reef restoration. Reviews in Aquaculture 9(3):238-256. DOI: 10.1111/raq.12135.

Baskett, M. L., and R. S. Waples. 2013. Evaluating alternative strategies for minimizing unintended fitness consequences of cultured individuals on wild populations. Conservation Biology 27(1):83-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01949.x.

Baskett, M. L., S. D. Gaines, and R. M. Nisbet. 2009. Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change. Ecological Applications 19(1):3-17.

Baskett, M. L., R. M. Nisbet, C. V. Kappel, P. J. Mumby, and S. D. Gaines. 2010. Conservation management approaches to protecting the capacity for corals to respond to climate change: A theoretical comparison. Global Change Biology 16(4):1229-1246. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02062.x.

Baskett, M. L., N. S. Fabina, and K. Gross. 2014. Response diversity can increase ecological resilience to disturbance in coral reefs. American Naturalist 184(2):E16-E31. DOI: 10.1086/676643.

Baums, I. B. 2008. A restoration genetics guide for coral reef conservation. Molecular Ecology 17(12):2796-2811. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03787.x.

Baums, I. B., M. W. Miller, and M. E. Hellberg. 2005. Regionally isolated populations of an imperiled Caribbean coral, Acropora palmata. Molecular Ecology 14(5):1377-1390. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02489.x.

Baums, I. B., M. E. Johnson, M. K. Devlin-Durante, and M. W. Miller. 2010. Host population genetic structure and zooxanthellae diversity of two reef-building coral species along the Florida Reef Tract and wider Caribbean. Coral Reefs 29(4):835-842. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-010-0645-y.

Baums, I. B., M. K. Devlin-Durante, N. R. Polato, D. Xu, S. Giri, N. S. Altman, D. Ruiz, J. E. Parkinson, and J. N. Boulay. 2013. Genotypic variation influences reproductive success and thermal stress tolerance in the reef building coral, Acropora palmata. Coral Reefs 32(3):703-717. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-013-1012-6.

Baums, I. B., M. K. Devlin-Durante, B. A. A. Laing, J. Feingold, T. Smith, A. Bruckner, and J. Monteiro. 2014. Marginal coral populations: The densest known aggregation of Pocillopora in the Galápagos Archipelago is of asexual origin. Frontiers in Marine Science 1(59). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00059.

Bay, R. A., and S. R. Palumbi. 2014. Multilocus adaptation associated with heat resistance in reef-building corals. Current Biology 24(24):2952-2956. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.044.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Bay, R. A., and S. R. Palumbi. 2015. Rapid acclimation ability mediated by transcriptome changes in reef-building corals. Genome Biology and Evolution 7(6):1602-1612. DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evv085.

Bay, R. A., and S. R. Palumbi. 2017. Transcriptome predictors of coral survival and growth in a highly variable environment. Ecology and Evolution 7(13):4794-4803. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2685.

Bay, R. A., N. H. Rose, C. A. Logan, and S. R. Palumbi. 2017. Genomic models predict successful coral adaptation if future ocean warming rates are reduced. Science Advances 3(11). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701413.

Bayer, T., M. J. Neave, A. Alsheikh-Hussain, M. Aranda, L. K. Yum, T. Mincer, K. Hughen, A. Apprill, and C. R. Voolstra. 2013. The microbiome of the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata is dominated by tissue-associated Endozoicomonas bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(15):4759-4762.

Beck, M. W., I. J. Losada, P. Menéndez, B. G. Reguero, P. Díaz-Simal, and F. Fernández. 2018. The global flood protection savings provided by coral reefs. Nature Communications 9(1):2186. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04568-z.

Beger, M., B. Sommer, P. L. Harrison, S. D. A. Smith, and J. M. Pandolfi. 2014. Conserving potential coral reef refuges at high latitudes. Diversity and Distributions 20(3):245-257. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12140.

Bell, J. D., P. C. Rothlisberg, J. L. Munro, N. R. Loneragan, W. J. Nash, R. D. Ward, and N. L. Andrew, eds. 2005. Restocking and stock enhancement of marine invertebrate fisheries. New York: Academic Press.

Bellwood, D. R., T. P. Hughes, C. Folke, and M. Nyström. 2004. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429:827. DOI: 10.1038/nature02691.

Bellwood, D. R., A. S. Hoey, J. L. Ackerman, and M. Depczynski. 2006. Coral bleaching, reef fish community phase shifts and the resilience of coral reefs. Global Change Biology 12(9):1587-1594. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01204.x.

Ben-Haim, Y., M. Zicherman-Keren, and E. Rosenberg. 2003. Temperature-regulated bleaching and lysis of the coral Pocillopora damicomis by the novel pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69(7):4236-4242. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.69.7.4236-4242.2003.

Béraud, E., F. Gevaert, C. Rottier, and C. Ferrier-Pagès. 2013. The response of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis to thermal stress depends on the nitrogen status of the coral holobiont. Journal of Experimental Biology 085183.

Berkelmans, R., and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2006. The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: A “nugget of hope” for coral reefs in an era of climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273(1599):2305-2312. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2006.3567.

Bernard, H. 1902. The species problem in coral. Nature 65:560.

Bernardo, L. P. C., K. Nadaoka, T. Nakamura, and A. Watanabe. 2017. Island-enhanced cooling mechanism in typhoon events revealed by field observations and numerical simulations for a coral reef area, Sekisei Lagoon, Japan. Ocean Dynamics 67(11):1369-1384. DOI: 10.1007/s10236-017-1096-6.

Bessell-Browne, P., A. P. Negri, R. Fisher, P. L. Clode, A. Duckworth, and R. Jones. 2017. Impacts of turbidity on corals: The relative importance of light limitation and suspended sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin 117(1):161-170. DOI: 10.1016/j. marpolbul.2017.01.050.

Beyer, H. L., E. V. Kennedy, M. Beger, C. A. Chen, J. E. Cinner, E. S. Darling, C. M. Eakin, R. D. Gates, S. F. Heron, N. Knowlton, D. O. Obura, S. R. Palumbi, H. P. Possingham, M. Puotinen, R. K. Runting, W. J. Skirving, M. Spalding, K. A. Wilson, S. Wood, J. E. Veron, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2018. Risk-sensitive planning for conserving coral reefs under rapid climate change. Conservation Letters: e12587. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12587.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Blank, R. J., and R. K. Trench. 1985. Speciation and symbiotic dinoflagellates. Science 229(4714):656-658. DOI: 10.1126/science.229.4714.656.

Blaxter, J. H. S. 2000. The enhancement of marine fish stocks. Advances in Marine Biology 38:1-54.

Bonebrake, T. C., A. D. Syphard, J. Franklin, K. E. Anderson, H. R. Akcakaya, T. Mizerek, C. Winchell, and H. M. Regan. 2014. Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime. Conservation Biology 28(4):1057-1067. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12253.

Bordenstein, S. R., and K. R. Theis. 2015. Host biology in light of the microbiome: Ten principles of holobionts and hologenomes. PLoS Biology 13(8):e1002226.

Bosch, T. C. G., and M. J. McFall-Ngai. 2011. Metaorganisms as the new frontier. Zoology 114(4):185-190.

Boulotte, N. M., S. J. Dalton, A. G. Carroll, P. L. Harrison, H. M. Putnam, L. M. Peplow, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2016. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals. The ISME Journal 10:2693. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2016.54.

Bourne, D. G., and N. S. Webster. 2013. Coral reef bacterial communities. In The Prokaryotes. Rosenberg, E., E. F. DeLong, S. Lory, E. Stackebrandt, and F. Thompson, eds. New York: Springer.

Bourne, D. G., M. Garren, T. M. Work, E. Rosenberg, G. W. Smith, and C. D. Harvell. 2009. Microbial disease and the coral holobiont. Trends in Microbiology 17(12):554-562.

Bourne, D. G., K. M. Morrow, and N. S. Webster. 2016. Insights into the coral microbiome: Underpinning the health and resilience of reef ecosystems. Annual Review of Microbiology 70:317-340.

Brady, A. K., K. A. Snyder, and P. D. Vize. 2011. Circadian cycles of gene expression in the coral, Acropora millepora. PLoS ONE 6(9):e25072. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025072.

Brandt, M. E., and J. W. McManus. 2009. Disease incidence is related to bleaching extent in reef-building corals. Ecology 90(10):2859-2867. DOI: 10.1890/08-0445.1.

Brieuc, M. S. O., K. Ono, D. P. Drinan, and K. A. Naish. 2015. Integration of random forest with population-based outlier analyses provides insight on the genomic basis and evolution of run timing in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Molecular Ecology 24(11):2729-2746. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13211.

Broadhurst, L. M., A. Lowe, D. J. Coates, S. A. Cunningham, M. McDonald, P. A. Vesk, and C. Yates. 2008. Seed supply for broadscale restoration: Maximizing evolutionary potential. Evolutionary Applications 1(4):587-597. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2008.00045.x.

Brown, B. E., R. P. Dunne, M. S. Goodson, and A. E. Douglas. 2000. Bleaching patterns in reef corals. Nature 404:142-143. DOI: 10.1038/35004657.

Brown, B. E., R. P. Dunne, M. S. Goodson, and A. E. Douglas. 2002. Experience shapes the susceptibility of a reef coral to bleaching. Coral Reefs 21(2):119-126. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-002-0215-z.

Bruno, J. F., L. E. Petes, C. D. Harvell, and A. Hettinger. 2003. Nutrient enrichment can increase the severity of coral diseases. Ecology Letters 6(12):1056-1061. DOI: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00544.x.

Bruno, J. F., E. R. Selig, K. S. Casey, C. A. Page, B. L. Willis, C. D. Harvell, H. Sweatman, and A. M. Melendy. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5(6):1220-1227. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050124.

Bruno, J. F., H. Sweatman, W. F. Precht, E. R. Selig, and V. G. W. Schutte. 2009. Assessing evidence of phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominance on coral reefs. Ecology 90(6):1478-1484. DOI: 10.1890/08-1781.1.

Budd, A. F., and J. M. Pandolfi. 2010. Evolutionary novelty is concentrated at the edge of coral species distributions. Science 328(5985):1558-1561. DOI: 10.1126/science.1188947.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Buddemeier, R. W., and D. G. Fautin. 1993. Coral bleaching as an adaptive mechanism. Bioscience 43(5):320-326. DOI: 10.2307/1312064.

Burdige, D. J., and R. C. Zimmerman. 2002. Impact of sea grass density on carbonate dissolution in Bahamian sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 47(6):1751-1763. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2002.47.6.1751.

Burge, C. A., C. M. Eakin, C. S. Friedman, B. Froelich, P. K. Hershberger, E. E. Hofmann, L. E. Petes, K. C. Prager, E. Weil, B. L. Willis, S. E. Ford, and C. D. Harvell. 2014. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: Implications for management and society. Annual Review of Marine Science 6(1):249-277. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135029.

Burkepile, D. E., J. E. Allgeier, A. A. Shantz, C. E. Pritchard, N. P. Lemoine, L. H. Bhatti, and C. A. Layman. 2013. Nutrient supply from fishes facilitates macroalgae and suppresses corals in a Caribbean coral reef ecosystem. Scientific Reports 3:1493. DOI: 10.1038/srep01493.

Burrows, M. T., D. S. Schoeman, L. B. Buckley, P. Moore, E. S. Poloczanska, K. M. Brander, C. Brown, J. F. Bruno, C. M. Duarte, B. S. Halpern, J. Holding, C. V. Kappel, W. Kiessling, M. I. O’Connor, J. M. Pandolfi, C. Parmesan, F. B. Schwing, W. J. Sydeman, and A. J. Richardson. 2011. The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Science 334(6056):652-655. DOI: 10.1126/science.1210288.

Burton, R. S. 1990. Hybrid breakdown in physiological response: A mechanistic approach. Evolution 44(7):1806-1813. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1990.tb05251.x.

Cacciapaglia, C., and R. van Woesik. 2016. Climate-change refugia: Shading reef corals by turbidity. Global Change Biology 22(3):1145-1154. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13166.

Caldeira, K., and M. E. Wickett. 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425(6956):365. DOI: 10.1038/425365a.

Callaway, E. 2017. US defence agencies grapple with gene drives. Nature 547(7664):388-389. DOI: 10.1038/nature.2017.22345.

Camp, E. F., V. Schoepf, P. J. Mumby, L. A. Hardtke, R. Rodolfo-Metalpa, D. J. Smith, and D. J. Suggett. 2018. The future of coral reefs subject to rapid climate change: Lessons from natural extreme environments. Frontiers in Marine Science 5(4). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00004.

Cantin, N. E., M. J. H. van Oppen, B. L. Willis, J. C. Mieog, and A. P. Negri. 2009. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts. Coral Reefs 28(2):405-414. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-009-0478-8.

Cao, L., and K. Caldeira. 2008. Atmospheric CO2 stabilization and ocean acidification. Geophysical Research Letters 35(19). DOI: 10.1029/2008GL035072.

Cardenas, A., R. L. Rodriguez, V. Pizarro, L. F. Cadavid, and C. Arevalo-Ferro. 2012. Shifts in bacterial communities of two Caribbean reef-building coral species affected by white plague disease. The ISME Journal 6(3):502-512. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2011.123.

Carilli, J. E., R. D. Norris, B. A. Black, S. M. Walsh, and M. McField. 2009. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching. PLoS ONE 4(7):e6324. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0006324.

Carne, L., and I. Baums. 2016. Demonstrating effective Caribbean acroporid population enhancement: All three nursery-grown, out-planted taxa spawn August 2015 & 2016 in Belize. Reef Encounter 31:42-43.

Carpenter, K. E., M. Abrar, G. Aeby, R. B. Aronson, S. Banks, A. Bruckner, A. Chiriboga, J. Cortes, J. C. Delbeek, L. DeVantier, G. J. Edgar, A. J. Edwards, D. Fenner, H. M. Guzman, B. W. Hoeksema, G. Hodgson, O. Johan, W. Y. Licuanan, S. R. Livingstone, E. R. Lovell, J. A. Moore, D. O. Obura, D. Ochavillo, B. A. Polidoro, W. F. Precht, M. C. Quibilan, C. Reboton, Z. T. Richards, A. D. Rogers, J. Sanciangco, A. Sheppard, C. Sheppard, J. Smith, S. Stuart, E. Turak, J. E. N. Veron, C. Wallace, E. Weil, and E. Wood. 2008. One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321(5888):560-563. DOI: 10.1126/science.1159196.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Ceccarelli, D. M., Z. Loffler, D. G. Bourne, G. S. Al Moajil-Cole, L. Boström-Einarsson, E. Evans-Illidge, K. Fabricius, B. Glasl, P. Marshall, I. McLeod, M. Read, B. Schaffelke, A. K. Smith, G. T. Jorda, D. H. Williamson, and L. Bay. 2018. Rehabilitation of coral reefs through removal of macroalgae: State of knowledge and considerations for management and implementation. Restoration Ecology 26(5):827-838. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12852.

Chadwick, N. E., and K. M. Morrow. 2011. Competition among sessile organisms on coral reefs. In Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition. Dubinsky, Z., and N. Stambler, eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Chakravarti, L. J., and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2018. Experimental evolution in coral photosymbionts as a tool to increase thermal tolerance. Frontiers in Marine Science 5:227. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00227.

Chakravarti, L. J., V. H. Beltran, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2017. Rapid thermal adaptation in photosymbionts of reef-building corals. Global Change Biology 23(11):4675-4688. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13702.

Chamberland, V. F., M. J. A. Vermeij, M. Brittsan, M. Carl, M. Schick, S. Snowden, A. Schrier, and D. Petersen. 2015. Restoration of critically endangered elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) populations using larvae reared from wild-caught gametes. Global Ecology and Conservation 4:526-537. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2015.10.005.

Chamberland, V. F., D. Petersen, K. R. W. Latijnhouwers, S. Snowden, B. Mueller, and M. J. A. Vermeij. 2016. Four-year-old Caribbean Acropora colonies reared from field-collected gametes are sexually mature. Bulletin of Marine Science 92(2):263-264. DOI: 10.5343/bms.2015.1074.

Chamberland, V. F., D. Petersen, J. R. Guest, U. Petersen, M. Brittsan, and M. J. A. Vermeij. 2017. New seeding approach reduces costs and time to outplant sexually propagated corals for reef restoration. Scientific Reports 7(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17555-z.

Chan, A., C. L. Lewis, K. L. Neely, and I. B. Baums. 2018. Fallen pillars: The past, present, and future population dynamics of a rare, specialist coral-algal symbiosis. bioRxiv. DOI: 10.1101/365650.

Chan, N. C. S., and S. R. Connolly. 2013. Sensitivity of coral calcification to ocean acidification: A meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 19(1):282-290. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12011.

Chan, W. Y., L. M. Peplow, P. Menéndez, A. A. Hoffmann, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2018. Interspecific hybridization may provide novel opportunities for coral reef restoration. Frontiers in Marine Science 5(160). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00160.

Chang, Q., W. Wang, G. Regev-Yochay, M. Lipsitch, and W. P. Hanage. 2015. Antibiotics in agriculture and the risk to human health: How worried should we be? Evolutionary Applications 8(3):240-247.

Chauvenet, A. L. M., J. G. Ewen, D. P. Armstrong, T. M. Blackburn, and N. Pettorelli. 2013. Maximizing the success of assisted colonizations. Animal Conservation 16(2):161-169. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00589.x.

Chiazzari, B., A. Macdonald, and M. Schleyer. 2013. High-latitude connectivity of the scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis in the south-western Indian Ocean, identified using nuclear intron and mitochondrial sequence data. African Journal of Marine Science 35(2):233-241. DOI: 10.2989/1814232X.2013.795915.

Chisholm, J. R. M., and J.-P. Gattuso. 1991. Validation of the alkalinity anomaly technique for investigating calcification of photosynthesis in coral reef communities. Limnology and Oceanography 36(6):1232-1239. DOI: 10.4319/lo.1991.36.6.1232.

Christie, M. R., M. J. Ford, and M. S. Blouin. 2014. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild. Evolutionary Applications 7(8):883-896. DOI: 10.1111/eva.12183.

Chung, I. K., J. H. Oak, J. A. Lee, J. A. Shin, J. G. Kim, and K.-S. Park. 2013. Installing kelp forests/seaweed beds for mitigation and adaptation against global warming: Korean project overview. ICES Journal of Marine Science 70(5):1038-1044. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fss206.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Cinner, J. E., T. R. McClanahan, N. A. J. Graham, T. M. Daw, J. Maina, S. M. Stead, A. Wamukota, K. Brown, and Ö. Bodin. 2012. Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries. Global Environmental Change 22(1):12-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.018.

Cleves, P. A., M. E. Strader, L. K. Bay, J. R. Pringle, and M. V. Matz. 2018. CRISPR/Cas9mediated genome editing in a reef-building coral. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115(20):5235-5240. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722151115.

Coelho, V. R., D. Fenner, C. Caruso, B. R. Bayles, Y. Huang, and C. Birkeland. 2017. Shading as a mitigation tool for coral bleaching in three common Indo-Pacific species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 497:152-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2017.09.016.

Coffroth, M. A., S. R. Santos, and T. L. Goulet. 2001. Early ontogenetic expression of specificity in a cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 222:85-96. DOI: 10.3354/meps222085.

Coffroth, M. A., C. F. Lewis, S. R. Santos, and J. L. Weaver. 2006. Environmental populations of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium can initiate symbioses with reef cnidarians. Current Biology 16(23):R985-R987. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.10.049.

Coffroth, M. A., D. M. Poland, E. L. Petrou, D. A. Brazeau, and J. C. Holmberg. 2010. Environmental symbiont acquisition may not be the solution to warming seas for reef-building corals. PLoS ONE 5(10):e13258. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013258.

Cohen, Y., F. J. Pollock, E. Rosenberg, and D. G. Bourne. 2013. Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Microbiologyopen 2(1):64-74.

Coles, S. L. 1997. Reef corals occurring in a highly fluctuating temperature environment at Fahal Island, Gulf of Oman (Indian Ocean). Coral Reefs 16(4):269-272. DOI: 10.1007/s003380050084.

Coles, S. L., and L. G. Eldredge. 2002. Nonindigenous species introductions on coral reefs: A need for information. Pacific Science 56(2):191-209.

Coles, S. L., and P. L. Jokiel. 1978. Synergistic effects of temperature, salinity and light on the hermatypic coral Montipora verrucosa. Marine Biology 49(3):187-195. DOI: 10.1007/bf00391130.

Coles, S. L., and B. M. Riegl. 2013. Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: A review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation. Marine Pollution Bulletin 72(2):323-332. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol-bul.2012.09.006.

Coles, S. L., R. C. DeFelice, L. G. Eldredge, and J. T. Carlton. 1999. Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Marine Biology 135(1):147-158. DOI: 10.1007/s002270050612.

Coles, S. L., K. D. Bahr, K. S. Rodgers, S. L. May, A. E. McGowan, A. Tsang, J. Bumgarner, and J. H. Han. 2018. Evidence of acclimatization or adaptation in Hawaiian corals to higher ocean temperatures. PeerJ 6:e5347. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5347.

Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W. J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A. J. Weaver, and M. Wehner. 2013. Long-term climate change: Projections, commitments and irreversibility. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, eds. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Combosch, D. J., and S. V. Vollmer. 2015. Trans-Pacific RAD-Seq population genomics confirms introgressive hybridization in Eastern Pacific Pocillopora corals. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 88:154-162.

Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199(4335):1302-1310. DOI: 10.1126/science.199.4335.1302.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Connell, J. H., T. P. Hughes, and C. C. Wallace. 1997. A 30-year study of coral abundance, recruitment, and disturbance at several scales in space and time. Ecological Monographs 67(4):461-488. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9615(1997)067[0461:AYSOCA]2.0.CO;2.

Connell, J. H., T. P. Hughes, C. C. Wallace, J. E. Tanner, K. E. Harms, and A. M. Kerr. 2004. A long-term study of competition and diversity of corals. Ecological Monographs 74(2):179-210. DOI: 10.1890/02-4043.

Connolly, S. R., M. A. Lopez-Yglesias, and K. R. N. Anthony. 2012. Food availability promotes rapid recovery from thermal stress in a scleractinian coral. Coral Reefs 31(4):951-960. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-012-0925-9.

Copes, P. 1986. A critical review of the individual quota as a device in fisheries management. Land Economics 62(3):278-291. DOI: 10.2307/3146392.

Correa, A. M. S., M. E. Brandt, T. B. Smith, D. J. Thornhill, and A. C. Baker. 2009. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs 28(2):437-448. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-008-0464-6.

Costanza, R., R. de Groot, P. Sutton, S. van der Ploeg, S. J. Anderson, I. Kubiszewski, S. Farber, and R. K. Turner. 2014. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change 26:152-158. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.002.

Costello, C., S. D. Gaines, and J. Lynham. 2008. Can catch shares prevent fisheries collapse? Science 321(5896):1678-1681. DOI: 10.1126/science.1159478.

Côté, I. M., and E. S. Darling. 2010. Rethinking ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change. PLoS Biology 8(7):e1000438. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000438.

Cowen, R. K., C. B. Paris, and A. Srinivasan. 2006. Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science 311(5760):522-527. DOI: 10.1126/science.1122039.

Craggs, J., J. R. Guest, M. Davis, J. Simmons, E. Dashti, and M. Sweet. 2017. Inducing broadcast coral spawning ex situ: Closed system mesocosm design and husbandry protocol. Ecology and Evolution 7(24):11066-11078. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3538.

Craggs, J., J. R. Guest, A. Brett, M. Davis, and M. Sweet. 2018. Maintaining natural spawning timing in Acropora corals following long distance inter-continental transportation. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 6(2):30-36. DOI: 10.19227/jzar.v6i2.317.

Crook, E. D., A. L. Cohen, M. Rebolledo-Vieyra, L. Hernandez, and A. Paytan. 2013. Reduced calcification and lack of acclimatization by coral colonies growing in areas of persistent natural acidification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(27):11044-11049. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1301589110.

Crossa, J., P. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. Cuevas, O. Montesinos-López, D. Jarquín, G. de los Campos, J. Burgueño, J. M. González-Camacho, S. Pérez-Elizalde, Y. Beyene, S. Dreisigacker, R. Singh, X. Zhang, M. Gowda, M. Roorkiwal, J. Rutkoski, and R. K. Varshney. 2017. Genomic selection in plant breeding: Methods, models, and perspectives. Trends in Plant Science 22(11):961-975. DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.08.011.

Crutzen, P. J. 2006. Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma? Climatic Change 77(3):211. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-006-9101-y.

Cullen-Unsworth, L. C., and R. K. F. Unsworth. 2016. Strategies to enhance the resilience of the world’s seagrass meadows. Journal of Applied Ecology 53(4):967-972. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12637.

Cumbo, V. R., M. J. H. van Oppen, and A. H. Baird. 2018. Temperature and Symbiodinium physiology affect the establishment and development of symbiosis in corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 587:117-127. DOI: 10.3354/meps12441.

Cunning, R., P. Gillette, T. Capo, K. Galvez, and A. C. Baker. 2015a. Growth tradeoffs associated with thermotolerant symbionts in the coral Pocillopora damicornis are lost in warmer oceans. Coral Reefs 34(1):155-160. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-014-1216-4.

Cunning, R., R. N. Silverstein, and A. C. Baker. 2015b. Investigating the causes and consequences of symbiont shuffling in a multi-partner reef coral symbiosis under environmental change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282(1809). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1725.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Cunning, R., R. N. Silverstein, and A. C. Baker. 2018. Symbiont shuffling linked to differential photochemical dynamics of Symbiodinium in three Caribbean reef corals. Coral Reefs 37(1):145-152. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1640-3.

Dalrymple, S. E., E. Banks, G. B. Stewart, and A. S. Pullin. 2012. A meta-analysis of threatened plant reintroductions from across the globe. In Plant Reintroduction in a Changing Climate: Promises and Perils. Maschinski, J., K. E. Haskins and P. H. Raven, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.

Damjanovic, K., L. L. Blackall, N. S. Webster, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2017. The contribution of microbial biotechnology to mitigating coral reef degradation. Microbial Biotechnology 10(5):1236-1243.

D’Angelo, C., and J. Wiedenmann. 2014. Impacts of nutrient enrichment on coral reefs: New perspectives and implications for coastal management and reef survival. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7:82-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.029.

Darling, E. S., L. Alvarez-Filip, T. A. Oliver, T. R. McClanahan, and I. M. Côté. 2012. Evaluating life-history strategies of reef corals from species traits. Ecology Letters 15(12):1378-1386. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01861.x.

Davenport, J., and J. L. Davenport. 2006. The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 67(1):280-292. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.11.026.

Davies, S. W., M. V. Matz, and P. D. Vize. 2013. Ecological complexity of coral recruitment processes: Effects of invertebrate herbivores on coral recruitment and growth depends upon substratum properties and coral species. PLoS ONE 8(9):e72830. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072830.

Davis, M. B., and R. G. Shaw. 2001. Range shifts and adaptive responses to quaternary climate change. Science 292(5517):673-679. DOI: 10.1126/science.292.5517.673.

DeCarlo, T. M., A. L. Cohen, H. C. Barkley, Q. Cobban, C. Young, K. E. Shamberger, R. E. Brainard, and Y. Golbuu. 2015. Coral macrobioerosion is accelerated by ocean acidification and nutrients. Geology 43(1):7-10. DOI: 10.1130/G36147.1.

Deines, P., and T. C. Bosch. 2016. Transitioning from microbiome composition to microbial community interactions: The potential of the metaorganism Hydra as an experimental model. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:1610.

dela Cruz, D. W., and P. L. Harrison. 2017. Enhanced larval supply and recruitment can replenish reef corals on degraded reefs. Scientific Reports 7(1):13985. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-14546-y.

Depczynski, M., J. P. Gilmour, T. Ridgway, H. Barnes, A. J. Heyward, T. H. Holmes, J. A. Y. Moore, B. T. Radford, D. P. Thomson, P. Tinkler, and S. K. Wilson. 2013. Bleaching, coral mortality and subsequent survivorship on a West Australian fringing reef. Coral Reefs 32(1):233-238. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-012-0974-0.

DeSalvo, M. K., C. R. Voolstra, S. Sunagawa, J. A. Schwarz, J. H. Stillman, M. A. Coffroth, A. M. Szmant, and M. Medina. 2008. Differential gene expression during thermal stress and bleaching in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata. Molecular Ecology 17(17):3952-3971. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03879.x.

DeSalvo, M. K., S. Sunagawa, C. R. Voolstra, and M. Medina. 2010. Transcriptomic responses to heat stress and bleaching in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 402:97-113.

Deschaseaux, E. S. M., G. B. Jones, M. A. Deseo, K. M. Shepherd, R. P. Kiene, H. B. Swan, P. L. Harrison, and B. D. Eyre. 2014. Effects of environmental factors on dimethylated sulfur compounds and their potential role in the antioxidant system of the coral holobiont. Limnology and Oceanography 59(3):758-768.

DeVantier, L. M., G. De’ath, E. Turak, T. J. Done, and K. E. Fabricius. 2006. Species richness and community structure of reef-building corals on the nearshore Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 25(3):329-340. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-006-0115-8.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Devlin, M. J., J. Barry, D. K. Mills, R. J. Gowen, J. Foden, D. Sivyer, and P. Tett. 2008. Relationships between suspended particulate material, light attenuation and Secchi depth in UK marine waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 79(3):429-439. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.04.024.

Devlin-Durante, M. K., M. W. Miller, Caribbean Acropora Research Group, W. F. Precht, and I. B. Baums. 2016. How old are you? Genet age estimates in a clonal animal. Molecular Ecology 25(22):5628-5646. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13865.

Devlin-Durante, M. K., and I. B. Baums. 2017. Genome-wide survey of single-nucleotide polymorphisms reveals fine-scale population structure and signs of selection in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. PeerJ 5:e4077. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4077.

Di Franco, A., P. Thiriet, G. Di Carlo, C. Dimitriadis, P. Francour, N. L. Gutiérrez, A. Jeudy de Grissac, D. Koutsoubas, M. Milazzo, M. del Mar Otero, C. Piante, J. Plass-Johnson, S. Sainz-Trapaga, L. Santarossa, S. Tudela, and P. Guidetti. 2016. Five key attributes can increase marine protected areas performance for small-scale fisheries management. Scientific Reports 6:38135. DOI: 10.1038/srep38135.

Diaz-Pulido, G., L. J. McCook, A. W. D. Larkum, H. K. Lotze, J. A. Raven, B. Schaffelke, J. E. Smith, and R. S. Steneck. 2007. Vulnerability of macroalgae of the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef. Johnson, J. E., and P. A. Marshall, eds. Townsville: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, The Australian Greenhouse Office, and the Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources.

Diaz-Pulido, G., M. Gouezo, B. Tilbrook, S. Dove, and K. R. N. Anthony. 2011. High CO2 enhances the competitive strength of seaweeds over corals. Ecology Letters 14(2):156-162. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01565.x.

DiCarlo, J. E., J. E. Norville, P. Mali, X. Rios, J. Aach, and G. M. Church. 2013. Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems. Nucleic Acids Research 41(7):4336-4343. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt135.

Dimond, J. L., and S. B. Roberts. 2016. Germline DNA methylation in reef corals: Patterns and potential roles in response to environmental change. Molecular Ecology 25(8):1895-1904. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13414.

Dixon, G. B., L. K. Bay, and M. V. Matz. 2014. Bimodal signatures of germline methylation are linked with gene expression plasticity in the coral Acropora millepora. BMC Genomics 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-1109.

Dixon, G. B., S. W. Davies, G. V. Aglyamova, E. Meyer, L. K. Bay, and M. V. Matz. 2015. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes. Science 348(6242):1460-1462. DOI: 10.1126/science.1261224.

Dixon, G. B., Y. Liao, L. K. Bay, and M. V. Matz. 2018. Gene body methylation is involved in coarse genome-wide adjustment of gene expression during acclimatization. bioRxiv. DOI: 10.1101/184457.

Dizon, R. M., A. J. Edwards, and E. D. Gomez. 2008. Comparison of three types of adhesives in attaching coral transplants to clam shell substrates. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(7):1140-1148. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.944.

Dobrowski, S. Z., J. H. Thorne, J. A. Greenberg, H. D. Safford, A. R. Mynsberge, S. M. Crimmins, and A. K. Swanson. 2011. Modeling plant ranges over 75 years of climate change in California, USA: Temporal transferability and species traits. Ecological Monographs 81(2):241-257. DOI: 10.1890/10-1325.1.

Dodd, C. K., and R. A. Seigel. 1991. Relocation, repatriation, and translocation of amphibians and reptiles: Are they conservation strategies that work? Herpetologica 47(3):336-350.

Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas. 2009. Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1:169-192. DOI: 10.1146/annurev. marine.010908.163834.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Donner, S. D., W. J. Skirving, C. M. Little, M. Oppenheimer, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2005. Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. Global Change Biology 11(12):2251-2265. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01073.x.

Donner, L. J., B. L. Wyman, R. S. Hemler, L. W. Horowitz, Y. Ming, M. Zhao, J.-C. Golaz, P. Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. D. Schwarzkopf, J. Austin, G. Alaka, W. F. Cooke, T. L. Delworth, S. M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, S. M. Griffies, I. M. Held, W. J. Hurlin, S. A. Klein, T. R. Knutson, A. R. Langenhorst, H.-C. Lee, Y. Lin, B. I. Magi, S. L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, V. Naik, M. J. Nath, R. Pincus, J. J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, C. J. Seman, E. Shevliakova, J. J. Sirutis, W. F. Stern, R. J. Stouffer, R. J. Wilson, M. Winton, A. T. Wittenberg, and F. Zeng. 2011. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3. Journal of Climate 24(13):3484-3519. DOI: 10.1175/2011jcli3955.1.

Donner, S. D., S. F. Heron, and W. J. Skirving. 2018. Future scenarios: A review of modelling efforts to predict the future of coral reefs in an era of climate change. In Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Ecological Studies, vol. 205. van Oppen, M. J. H., and J. M. Lough, eds. Berlin: Springer.

Doss, J., K. Culbertson, D. Hahn, J. Camacho, and N. Barekzi. 2017. A review of phage therapy against bacterial pathogens of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Viruses 9(3):50.

Doudna, J. A., and E. Charpentier. 2014. The new frontier of genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9. Science 346(6213). DOI: 10.1126/science.1258096.

Dove, S. G., D. I. Kline, O. Pantos, F. E. Angly, G. W. Tyson, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2013. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(38):15342-15347. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1302701110.

Downs, C. A., J. E. Fauth, J. C. Halas, P. Dustan, J. Bemiss, and C. M. Woodley. 2002. Oxidative stress and seasonal coral bleaching. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 33(4):533-543. DOI: 10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00907-3.

Downs, C. A., C. M. Woodley, R. H. Richmond, L. L. Lanning, and R. Owen. 2005. Shifting the paradigm of coral-reef “health” assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(5-7):486-494. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.06.028.

Downs, C. A., G. K. Ostrander, L. Rougee, T. Rongo, S. Knutson, D. E. Williams, W. Mendiola, J. Holbrook, and R. H. Richmond. 2012. The use of cellular diagnostics for identifying sub-lethal stress in reef corals. Ecotoxicology 21(3):768-782. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-011-0837-4.

Downs, C. A., E. Kramarsky-Winter, R. Segal, J. Fauth, S. Knutson, O. Bronstein, F. R. Ciner, R. Jeger, Y. Lichtenfeld, C. M. Woodley, P. Pennington, K. Cadenas, A. Kushmaro, and Y. Loya. 2016. Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone-3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 70(2):265-288. DOI: 10.1007/s00244-015-0227-7.

Drenkard, E. J., A. L. Cohen, D. C. McCorkle, S. J. de Putron, V. R. Starczak, and A. E. Zicht. 2013. Calcification by juvenile corals under heterotrophy and elevated CO2. Coral Reefs 32(3):727-735. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-013-1021-5.

Drury, C., K. E. Dale, J. M. Panlilio, S. V. Miller, D. Lirman, E. A. Larson, E. Bartels, D. L. Crawford, and M. F. Oleksiak. 2016. Genomic variation among populations of threatened coral: Acropora cervicornis. BMC Genomics 17(1):286. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2583-8.

Drury, C., D. Manzello, and D. Lirman. 2017. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis. PLoS ONE 12(3):e0174000. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174000.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Duarte, C. M., I. E. Hendriks, T. S. Moore, Y. S. Olsen, A. Steckbauer, L. Ramajo, J. Carstensen, J. A. Trotter, and M. McCulloch. 2013. Is ocean acidification an open-ocean syndrome? Understanding anthropogenic impacts on seawater pH. Estuaries and Coasts 36(2):221-236. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-013-9594-3.

Dubé, C. E., B. Emilie, A. M. Jeffrey, and P. Serge. 2017. Fire coral clones demonstrate phenotypic plasticity among reef habitats. Molecular Ecology 26(15):3860-3869.

Dubinsky, Z., and N. Stambler. 1996. Marine pollution and coral reefs. Global Change Biology 2(6):511-526. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00064.x.

Dunn, S. R., and V. M. Weis. 2009. Apoptosis as a post-phagocytic winnowing mechanism in a coral-dinoflagellate mutualism. Environmental Microbiology 11(1):268-276. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01774.x.

Duprey, N. N., M. Yasuhara, and D. M. Baker. 2016. Reefs of tomorrow: Eutrophication reduces coral biodiversity in an urbanized seascape. Global Change Biology 22(11):3550-3565. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13432.

Eakin, C. M., J. M. Lough, and S. F. Heron. 2009. Climate, weather and coral bleaching. In Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. van Oppen, M. J. H., and J. M. Lough, eds., New York: Springer.

Edgar, G. J., R. D. Stuart-Smith, T. J. Willis, S. Kininmonth, S. C. Baker, S. Banks, N. S. Barrett, M. A. Becerro, A. T. F. Bernard, J. Berkhout, C. D. Buxton, S. J. Campbell, A. T. Cooper, M. Davey, S. C. Edgar, G. Försterra, D. E. Galván, A. J. Irigoyen, D. J. Kushner, R. Moura, P. E. Parnell, N. T. Shears, G. Soler, E. M. A. Strain, and R. J. Thomson. 2014. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature 506:216. DOI: 10.1038/nature13022.

Edmands, S. 2007. Between a rock and a hard place: Evaluating the relative risks of inbreeding and outbreeding for conservation and management. Molecular Ecology 16(3):463-475. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03148.x.

Edmands, S., and C. C. Timmerman. 2003. Modeling factors affecting the severity of outbreeding depression. Conservation Biology 17(3):883-892.

Edmunds, P. J. 2002. Long-term dynamics of coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs 21(4):357-367.

Edmunds, P. J. 2017. Intraspecific variation in growth rate is a poor predictor of fitness for reef corals. Ecology 98(8):2191-2200. DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1912.

Edmunds, P. J., S. C. Burgess, H. M. Putnam, M. L. Baskett, L. Bramanti, N. S. Fabina, X. Han, M. P. Lesser, J. S. Madin, C. B. Wall, D. M. Yost, and R. D. Gates. 2014. Evaluating the causal basis of ecological success within the scleractinia: An integral projection model approach. Marine Biology 161(12):2719-2734. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-014-2547-y.

Edwards, A. 2010. Reef Rehabilitation Manual. St. Lucia, Australia: The Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program.

Edwards, A. J., and S. Clark. 1999. Coral transplantation: A useful management tool or misguided meddling? Marine Pollution Bulletin 37(8):474-487. DOI: 10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00145-9.

Edwards, A. J., J. R. Guest, A. J. Heyward, R. D. Villanueva, M. V. Baria, I. S. F. Bollozos, and Y. Golbuu. 2015. Direct seeding of mass-cultured coral larvae is not an effective option for reef rehabilitation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 525:105-116.

Efrony, R., Y. Loya, E. Bacharach, and E. Rosenberg. 2007. Phage therapy of coral disease. Coral Reefs 26(1):7-13.

Efrony, R., I. Atad, and E. Rosenberg. 2009. Phage therapy of coral white plague disease: properties of phage BA3. Current Microbiology 58(2):139-145.

Egan, S., and M. Gardiner. 2016. Microbial dysbiosis: Rethinking disease in marine ecosystems. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:991.

Elena, S. F., and R. E. Lenski. 2003. Microbial genetics: Evolution experiments with microorganisms: The dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation. Nature Reviews Genetics 4(6):457-469.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Elith, J., and J. R. Leathwick. 2009. Species distribution models: Ecological explanation and prediction across space and time. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40:677-697.

Essington, T. E. 2010. Ecological indicators display reduced variation in North American catch share fisheries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(2):754-759. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0907252107.

Esvelt, K. M., and N. J. Gemmell. 2017. Conservation demands safe gene drive. PLoS Biology 15(11):e2003850. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2003850.

Ezzat, L., E. Towle, J. O. Irisson, C. Langdon, and C. Ferrier-Pagès. 2016. The relationship between heterotrophic feeding and inorganic nutrient availability in the scleractinian coral T. reniformis under a short-term temperature increase. Limnology and Oceanography 61(1):89-102.

Fabina, N. S., M. L. Baskett, and K. Gross. 2015. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations. Ecological Applications 25(6):1534-1545.

Fabricius, K. E. 2005. Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: Review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:125-146. DOI: 10.1016/J. MARPOLBUL.2004.11.028.

Fabricius, K. E. 2011. Factors determining the resilience of coral reefs to eutrophication: A review and conceptual model. In Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition. Dubinsky, Z., and N. Stambler, eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Fabricius, K. E., J. C. Mieog, P. L. Colin, D. Idip, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2004. Identity and diversity of coral endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) from three Palauan reefs with contrasting bleaching, temperature and shading histories. Molecular Ecology 13(8):2445-2458. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02230.x.

Fabricius, K. E., G. De’ath, L. McCook, E. Turak, and D. M. Williams. 2005. Changes in algal, coral and fish assemblages along water quality gradients on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(1-4):384-398. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.10.041.

Fabricius, K. E., C. Langdon, S. Uthicke, C. Humphrey, S. Noonan, G. De’ath, R. Okazaki, N. Muehllehner, M. S. Glas, and J. M. Lough. 2011. Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Nature Climate Change 1(3):165-169. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1122.

Fadlallah, Y. H. 1983. Sexual reproduction, development and larval biology in scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs 2(3):129-150. DOI: 10.1007/bf00336720.

Falconer, D., and T. Mackay. 1996. Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall.

Falkowski, P. G., and J. A. Raven. 1997. Aquatic Photosynthesis. London: Blackwell Science.

Falkowski, P. G., Z. Dubinsky, L. Muscatine, and J. W. Porter. 1984. Light and the bioenergetics of a symbiotic coral. Bioscience 34. DOI: 10.2307/1309663.

Falkowski, P. G., Z. Dubinsky, L. Muscatine, and L. R. McCloskey. 1993. Population control in symbiotic corals. Bioscience 43:453-464.

Falter, J. L., M. J. Atkinson, D. W. Schar, R. J. Lowe, and S. G. Monismith. 2011. Short-term coherency between gross primary production and community respiration in an algal-dominated reef flat. Coral Reefs 30(1):53-58. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-010-0671-9.

Feely, R. A., C. L. Sabine, J. M. Hernandez-Ayon, D. Ianson, and B. Hales. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the Continental Shelf. Science 320(5882):1490-1492. DOI: 10.1126/science.1155676.

Feil, R., and M. F. Fraga. 2012. Epigenetics and the environment: Emerging patterns and implications. Nature Reviews Genetics 13(2):97-109. DOI: 10.1038/nrg3142.

Feng, Z., B. Zhang, W. Ding, X. Liu, D.-L. Yang, P. Wei, F. Cao, S. Zhu, F. Zhang, Y. Mao, and J.-K. Zhu. 2013. Efficient genome editing in plants using a CRISPR/Cas system. Cell Research 23(10):1229-1232. DOI: 10.1038/cr.2013.114.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Ferrario, F., M. W. Beck, C. D. Storlazzi, F. Micheli, C. C. Shepard, and L. Airoldi. 2014. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation. Nature Communications 5:3794. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4794.

Ferrier-Pagès, C., V. Schoelzke, J. Jaubert, L. Muscatine, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2001. Response of a scleractinian coral, Stylophora pistillata, to iron and nitrate enrichment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 259(2):249-261. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(01)00241-6.

Ferrier-Pagès, C., M. Hoogenboom, and F. Houlbrèque. 2011. The role of plankton in coral trophodynamics. In Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition. New York: Springer.

Ferse, S. C. A. 2010. Poor performance of corals transplanted onto substrates of short durability. Restoration Ecology 18(4):399-407. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00682.x.

Feuillassier, L., P. Romans, I. Engelmann-Sylvestre, P. Masanet, D. Barthélémy, and F. Engelmann. 2014a. Tolerance of apexes of coral Pocillopora damicornis L. to cryoprotectant solutions. Cryobiology 68(1):96-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.01.001.

Feuillassier, L., L. Martinez, P. Romans, I. Engelmann-Sylvestre, P. Masanet, D. Barthélémy, and F. Engelmann. 2014b. Survival of tissue balls from the coral Pocillopora damicornis L. exposed to cryoprotectant solutions. Cryobiology 69(3):376-385. DOI: 10.1016/j. cryobiol.2014.08.009.

Fine, M., and Y. Loya. 2002. Endolithic algae: An alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 269(1497):1205-1210.

Fine, M., H. Gildor, and A. Genin. 2013. A coral reef refuge in the Red Sea. Global Change Biology 19(12):3640-3647. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12356.

Fischer, J., and D. B. Lindenmayer. 2000. An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biological Conservation 96(1):1-11. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00048-3.

Fitzpatrick, B. M., and H. B. Shaffer. 2007. Hybrid vigor between native and introduced salamanders raises new challenges for conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(40):15793-15798. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0704791104.

Flanagan, S. P., B. R. Forester, E. K. Latch, S. N. Aitken, and S. Hoban. 2018. Guidelines for planning genomic assessment and monitoring of locally adaptive variation to inform species conservation. Evolutionary Applications 11(7):1035-1052. DOI: 10.1111/eva.12569.

Flot, J.-F., J. Blanchot, L. Charpy, C. Cruaud, W. Y. Licuanan, Y. Nakano, C. Payri, and S. Tillier. 2011. Incongruence between morphotypes and genetically delimited species in the coral genus Stylophora: Phenotypic plasticity, morphological convergence, morphological stasis or interspecific hybridization? BMC Ecology 11(1):188.

Fogarty, N. D. 2012. Caribbean acroporid coral hybrids are viable across life history stages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 446:145-159. DOI: 10.3354/meps09469.

Fogarty, N. D., S. V. Vollmer, and D. R. Levitan. 2012a. Weak prezygotic isolating mechanisms in threatened Caribbean Acropora corals. PLoS ONE 7(2). DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0030486.

Fogarty, N. D., M. Lowenberg, M. N. Ojima, N. Knowlton, and D. R. Levitan. 2012b. Asymmetric conspecific sperm precedence in relation to spawning times in the Montastraea annularis species complex (Cnidaria: Scleractinia). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(12):2481-2488. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2012.02625.x.

Ford, M. 2002. Applications of selectively neutral tests to molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology 11:1245-1262.

Ford, M. J., A. R. Murdoch, M. S. Hughes, T. R. Seamons, and E. S. LaHood. 2016. Broodstock history strongly influences natural spawning success in hatchery steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). PLoS ONE 11(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164801.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Fordham, D. A., H. Resit Akçakaya, M. B. Araújo, J. Elith, D. A. Keith, R. Pearson, T. D. Auld, C. Mellin, J. W. Morgan, T. J. Regan, M. Tozer, M. J. Watts, M. White, B. A. Wintle, C. Yates, and B. W. Brook. 2012. Plant extinction risk under climate change: Are forecast range shifts alone a good indicator of species vulnerability to global warming? Global Change Biology 18(4):1357-1371. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02614.x.

Forsman, Z. H., C. A. Page, R. J. Toonen, and D. Vaughan. 2015a. Growing coral larger and faster: Micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover. PeerJ 2015(3):e1313. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1313.

Forsman, Z. H., G. M. Wellington, G. E. Fox, and R. J. Toonen. 2015b. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: Distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits. PeerJ 2015(2). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.751.

Forsman, Z. H., D. A. R. Eaton, I. S. S. Knapp, K. Tisthammer, M. Belcaid, and R. J. Toonen. 2017. Coral hybridization or phenotypic variation? Genomic data reveal gene flow between Porites lobata and P. compressa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 111:132-148. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.03.023.

Foster, A. B. 1979. Phenotypic plasticity in the reef corals Montastraea annularis (Ellis & Solander) and Siderastrea siderea (Ellis & Solander). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 39(1):25-54. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(79)90003-0.

Foster, N. L., C. B. Paris, J. T. Kool, I. B. Baums, J. R. Stevens, J. A. Sanchez, C. Bastidas, C. Agudelo, P. Bush, O. Day, R. Ferrari, P. Gonzalez, S. Gore, R. Guppy, M. A. McCartney, C. McCoy, J. Mendes, A. Srinivasan, S. Steiner, M. J. A. Vermeij, E. Weil, and P. J. Mumby. 2012. Connectivity of Caribbean coral populations: Complementary insights from empirical and modelled gene flow. Molecular Ecology 21(5):1143-1157. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05455.x.

Foster, N. L., I. B. Baums, J. A. Sanchez, C. B. Paris, I. Chollett, C. L. Agudelo, M. J. A. Vermeij, and P. J. Mumby. 2013. Hurricane-driven patterns of clonality in an ecosystem engineer: The Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis. PLoS ONE 8(1):e53283. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053283.

Frankham, R. 2015. Genetic rescue of small inbred populations: Meta-analysis reveals large and consistent benefits of gene flow. Molecular Ecology 24(11):2610-2618. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13139.

Frankham, R., J. D. Ballou, M. D. B. Eldridge, R. C. Lacy, K. Ralls, M. R. Dudash, and C. B. Fenster. 2011. Predicting the probability of outbreeding depression. Conservation Biology 25(3):465-475. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01662.x.

Fraser, H. B. 2011. Genome-wide approaches to the study of adaptive gene expression evolution: Systematic studies of evolutionary adaptations involving gene expression will allow many fundamental questions in evolutionary biology to be addressed. Bioessays 33(6):469-477. DOI: 10.1002/bies.201000094.

Freeman, L. A., J. A. Kleypas, and A. J. Miller. 2013. Coral reef habitat response to climate change scenarios. PLoS ONE 8(12):e82404. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082404.

Frieler, K., M. Meinshausen, A. Golly, M. Mengel, K. Lebek, S. D. Donner, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2013. Limiting global warming to 2°C is unlikely to save most coral reefs. Nature Climate Change 3:165. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1674.

Furnas, M. J., and A. W. Mitchell. 1996. Nutrient inputs into the central Great Barrier Reef (Australia) from subsurface intrusions of Coral Sea waters: A two-dimensional displacement model. Continental Shelf Research 16(9):1127-1148. DOI: 10.1016/0278-4343(95)00060-7.

Gagnaire, P.-A., and O. E. Gaggiotti. 2016. Detecting polygenic selection in marine populations by combining population genomics and quantitative genetics approaches. Current Zoology 62(6):603-616. DOI: 10.1093/cz/zow088.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Gaj, T., C. A. Gersbach, and C. F. Barbas. 2013. ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas-based methods for genome engineering. Trends in Biotechnology 31(7):397-405. DOI: 10.1016/j. tibtech.2013.04.004.

Gallagher, R. V., R. O. Makinson, P. M. Hogbin, and N. Hancock. 2015. Assisted colonization as a climate change adaptation tool. Austral Ecology 40(1):12-20. DOI: 10.1111/aec.12163.

Game, E. T., E. McDonald-Madden, M. L. Puotinen, and H. P. Possingham. 2008. Should we protect the strong or the weak? Risk, resilience, and the selection of marine protected areas. Conservation Biology 22(6):1619-1629. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01037.x.

Gardner, T. A., I. M. Côté, J. A. Gill, A. Grant, and A. R. Watkinson. 2003. Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 301(5635):958-960. DOI: 10.1126/science.1086050.

Gardner, T. A., I. M. Côté, J. A. Gill, A. Grant, and A. R. Watkinson. 2005. Hurricanes and Caribbean coral reefs: Impacts, recovery, patterns, and role in long-term decline. Ecology 86(1):174-184. DOI: 10.1890/04-0141.

Garrison, V. H., and G. Ward. 2012. Transplantation of storm-generated coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a solution. Revista de Biología Tropical 60:59-70.

Gates, R. D., G. Baghdasarian, and L. Muscatine. 1992. Temperature stress causes host cell detachment in symbiotic cnidarians: Implications for coral bleaching. The Biological Bulletin 182(3):324-332. DOI: 10.2307/1542252.

Gattuso, J.-P., and H. Lavigne. 2009. Technical note: Approaches and software tools to investigate the impact of ocean acidification. Biogeosciences 6(10):2121-2133. DOI: 10.5194/bg-6-2121-2009.

Gattuso, J.-P., K. Lee, B. Rost, and K. Schulz. 2010. Approaches and tools to manipulate the carbonate chemistry. In Guide to Best Practices for Ocean Acidification Research and Data Reporting. Riebesell, U., V. J. Fabry, L. Hansson and J.-P. Gattuso, eds. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Gelcich, S., T. P. Hughes, P. Olsson, C. Folke, O. Defeo, M. Fernández, S. Foale, L. H. Gunderson, C. Rodríguez-Sickert, M. Scheffer, R. S. Steneck, and J. C. Castilla. 2010. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(39):16794-16799. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1012021107.

Gibson, J., M. McField, and S. Wells. 1998. Coral reef management in Belize: An approach through integrated coastal zone management. Ocean & Coastal Management 39(3):229-244. DOI: 10.1016/S0964-5691(98)00007-6.

Gill, J. A., A. R. Watkinson, J. P. McWilliams, and I. M. Côté. 2006. Opposing forces of aerosol cooling and El Niño drive coral bleaching on Caribbean reefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(49):18870-18873. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0608470103.

Gilpin, M. E., and M. E. Soule. 1986. Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinction. In Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Soule, M. E., ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Gladfelter, E. H., R. K. Monahan, and W. B. Gladfelter. 1978. Growth rates of five reef-building corals in the northeastern Caribbean. Bulletin of Marine Science 28(4):728-734.

Glasl, B., N. S. Webster, and D. G. Bourne. 2017. Microbial indicators as a diagnostic tool for assessing water quality and climate stress in coral reef ecosystems. Marine Biology 164(4):91.

Gleason, D. F., and G. M. Wellington. 1993. Ultraviolet radiation and coral bleaching. Nature 365:836. DOI: 10.1038/365836a0.

Glynn, P. W. 1993. Coral reef bleaching: Ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs 12(1):1-17. DOI: 10.1007/BF00303779.

Glynn, P. W. 1996. Coral reef bleaching: Facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biology 2(6):495-509. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00063.x.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Glynn, P. W., J. L. Maté, A. C. Baker, and M. O. Calderón. 2001. Coral bleaching and mortality in Panama and Ecuador during the 1997-1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event: Spatial/temporal patterns and comparisons with the 1982-1983 event. Bulletin of Marine Science 69(1):79-109.

Glynn, P. W., B. Grassian, K. H. Kleemann, and J. L. Maté. 2016. The true identity of Siderastrea glynni Budd & Guzmán, 1994, a highly endangered eastern Pacific scleractinian coral. Coral Reefs 35(4):1399-1404. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-016-1470-8.

Golbuu, Y., S. Victor, L. Penland, D. Idip, C. Emaurois, K. Okaji, H. Yukihira, A. Iwase, and R. van Woesik. 2007. Palau’s coral reefs show differential habitat recovery following the 1998-bleaching event. Coral Reefs 26(2):319-332. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-007-0200-7.

Golbuu, Y., M. Gouezo, H. Kurihara, L. Rehm, and E. Wolanski. 2016. Long-term isolation and local adaptation in Palau’s Nikko Bay help corals thrive in acidic waters. Coral Reefs 35(3):909-918. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-016-1457-5.

Graham, N. A. J., S. K. Wilson, S. Jennings, N. V. C. Polunin, J. P. Bijoux, and J. Robinson. 2006. Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(22):8425-8429. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0600693103.

Graham, N. A., S. K. Wilson, S. Jennings, N. V. Polunin, J. Robinson, J. P. Bijoux, and T. M. Daw. 2007. Lag effects in the impacts of mass coral bleaching on coral reef fish, fisheries, and ecosystems. Conservation Biology 21(5):1291-1300. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00754.x.

Graham, E. M., A. H. Baird, and S. R. Connolly. 2008. Survival dynamics of scleractinian coral larvae and implications for dispersal. Coral Reefs 27(3):529-539. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-008-0361-z.

Graham, N. A. J., S. K. Wilson, P. Carr, A. S. Hoey, S. Jennings, and M. A. MacNeil. 2018. Seabirds enhance coral reef productivity and functioning in the absence of invasive rats. Nature 559(7713):250-253. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0202-3.

Gratwicke, B., and M. R. Speight. 2005a. Effects of habitat complexity on Caribbean marine fish assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 292:301-310.

Gratwicke, B., and M. R. Speight. 2005b. The relationship between fish species richness, abundance and habitat complexity in a range of shallow tropical marine habitats. Journal of Fish Biology 66(3):650-667. DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-1112.2005.00629.x.

Gratz, S. J., A. M. Cummings, J. N. Nguyen, D. C. Hamm, L. K. Donohue, M. M. Harrison, J. Wildonger, and K. M. O’Connor-Giles. 2013. Genome engineering of Drosophila with the CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease. Genetics 194(4):1029-1035. DOI: 10.1534/genetics.113.152710.

Gray, L. K., T. Gylander, M. S. Mbogga, P. Y. Chen, and A. Hamann. 2011. Assisted migration to address climate change: Recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada. Ecological Applications 21(5):1591-1603.

Grech, A., and R. G. Coles. 2010. An ecosystem-scale predictive model of coastal seagrass distribution. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(4):437-444. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.1107.

Green, B. S., C. Gardner, A. Linnane, and P. J. Hawthorne. 2010. The good, the bad and the recovery in an assisted migration. PLoS ONE 5(11):e14160. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0014160.

Green, E. P., and A. W. Bruckner. 2000. The significance of coral disease epizootiology for coral reef conservation. Biological Conservation 96(3):347-361. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00073-2.

Greenstein, B. J., and J. M. Pandolfi. 2008. Escaping the heat: Range shifts of reef coral taxa in coastal Western Australia. Global Change Biology 14(3):513-528. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01506.x.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Griffith, B., J. M. Scott, J. W. Carpenter, and C. Reed. 1989. Translocation as a species conservation tool: Status and strategy. Science 245(4917):477-480. DOI: 10.1126/science.245.4917.477.

Grigg, R. W., J. W. Wells, and C. Wallace. 1981. Acropora in Hawaii. Part 1. History of the scientific record, systematics, and ecology. Pacific Science 35(1).

Grottoli, A. G., L. J. Rodrigues, and J. E. Palardy. 2006. Heterotrophic plasticity and resilience in bleached corals. Nature 440:1186. DOI: 10.1038/nature04565.

Grottoli, A. G., M. E. Warner, S. J. Levas, M. D. Aschaffenburg, V. Schoepf, M. McGinley, J. Baumann, and Y. Matsui. 2014. The cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species winners into losers. Global Change Biology 20(12):3823-3833. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12658.

Guest, J., A. Heyward, M. Omori, K. Iwao, A. Morse, and C. Boch. 2010. Rearing coral larvae for reef rehabilitation. In Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Edwards, A., ed. St. Lucia, Australia: Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building to Management Program.

Guest, J. R., M. V. Baria, E. D. Gomez, A. J. Heyward, and A. J. Edwards. 2014. Closing the circle: Is it feasible to rehabilitate reefs with sexually propagated corals? Coral Reefs 33(1):45-55. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-013-1114-1.

Guinotte, J. M., R. W. Buddemeier, and J. A. Kleypas. 2003. Future coral reef habitat marginality: Temporal and spatial effects of climate change in the Pacific Basin. Coral Reefs 22(4):551-558. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-003-0331-4.

Hagedorn, M., and V. L. Carter. 2016. Cryobiology: Principles, species conservation and benefits for coral reefs. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 28(8):1049-1060. DOI: 10.1071/RD16082.

Hagedorn, M., V. L. Carter, R. A. Steyn, D. Krupp, J. C. Leong, R. P. Lang, and T. R. Tiersch. 2006. Preliminary studies of sperm cryopreservation in the mushroom coral, Fungia scutaria. Cryobiology 52(3):454-458. DOI: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2006.03.001.

Hagedorn, M., M. J. H. van Oppen, V. Carter, M. Henley, D. Abrego, E. Puill-Stephan, A. Negri, A. Heyward, D. MacFarlane, and R. Spindler. 2012. First frozen repository for the Great Barrier Reef coral created. Cryobiology 65(2):157-158. DOI: 10.1016/j. cryobiol.2012.05.008.

Hagedorn, M., V. L. Carter, and C. R. Voolstra. 2015. Seasonal preservation success of the marine dinoflagellate coral symbiont, Symbiodinium sp. PLoS ONE 10(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136358.

Hagedorn, M., V. L. Carter, E. M. Henley, M. J. H. van Oppen, R. Hobbs, and R. E. Spindler. 2017. Producing coral offspring with cryopreserved sperm: A tool for coral reef restoration. Scientific Reports 7(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-14644-x.

Halfar, J., L. Godinez-Orta, B. Riegl, J. E. Valdez-Holguin, and J. M. Borges. 2005. Living on the edge: High-latitude Porites carbonate production under temperate eutrophic conditions. Coral Reefs 24(4):582-592. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-005-0029-x.

Hall-Spencer, J., V. Allain, and J. H. Fosså. 2002. Trawling damage to Northeast Atlantic ancient coral reefs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269(1490):507-511. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2001.1910.

Hamilton, J. A., and J. M. Miller. 2016. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate. Conservation Biology 30(1):33-41. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12574.

Harriott, V. J., and D. A. Fisk. 1988. Coral transplantation as a reef management option. Presented at 6th Internation Coral Reef Symposium

Harrison, P. L. 2011. Sexual reproduction of scleractinian corals. In Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition. Dubinsky, Z., and N. Stambler, eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer

Harrison, P. L., and C. Wallace. 1990. Reproduction, dispersal and recruitment of scleractinian corals. In Coral Reefs. Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 25. Dubinsky, Z., ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Harrison, P. L., R. C. Babcock, G. D. Bull, J. K. Oliver, C. C. Wallace, and B. L. Willis. 1984. Mass spawning in tropical reef corals. Science 223(4641):1186-1189. DOI: 10.1126/science.223.4641.1186.

Harvell, C. D., K. Kim, J. M. Burkholder, R. R. Colwell, P. R. Epstein, D. J. Grimes, E. E. Hofmann, E. K. Lipp, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, R. M. Overstreet, J. W. Porter, G. W. Smith, and G. R. Vasta. 1999. Emerging marine diseases—Climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285(5433):1505-1510.

Harvell, C. D., C. E. Mitchell, J. R. Ward, S. Altizer, A. P. Dobson, R. S. Ostfeld, and M. D. Samuel. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296(5576):2158-2162.

Harvell, C. D., R. Aronson, N. Baron, J. Connell, A. Dobson, S. Ellner, L. Gerber, K. Kim, A. Kuris, and H. McCallum. 2004. The rising tide of ocean diseases: Unsolved problems and research priorities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(7):375-382.

Harvell, C. D., E. Jordan-Dahlgren, S. Merkel, E. Rosenberg, L. Raymundo, G. Smith, E. Weil, and B. Willis. 2007. Coral disease, environmental drivers, and the balance between coral and microbial associates. Oceanography 20(1):172-195.

Harvell, C. D., S. Altizer, I. M. Cattadori, L. Harrington, and E. Weil. 2009. Climate change and wildlife diseases: When does the host matter the most? Ecology 90(4):912-920.

Harvey, L. D. D. 2008. Mitigating the atmospheric CO2 increase and ocean acidification by adding limestone powder to upwelling regions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 113(4). DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004373.

Hedgecock, D., and K. Coykendall. 2007. Genetic risks of marine hatchery enhancement: The good, the bad, and the unknown. In Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities. Bert, T., ed. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hellberg, M. E., C. Prada, I. B. Baums, M. H. Tan, and Z. H. Forsman. 2016. Getting a grip at the edge: Recolonization and introgression in eastern Pacific Porites corals. Journal of Biogeography 43(11):2147-2159.

Hesley, D., D. Burdeno, C. Drury, S. Schopmeyer, and D. Lirman. 2017. Citizen science benefits coral reef restoration activities. Journal for Nature Conservation 40:94-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnc.2017.09.001.

Hess, M. A., C. D. Rabe, J. L. Vogel, J. J. Stephenson, D. D. Nelson, and S. R. Narum. 2012. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon. Molecular Ecology 21(21):5236-5250. DOI: 10.1111/mec.12046.

Hewitt, N., N. Klenk, A. L. Smith, D. R. Bazely, N. Yan, S. Wood, J. I. MacLellan, C. Lipsig-Mumme, and I. Henriques. 2011. Taking stock of the assisted migration debate. Biological Conservation 144(11):2560-2572. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.031.

Heyward, A. J., and R. C. Babcock. 1986. Self- and cross-fertilization in scleractinian corals. Marine Biology 90(2):191-195. DOI: 10.1007/bf00569127.

Hitt, N. P., C. A. Frissell, C. C. Muhlfeld, and F. W. Allendorf. 2003. Spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and nonnative rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60(12):1440-1451. DOI: 10.1139/f03-125.

Hixon, M. A. 2015. Reef fishes, seaweeds, and corals: A complex triangle. In Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene. Birkeland, C., ed. New York: Springer Science.

Hixon, M. A., S. J. Green, M. A. Albins, J. L. Akins, and J. A. Morris, Jr. 2016. Lionfish: A major marine invasion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 558:161-165.

Hodgson, G. 1990. Sediment and the settlement of larvae of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. Coral Reefs 9(1):41-43. DOI: 10.1007/bf00686720.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50(8):839-866. DOI: 10.1071/MF99078.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., and M. Fine. 2004. Low temperatures cause coral bleaching. Coral Reefs 23(3):444. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-004-0401-2.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., and B. Salvat. 1995. Periodic mass-bleaching and elevated sea temperatures: Bleaching of outer reef slope communities in Moorea, French Polynesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 121(1-3):181-190. DOI: 10.3354/meps121181.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P. J. Mumby, A. J. Hooten, R. S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C. D. Harvell, P. F. Sale, A. J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C. M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R. H. Bradbury, A. Dubi, and M. E. Hatziolos. 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318(5857):1737-1742. DOI: 10.1126/science.1152509.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., L. Hughes, S. McIntyre, D. B. Lindenmayer, C. Parmesan, H. P. Possingham, and C. D. Thomas. 2008. Assisted colonization and rapid climate change. Science 321(5887):345-346. DOI: 10.1126/science.1157897.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., D. Beal, T. Chaudhry, H. Elhaj, A. Abdullat, P. Etessy, and M. Smits. 2015. Reviving the ocean economy: The case for action. Tanzer, J., P. Gamblin, V. Burgener, eds. Gland, Switzerland: WWF International. 60 pp.

Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4(1):1-23. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245.

Hong, M.-J., Y.-T. Yu, C. A. Chen, P.-W. Chiang, and S.-L. Tang. 2009. Influence of species specificity and other factors on bacteria associated with the coral Stylophora pistillata in Taiwan. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75(24):7797-7806. DOI: 10.1128/aem.01418-09.

Hoogenboom, M. O., K. R. N. Anthony, and S. R. Connolly. 2006. Energetic cost of photoinhibition in corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 313:1-12. DOI: 10.3354/meps313001.

Hoogenboom, M. O., S. R. Connolly, and K. R. N. Anthony. 2009. Effects of photoacclimation on the light niche of corals: A process-based approach. Marine Biology 156(12):2493-2503. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-009-1274-2.

Hou, J., T. Xu, D. Su, Y. Wu, L. Cheng, J. Wang, Z. Zhou, and Y. Wang. 2018. RNA-Seq reveals extensive transcriptional response to heat stress in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis. Frontiers in Genetics 9:37. DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00037.

Houlbrèque, F., and C. Ferrier-Pagès. 2009. Heterotrophy in tropical scleractinian corals. Biological Reviews 84(1):1-17.

House, K. Z., A. C. Baclig, M. Ranjan, E. A. Van Nierop, J. Wilcox, and H. J. Herzog. 2011. Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(51):20428-20433. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1012253108.

Howard, J. G., C. Lynch, R. M. Santymire, P. E. Marinari, and D. E. Wildt. 2016. Recovery of gene diversity using long-term cryopreserved spermatozoa and artificial insemination in the endangered black-footed ferret. Animal Conservation 19(2):102-111. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12229.

Howells, E. J., R. Berkelmans, M. J. H. van Oppen, B. L. Willis, and L. K. Bay. 2013. Historical thermal regimes define limits to coral acclimatization. Ecology 94(5):1078-1088. DOI: 10.1890/12-1257.1.

Hudson, J. H. 2000. First aid for massive corals infected with black band disease, Phormidium corallyticum: An underwater aspirator and post-treatment sealant to curtail reinfection. Proceedings of the AAUS 20th Symposium.

Huey, R. B., and J. G. Kingsolver. 1989. Evolution of thermal sensitivity of ectotherm performance. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4(5):131-135. DOI: 10.1016/0169-5347(89)90211-5.

Huggett, M. J., and A. Apprill. 2018. Coral microbiome database: Integration of sequences reveals high diversity and relatedness of coral-associated microbes. Environmental Microbiology Reports. DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12686.

Hughes, T. P. 1994. Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265(5178):1547-1551. DOI: 10.1126/science.265.5178.1547.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Hughes, T., A. M. Szmant, R. Steneck, R. Carpenter, and S. Miller. 1999. Algal blooms on coral reefs: What are the causes? Limnology and Oceanography 44(6):1583-1586. DOI: 10.4319/lo.1999.44.6.1583.

Hughes, T. P., N. A. Graham, J. B. Jackson, P. J. Mumby, and R. S. Steneck. 2010. Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25(11):633-642. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.07.011.

Hughes, T. P., M. L. Barnes, D. R. Bellwood, J. E. Cinner, G. S. Cumming, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, I. A. van de Leemput, J. M. Lough, T. H. Morrison, S. R. Palumbi, E. H. van Nes, and M. Scheffer. 2017a. Coral reefs in the Anthropocene. Nature 546:82. DOI: 10.1038/nature22901.

Hughes, T. P., J. T. Kerry, M. Álvarez-Noriega, J. G. Álvarez-Romero, K. D. Anderson, A. H. Baird, R. C. Babcock, M. Beger, D. R. Bellwood, R. Berkelmans, T. C. Bridge, I. R. Butler, M. Byrne, N. E. Cantin, S. Comeau, S. R. Connolly, G. S. Cumming, S. J. Dalton, G. Diaz-Pulido, C. M. Eakin, W. F. Figueira, J. P. Gilmour, H. B. Harrison, S. F. Heron, A. S. Hoey, J.-P. A. Hobbs, M. O. Hoogenboom, E. V. Kennedy, C.-Y. Kuo, J. M. Lough, R. J. Lowe, G. Liu, M. T. McCulloch, H. A. Malcolm, M. J. McWilliam, J. M. Pandolfi, R. J. Pears, M. S. Pratchett, V. Schoepf, T. Simpson, W. J. Skirving, B. Sommer, G. Torda, D. R. Wachenfeld, B. L. Willis, and S. K. Wilson. 2017b. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature 543:373. DOI: 10.1038/nature21707.

Hughes, T. P., K. D. Anderson, S. R. Connolly, S. F. Heron, J. T. Kerry, J. M. Lough, A. H. Baird, J. K. Baum, M. L. Berumen, T. C. Bridge, D. C. Claar, C. M. Eakin, J. P. Gilmour, N. A. J. Graham, H. Harrison, J.-P. A. Hobbs, A. S. Hoey, M. Hoogenboom, R. J. Lowe, M. T. McCulloch, J. M. Pandolfi, M. Pratchett, V. Schoepf, G. Torda, and S. K. Wilson. 2018. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science 359(6371):80-83. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan8048.

Humanes, A., G. F. Ricardo, B. L. Willis, K. E. Fabricius, and A. P. Negri. 2017. Cumulative effects of suspended sediments, organic nutrients and temperature stress on early life history stages of the coral Acropora tenuis. Scientific Reports 7:44101. DOI: 10.1038/srep44101.

Hume, B., C. D’Angelo, J. Burt, A. C. Baker, B. Riegl, and J. Wiedenmann. 2013. Corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf as models for thermotolerant reef-builders: Prevalence of clade C3 Symbiodinium, host fluorescence and ex situ temperature tolerance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 72(2):313-322. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.032.

Idjadi, J. A., R. N. Haring, and W. F. Precht. 2010. Recovery of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum promotes scleractinian coral growth and survivorship on shallow Jamaican reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 403:91-100.

Iglesias-Prieto, R., V. H. Beltran, T. C. LaJeunesse, H. Reyes-Bonilla, and P. E. Thome. 2004. Different algal symbionts explain the vertical distribution of dominant reef corals in the eastern Pacific. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271(1549):1757-1763. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2757.

Ikmi, A., S. A. McKinney, K. M. Delventhal, and M. C. Gibson. 2014. TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis. Nature Communications 5:5486. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6486.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P. M. Midgley, eds. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Irwin, A., L. Greer, R. Humston, M. Devlin-Durante, P. Cabe, H. Lescinsky, K. Wirth, H. A. Curran, and I. B. Baums. 2017. Age and intraspecific diversity of resilient Acropora communities in Belize. Coral Reefs 36(4):1111-1120. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1602-9.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Isomura, N., K. Iwao, M. Morita, and H. Fukami. 2016. Spawning and fertility of F1 hybrids of the coral genus Acropora in the Indo-Pacific. Coral Reefs 35(3):851-855. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-016-1461-9.

Jackson, J. B. C. 1997. Reefs since Columbus. Coral Reefs 16(Suppl. 1):S23-S32.

Jackson, J. B. C., M. Donovan, K. Cramer, and V. Lam. 2014. Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012. Gland, Switzerland: Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN.

Jentoft, S., B. J. McCay, and D. C. Wilson. 1998. Social theory and fisheries co-management. Marine Policy 22(4):423-436. DOI: 10.1016/S0308-597X(97)00040-7.

Jin, Y. K., P. Lundgren, A. Lutz, J. B. Raina, E. J. Howells, A. S. Paley, B. L. Willis, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2016. Genetic markers for antioxidant capacity in a reef-building coral. Science Advances 2(5):e1500842. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500842.

Jinek, M., K. Chylinski, I. Fonfara, M. Hauer, J. A. Doudna, and E. Charpentier. 2012. A programmable dual-RNA–guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Science 337(6096):816-821. DOI: 10.1126/science.1225829.

Johnson, M. E., C. Lustic, E. Bartels, I. B. Baums, D. S. Gilliam, E. A. Larson, D. Lirman, M. W. Miller, K. Nedimyer, and S. Schopmeyer. 2011. Caribbean Acropora restoration guide: Best practices for propagation and population enhancement. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/occ_facreports/71.

Jokiel, P. L., and S. L. Coles. 1990. Response of Hawaiian and other Indo-Pacific reef corals to elevated temperature. Coral Reefs 8(4):155-162. DOI: 10.1007/bf00265006.

Jokiel, P. L., and J. Naughton. 2001. Coral reef mitigation and restoration techniques employed in the Pacific islands. II. Guidelines. Presented at MTS/IEEE Oceans 2001. An Ocean Odyssey. Conference Proceedings (IEEE Cat. No.01CH37295), November 5-8.

Jones, A., and R. Berkelmans. 2010. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: Growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types. PLoS ONE 5(5):e10437. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010437.

Jones, A. M., R. Berkelmans, M. J. H. van Oppen, J. C. Mieog, and W. Sinclair. 2008. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: Field evidence of acclimatization. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275(1641):1359-1365. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0069.

Junjie, R. K., N. K. Browne, P. L. A. Erftemeijer, and P. A. Todd. 2014. Impacts of sediments on coral energetics: Partitioning the effects of turbidity and settling particles. PLoS ONE 9(9):e107195. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107195.

Katwijk, M. M., A. Thorhaug, N. Marbà, R. J. Orth, C. M. Duarte, G. A. Kendrick, I. H. J. Althuizen, E. Balestri, G. Bernard, M. L. Cambridge, A. Cunha, C. Durance, W. Giesen, Q. Han, S. Hosokawa, W. Kiswara, T. Komatsu, C. Lardicci, K.-S. Lee, A. Meinesz, M. Nakaoka, K. R. O’Brien, E. I. Paling, C. Pickerell, A. M. A. Ransijn, and J. J. Verduin. 2016. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: The importance of large-scale planting. Journal of Applied Ecology 53(2):567-578. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12562.

Keen, E. C. 2015. A century of phage research: Bacteriophages and the shaping of modern biology. Bioessays 37(1):6-9. DOI: 10.1002/bies.201400152.

Kemp, D. W., X. Hernandez-Pech, R. Iglesias-Prieto, W. K. Fitt, and G. W. Schmidt. 2014. Community dynamics and physiology of Symbiodinium spp. before, during, and after a coral bleaching event. Limnology and Oceanography 59(3):788-797. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2014.59.3.0788.

Kenkel, C. D., A. T. Almanza, and M. V. Matz. 2015. Fine-scale environmental specialization of reef-building corals might be limiting reef recovery in the Florida Keys. Ecology 96(12):3197-3212. DOI: 10.1890/14-2297.1.

Kennedy, E. V., N. L. Foster, P. J. Mumby, and J. R. Stevens. 2015. Widespread prevalence of cryptic Symbiodinium D in the key Caribbean reef builder, Orbicella annularis. Coral Reefs 34(2):519-531. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-015-1264-4.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Kennedy, E. V., A. Ordoñez, B. E. Lewis, and G. Diaz-Pulido. 2017. Comparison of recruitment tile materials for monitoring coralline algae responses to a changing climate. Marine Ecology Progress Series 569:129-144. DOI: 10.3354/meps12076.

Kerry, J. T., and D. R. Bellwood. 2012. The effect of coral morphology on shelter selection by coral reef fishes. Coral Reefs 31(2):415-424. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-011-0859-7.

Keshavmurthy, S., C. M. Hsu, C. Y. Kuo, P. J. Meng, J. T. Wang, and C. A. Chen. 2012. Symbiont communities and host genetic structure of the brain coral Platygyra verweyi, at the outlet of a nuclear power plant and adjacent areas. Molecular Ecology 21(17):4393-4407. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05704.x.

Kiessling, W. 2009. Geologic and biologic controls on the evolution of reefs. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40(1):173-192. DOI: 10.1146/annurev. ecolsys.110308.120251.

Kimura, M. 1983. The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kitchen, S. A., K. G. Von, W. Miller, and I. B. Baums. 2018. STAG: Standard Tools for Acroporid Genotyping. Presented at Integrative and Comparative Biology.

Kleypas, J. A., and K. K. Yates. 2009. Coral reefs and ocean acidification. Oceanography 22(Spec. Iss. 4):108-117. DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2009.101.

Kleypas, J. A., R. W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J.-P. Gattuso, C. Langdon, and B. N. Opdyke. 1999. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284(5411):118-120. DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5411.118.

Kleypas, J. A., R. A. Feely, C. Langdon, C. L. Sabine, and L. L. Robbins. 2006. Impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other marine calcifiers: A guide for future research. Report of a workshop held 18-20 April 2005, St. Petersburg, FL, USA, sponsored by NSF, NOAA, and the USGS.

Kleypas, J. A., K. R. N. Anthony, and J.-P. Gattuso. 2011. Coral reefs modify their seawater carbon chemistry—case study from a barrier reef (Moorea, French Polynesia). Global Change Biology 17(12):3667-3678. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02530.x.

Kline, D. I., N. M. Kuntz, M. Breitbart, N. Knowlton, and F. Rohwer. 2006. Role of elevated organic carbon levels and microbial activity in coral mortality. Marine Ecology Progress Series 314:119-125. DOI: 10.3354/meps314119.

Kline, D. I., L. Teneva, K. Schneider, T. Miard, A. Chai, M. Marker, K. Headley, B. Opdyke, M. Nash, M. Valetich, J. K. Caves, B. D. Russell, S. D. Connell, B. J. Kirkwood, P. Brewer, E. Peltzer, J. Silverman, K. Caldeira, R. B. Dunbar, J. R. Koseff, S. G. Monismith, B. G. Mitchell, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2012. A short-term in situ CO2 enrichment experiment on Heron Island (GBR). Scientific Reports 2:413. DOI: 10.1038/srep00413.

Knowlton, N., E. Weil, L. A. Weigt, and H. M. Guzmán. 1992. Sibling species in Montastraea annularis, coral bleaching, and the coral climate record. Science 255(5042):330-333. DOI: 10.1126/science.255.5042.330.

Kohanski, M. A., D. J. Dwyer, and J. J. Collins. 2010. How antibiotics kill bacteria: From targets to networks. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8:423. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2333.

Kojis, B. L., and N. J. Quinn. 1981. Aspects of sexual reproduction and larval development in the shallow water hermatypic coral, Goniastrea australensis (Edwards and Haime, 1857). Bulletin of Marine Science 31(3):558-573.

Kolar, C. S., and D. M. Lodge. 2001. Progress in invasion biology: Predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16(4):199-204. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02101-2.

Konermann, S., P. Lotfy, N. J. Brideau, J. Oki, M. N. Shokhirev, and P. D. Hsu. 2018. Transcriptome engineering with RNA-targeting type VI-D CRISPR effectors. Cell 173(3):665-676. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.02.033.

Koweek, D. A., D. A. Mucciarone, and R. B. Dunbar. 2016. Bubble stripping as a tool to reduce high dissolved CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. Environmental Science and Technology 50(7):3790-3797. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04733.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Krause-Jensen, D., and C. M. Duarte. 2016. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration. Nature Geoscience 9:737. DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2790.

Kreyling, J., T. Bittner, A. Jaeschke, A. Jentsch, M. J. Steinbauer, D. Thiel, and C. Beierkuhnlein. 2011. Assisted colonization: A question of focal units and recipient localities. Restoration Ecology 19(4):433-440. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00777.x.

Kroeker, K. J., R. L. Kordas, R. Crim, I. E. Hendriks, L. Ramajo, G. S. Singh, C. M. Duarte, and J.-P. Gattuso. 2013. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: Quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Global Change Biology 19(6):1884-1896. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12179.

Kuffner, I. B., and L. T. Toth. 2016. A geological perspective on the degradation and conservation of western Atlantic coral reefs. Conservation Biology 30(4):706-715. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12725.

Kuffner, I. B., K. E. Roberts, J. A. Flannery, J. M. Morrison, and J. N. Richey. 2017. Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18(1):178-188. DOI: 10.1002/2016GC006640.

Kuzma, J., and L. Rawls. 2016. Engineering the wild: Gene drives and intergenerational equity. Jurimetrics 56.

Lacis, A. A., and J. Hansen. 1974. A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 31(1):118-133. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0118:Apftao>2.0.Co;2.

Ladd, M. C., M. W. Miller, J. H. Hunt, W. C. Sharp, and D. E. Burkepile. 2018. Harnessing ecological processes to facilitate coral restoration. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16(4):239-247. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1792.

Ladner, J. T., and S. R. Palumbi. 2012. Extensive sympatry, cryptic diversity and introgression throughout the geographic distribution of two coral species complexes. Molecular Ecology 21(9):2224-2238. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05528.x.

Laikre, L., M. K. Schwartz, R. S. Waples, and N. Ryman. 2010. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: Unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25(9):520-529. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.06.013.

LaJeunesse, T. C., R. Bhagooli, M. Hidaka, L. DeVantier, T. Done, G. W. Schmidt, W. K. Fitt, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2004. Closely related Symbiodinium spp. differ in relative dominance in coral reef host communities across environmental, latitudinal and bio-geographic gradients. Marine Ecology Progress Series 284:147-161.

LaJeunesse, T. C., R. T. Smith, J. Finney, and H. Oxenford. 2009. Outbreak and persistence of opportunistic symbiotic dinoflagellates during the 2005 Caribbean mass coral “bleaching” event. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276(1676):4139-4148. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1405.

LaJeunesse, T. C., D. T. Pettay, E. M. Sampayo, N. Phongsuwan, B. Brown, D. O. Obura, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and W. K. Fitt. 2010a. Long-standing environmental conditions, geographic isolation and host–symbiont specificity influence the relative ecological dominance and genetic diversification of coral endosymbionts in the genus Symbiodinium. Journal of Biogeography 37(5):785-800. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02273.x.

LaJeunesse, T. C., R. Smith, M. Walther, J. Pinzón, D. T. Pettay, M. McGinley, M. Aschaffenburg, P. Medina-Rosas, A. L. Cupul-Magaña, A. L. Pérez, H. Reyes-Bonilla, and M. E. Warner. 2010b. Host–symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral–dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 277(1696):2925-2934. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0385.

LaJeunesse, T. C., Z. H. Forsman, and D. C. Wham. 2016. An Indo-West Pacific “zooxanthella” invasive to the western Atlantic finds its way to the Eastern Pacific via an introduced Caribbean coral. Coral Reefs 35(2):577-582. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-015-1388-6.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

LaJeunesse, T. C., J. E. Parkinson, P. W. Gabrielson, H. J. Jeong, J. D. Reimer, C. R. Voolstra, and S. R. Santos. 2018. Systematic revision of Symbiodiniaceae highlights the antiquity and diversity of coral endosymbionts. Current Biology 28(16):2570-2580. DOI: 10.1016/j. cub.2018.07.008.

Lande, R. 1998. Anthropogenic, ecological and genetic factors in extinction and conservation. Researches on Population Ecology 40(3):259-269. DOI: 10.1007/bf02763457.

Lang, J., and E. A. Chornesky. 1990. Competition between scleractinian reef corals—a review of mechanisms and effects. In Ecosystems of the World. Dubinsky, Z., ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Langdon, C., T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, D. Chipman, J. Goddard, F. Marubini, H. Aceves, H. Barnett, and M. J. Atkinson. 2000. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14(2):639-654. DOI: 10.1029/1999GB001195.

Lapointe, B. E., and B. J. Bedford. 2010. Ecology and nutrition of invasive Caulerpa brachypus f. parvifolia blooms on coral reefs off southeast Florida, U.S.A. Harmful Algae 9(1):1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2009.06.001.

Larsson, D. G. J., A. Andremont, J. Bengtsson-Palme, K. K. Brandt, A. M. de Roda Husman, P. Fagerstedt, J. Fick, C.-F. Flach, W. H. Gaze, M. Kuroda, K. Kvint, R. Laxminarayan, C. M. Manaia, K. M. Nielsen, L. Plant, M.-C. Ploy, C. Segovia, P. Simonet, K. Smalla, J. Snape, E. Topp, A. J. van Hengel, D. W. Verner-Jeffreys, M. P. J. Virta, E. M. Wellington, and A.-S. Wernersson. 2018. Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance. Environment International 117:132-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.041.

Latham, J., K. Bower, T. Choularton, H. Coe, P. Connolly, G. Cooper, T. Craft, J. Foster, A. Gadian, L. Galbraith, H. Iacovides, D. Johnston, B. Launder, B. Leslie, J. Meyer, A. Neukermans, B. Ormond, B. Parkes, P. Rasch, J. Rush, S. Salter, T. Stevenson, H. Wang, Q. Wang, and R. Wood. 2012. Marine cloud brightening. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 370(1974):4217-4262. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0086.

Latham, J., J. Kleypas, R. Hauser, B. Parkes, and A. Gadian. 2013. Can marine cloud brightening reduce coral bleaching? Atmospheric Science Letters 14(4):214-219. DOI: 10.1002/asl2.442.

Legg, C. J., and L. Nagy. 2006. Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management 78(2):194-199. DOI: 10.1016/j. jenvman.2005.04.016.

Leichter, J. J., H. L. Stewart, and S. L. Miller. 2003. Episodic nutrient transport to Florida coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography 48(4):1394-1407. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2003.48.4.1394.

Lenihan, H. S., M. Adjeroud, M. J. Kotchen, J. L. Hench, and T. Nakamura. 2008. Reef structure regulates small-scale spatial variation in coral bleaching. Marine Ecology Progress Series 370:127-141.

Lenormand, T. 2002. Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(4):183-189. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02497-7.

Lesser, M. P. 1997. Oxidative stress causes coral bleaching during exposure to elevated temperatures. Coral Reefs 16(3):187-192. DOI: 10.1007/s003380050073.

Lesser, M. P. 2006. Oxidative stress in marine environments: Biochemistry and physiological ecology. Annual Review of Physiology 68:253-278.

Lesser, M. P. 2011. Coral bleaching: Causes and mechanisms. In Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition. Dubinsky, Z., and N. Stambler, eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Lesser, M. P., and J. H. Farrell. 2004. Exposure to solar radiation increases damage to both host tissues and algal symbionts of corals during thermal stress. Coral Reefs 23(3):367-377. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-004-0392-z.

Lessios, H. A. 2016. The great Diadema antillarum die-off: 30 years later. Annual Review of Marine Science 8(1):267-283. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-033857.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Lester, S. E., B. S. Halpern, K. Grorud-Colvert, J. Lubchenco, B. I. Ruttenberg, S. D. Gaines, S. Airamé, and R. R. Warner. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: A global synthesis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 384:33-46.

Levin, R. A., V. H. Beltran, R. Hill, S. Kjelleberg, D. McDougald, P. D. Steinberg, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2016. Sex, scavengers, and chaperones: Transcriptome secrets of divergent Symbiodinium thermal tolerances. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33(9):2201-2215.

Levin, R. A., C. R. Voolstra, S. Agrawal, P. D. Steinberg, D. J. Suggett, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2017. Engineering strategies to decode and enhance the genomes of coral symbionts. Frontiers in Microbiology 8(Jun):1220. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01220.

Levin, S. A., and J. Lubchenco. 2008. Resilience, robustness, and marine ecosystem-based management. Bioscience 58(1):27-32. DOI: 10.1641/B580107.

Lewis, C. L., and M. A. Coffroth. 2004. The acquisition of exogenous algal symbionts by an octocoral after bleaching. Science 304(5676):1490-1492. DOI: 10.1126/science.1097323.

Li, J.-F., J. E. Norville, J. Aach, M. McCormack, D. Zhang, J. Bush, G. M. Church, and J. Sheen. 2013. Multiplex and homologous recombination-mediated genome editing in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana using guide RNA and Cas9. Nature Biotechnology 31(8):688-691. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2654.

Li, X.-t., Y. Jun, M. J. Erickstad, S. D. Brown, A. Parks, D. L. Court, and S. Jun. 2016. tCRISPRi: Tunable and reversible, one-step control of gene expression. Scientific Reports 6:39076. DOI: 10.1038/srep39076.

Liew, Y. J., E. J. Howells, X. Wang, C. T. Michell, J. A. Burt, Y. Idaghdour, and M. Aranda. 2018a. Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance in reef-building corals. bioRxiv. DOI: 10.1101/269076.

Liew, Y. J., D. Zoccola, Y. Li, E. Tambutté, A. A. Venn, C. T. Michell, G. Cui, E. S. Deutekom, J. A. Kaandorp, C. R. Voolstra, S. Forêt, D. Allemand, S. Tambutté, and M. Aranda. 2018b. Epigenome-associated phenotypic acclimatization to ocean acidification in a reef-building coral. Science Advances 4(6). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar8028.

Lirman, D., and S. Schopmeyer. 2016. Ecological solutions to reef degradation: Optimizing coral reef restoration in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. PeerJ 4:e2597. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2597.

Lirman, D., S. Schopmeyer, D. Manzello, L. J. Gramer, W. F. Precht, F. Muller-Karger, K. Banks, B. Barnes, E. Bartels, A. Bourque, J. Byrne, S. Donahue, J. Duquesnel, L. Fisher, D. Gilliam, J. Hendee, M. Johnson, K. Maxwell, E. McDevitt, J. Monty, D. Rueda, R. Ruzicka, and S. Thanner. 2011. Severe 2010 cold-water event caused unprecedented mortality to corals of the Florida reef tract and reversed previous survivorship patterns. PLoS ONE 6(8). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023047.

Little, A. F., M. J. H. van Oppen, and B. L. Willis. 2004. Flexibility in algal endosymbioses shapes growth in reef corals. Science 304(5676):1492-1494. DOI: 10.1126/science.1095733.

Littman, R. A., B. L. Willis, C. Pfeffer, and D. G. Bourne. 2009. Diversities of coral-associated bacteria differ with location, but not species, for three acroporid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 68(2). DOI: 0.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00666.x.

Logan, C. A., J. P. Dunne, C. M. Eakin, and S. D. Donner. 2012. A framework for comparing coral bleaching thresholds. Presented at the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia.

Logan, C. A., J. P. Dunne, C. M. Eakin, and S. D. Donner. 2014. Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching. Global Change Biology 20(1):125-139. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12390.

Loss, S. R., L. A. Terwilliger, and A. C. Peterson. 2011. Assisted colonization: Integrating conservation strategies in the face of climate change. Biological Conservation 144(1):92-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.11.016.

Lough, J. M., K. D. Anderson, and T. P. Hughes. 2018. Increasing thermal stress for tropical coral reefs: 1871-2017. Scientific Reports 8(1):6079. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-24530-9.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Louis, Y. D., R. Bhagooli, C. D. Kenkel, A. C. Baker, and S. D. Dyall. 2017. Gene expression biomarkers of heat stress in scleractinian corals: Promises and limitations. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 191:63-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2016.08.007.

Loya, Y., and B. Rinkevich. 1980. Effects of oil pollution on coral reef communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 3:167-180.

Loya, Y., K. Sakai, K. Yamazato, Y. Nakano, H. Sambali, and R. van Woesik. 2001. Coral bleaching: The winners and the losers. Ecology Letters 4(2):122-131. DOI: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00203.x.

Lundregan, S. L., I. J. Hagen, J. Gohli, A. K. Niskanen, P. Kemppainen, T. H. Ringsby, T. Kvalnes, H. Pärn, B. Rønning, H. Holand, P. S. Ranke, A. S. Båtnes, L.-K. Selvik, S. Lien, B.-E. Sæther, A. Husby, and H. Jensen. 2018. Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high-density SNP array point to a polygenic basis. Molecular Ecology 27(17):3498-3514. DOI: 10.1111/mec.14811.

Lurgi, M., B. C. López, and J. M. Montoya. 2012. Novel communities from climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367(1605):2913-2922. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0238.

Luz, B. L. P., and M. V. Kitahara. 2017. Could the invasive scleractinians Tubastraea coccinea and T. tagusensis replace the dominant zoantharian Palythoa caribaeorum in the Brazilian subtidal? Coral Reefs 36(3):875. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1578-5.

Maciá, S., M. P. Robinson, and A. Nalevanko. 2007. Experimental dispersal of recovering Diadema antillarum increases grazing intensity and reduces macroalgal abundance on a coral reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 348:173-182. DOI: 10.3354/meps06962.

Madin, J. S., M. J. O’Donnell, and S. R. Connolly. 2008. Climate-mediated mechanical changes to post-disturbance coral assemblages. Biology Letters 4(5):490-493. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0249.

Madin, J. S., K. D. Anderson, M. H. Andreasen, T. C. L. Bridge, S. D. Cairns, S. R. Connolly, E. S. Darling, M. Diaz, D. S. Falster, E. C. Franklin, R. D. Gates, A. M. T. Harmer, M. O. Hoogenboom, D. Huang, S. A. Keith, M. A. Kosnik, C.-Y. Kuo, J. M. Lough, C. E. Lovelock, O. Luiz, J. Martinelli, T. Mizerek, J. M. Pandolfi, X. Pochon, M. S. Pratchett, H. M. Putnam, T. E. Roberts, M. Stat, C. C. Wallace, E. Widman, and A. H. Baird. 2016. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans. Scientific Data 3:160017. DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2016.17.

Malpica-Cruz, L., L. C. T. Chaves, and I. M. Côté. 2016. Managing marine invasive species through public participation: Lionfish derbies as a case study. Marine Policy 74:158-164. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.09.027.

Manzello, D. P. 2010. Ocean acidification hot spots: Spatiotemporal dynamics of the seawater CO2 system of eastern Pacific coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography 55(1):239-248. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0239.

Manzello, D. P., M. Brandt, T. B. Smith, D. Lirman, J. C. Hendee, and R. S. Nemeth. 2007. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(29):12035-12039. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0701194104.

Manzello, D. P., I. C. Enochs, N. Melo, D. K. Gledhill, and E. M. Johns. 2012. Ocean acidification refugia of the Florida Reef Tract. PLoS ONE 7(7):e41715. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0041715.

Marcelino, V. R., K. M. Morrow, M. J. H. van Oppen, D. G. Bourne, and H. Verbruggen. 2017. Diversity and stability of coral endolithic microbial communities at a naturally high pCO2 reef. Molecular Ecology 26(19):5344-5357.

Marhaver, K. L., M. J. A. Vermeij, and M. M. Medina. 2015. Reproductive natural history and successful juvenile propagation of the threatened Caribbean Pillar Coral Dendrogyra cylindrus. BMC Ecology 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12898-015-0039-7.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Marshall, P. A., and A. H. Baird. 2000. Bleaching of corals on the Great Barrier Reef: Differential susceptibilities among taxa. Coral Reefs 19(2):155-163. DOI: 10.1007/s003380000086.

Martinez, J. A., C. M. Smith, and R. H. Richmond. 2012. Invasive algal mats degrade coral reef physical habitat quality. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 99:42-49. DOI: 10.1016/j. ecss.2011.12.022.

Masiri, I., M. Nunez, and E. Weller. 2008. A 10-year climatology of solar radiation for the Great Barrier Reef: Implications for recent mass coral bleaching events. International Journal of Remote Sensing 29(15):4443-4462. DOI: 10.1080/01431160801930255.

Mass, T., A. Genin, U. Shavit, M. Grinstein, and D. Tchernov. 2010. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(6):2527-2531. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0912348107.

Mass, T., H. M. Putnam, J. L. Drake, E. Zelzion, R. D. Gates, D. Bhattacharya, and P. G. Falkowski. 2016. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of biomineralization proteins during early development in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis. Prococeedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283(1829). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0322.

Matz, M. V., E. A. Treml, G. V. Aglyamova, and L. K. Bay. 2018. Potential and limits for rapid genetic adaptation to warming in a Great Barrier Reef coral. PLoS Genetics 14(4):e1007220. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007220.

Maynard, J., R. van Hooidonk, C. M. Eakin, M. Puotinen, M. Garren, G. Williams, S. F. Heron, J. Lamb, E. Weil, and B. Willis. 2015. Projections of climate conditions that increase coral disease susceptibility and pathogen abundance and virulence. Nature Climate Change 5(7):688.

McCauley, D. J., M. L. Pinsky, S. R. Palumbi, J. A. Estes, F. H. Joyce, and R. R. Warner. 2015. Marine defaunation: Animal loss in the global ocean. Science 347(6219). DOI: 10.1126/science.1255641.

McClanahan, T. R. 2004. The relationship between bleaching and mortality of common corals. Marine Biology 144(6):1239-1245. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-003-1271-9.

McClanahan, T. R., and J. Maina. 2003. Response of coral assemblages to the interaction between natural temperature variation and rare warm-water events. Ecosystems 6(6):551-563.

McClanahan, T. R., H. Glaesel, J. Rubens, and R. Kiambo. 1997. The effects of traditional fisheries management on fisheries yields and the coral-reef ecosystems of southern Kenya. Environmental Conservation 24(2):105-120.

McClanahan, T. R., B. A. Cokos, and E. Sala. 2002. Algal growth and species composition under experimental control of herbivory, phosphorus and coral abundance in Glovers Reef, Belize. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44(6):441-451. DOI: 10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00051-6.

McClanahan, T. R., J. Maina, R. Moothien-Pillay, and A. C. Baker. 2005. Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and temperature variation on coral bleaching intensity in Mauritius. Marine Ecology Progress Series 298:131-142. DOI: 10.3354/meps298131.

McClanahan, T. R., M. J. Marnane, J. E. Cinner, and W. E. Kiene. 2006. A comparison of marine protected areas and alternative approaches to coral-reef management. Current Biology 16(14):1408-1413. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.05.062.

McClanahan, T. R., M. Ateweberhan, C. A. Muhando, J. Maina, and M. S. Mohammed. 2007. Effects of climate and seawater temperature variation on coral bleaching and mortality. Ecological Monographs 77(4):503-525. DOI: 10.1890/06-1182.1.

McClanahan, T. R., S. D. Donner, J. A. Maynard, M. A. MacNeil, N. A. J. Graham, J. Maina, A. C. Baker, J. B. Alemu I, M. Beger, S. J. Campbell, E. S. Darling, C. M. Eakin, S. F. Heron, S. D. Jupiter, C. J. Lundquist, E. McLeod, P. J. Mumby, M. J. Paddack, E. R. Selig, and R. van Woesik. 2012. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42884. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042884.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

McCook, L. J. 1999. Macroalgae, nutrients and phase shifts on coral reefs: Scientific issues and management consequences for the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 18(4):357-367. DOI: 10.1007/s003380050213.

McCook, L. J., J. Jompa, and G. Diaz-Pulido. 2001. Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: A review of evidence and mechanisms. Coral Reefs 19(4):400-417. DOI: 10.1007/s003380000129.

McCoy, D. T., D. L. Hartmann, M. D. Zelinka, P. Ceppi, and D. P. Grosvenor. 2015. Mixed-phase cloud physics and Southern Ocean cloud feedback in climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120(18):9539-9554. DOI: 10.1002/2015JD023603.

McCulloch, M., J. Falter, J. Trotter, and P. Montagna. 2012. Coral resilience to ocean acidification and global warming through pH up-regulation. Nature Climate Change 2(8):623-627. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1473.

McGinley, M. P., M. D. Aschaffenburg, D. T. Pettay, R. T. Smith, T. C. LaJeunesse, and M. E. Warner. 2012. Transcriptional response of two core photosystem genes in Symbiodinium spp. exposed to thermal stress. PLoS ONE 7(12):e50439. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0050439.

McIlroy, S. E., and M. A. Coffroth. 2017. Coral ontogeny affects early symbiont acquisition in laboratory-reared recruits. Coral Reefs 36(3):927-932. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1584-7.

McKenney, D., J. Pedlar, and G. O’Neill. 2009. Climate change and forest seed zones: Past trends, future prospects and challenges to ponder. Forestry Chronicle 85:258-266.

McKeon, C. S., A. C. Stier, S. E. McIlroy, and B. M. Bolker. 2012. Multiple defender effects: Synergistic coral defense by mutualist crustaceans. Oecologia 169(4):1095-1103. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2275-2.

McLachlan, J. S., J. J. Hellmann, and M. W. Schwartz. 2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology 21(2):297-302. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00676.x.

Mcleod, E., K. R. N. Anthony, A. Andersson, R. Beeden, Y. Golbuu, J. Kleypas, K. Kroeker, D. Manzello, R. V. Salm, H. Schuttenberg, and J. E. Smith. 2013. Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification: Lessons from coral bleaching. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11(1):20-27. DOI: 10.1890/110240.

McManus, J. W., R. B. Reyes, Jr., and C. L. Nañola, Jr. 1997. Effects of some destructive fishing methods on coral cover and potential rates of recovery. Environmental Management 21(1):69-78. DOI: 10.1007/s002679900006.

Meesters, E. H. W. G., S. R. Smith, and L. E. Becking. 2015. A review of coral reef restoration techniques (No. C028/14). IMARES.

Mellin, C., M. Aaron MacNeil, A. J. Cheal, M. J. Emslie, and M. Julian Caley. 2016. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities. Ecology Letters 19(6):629-637. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12598.

Mera, H., and D. G. Bourne. 2018. Disentangling causation: Complex roles of coral-associated microorganisms in disease. Environmental Microbiology 20(2):431-449. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13958.

Meyer, E., S. Davies, S. Wang, B. L. Willis, D. Abrego, T. E. Juenger, and M. V. Matz. 2009. Genetic variation in responses to a settlement cue and elevated temperature in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora. Marine Ecology Progress Series 392:81-92.

Meyer, E., G. V. Aglyamova, and M. V. Matz. 2011. Profiling gene expression responses of coral larvae (Acropora millepora) to elevated temperature and settlement inducers using a novel RNA-Seq procedure. Molecular Ecology 20(17):3599-3616. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05205.x.

Middelboe, M., and C. P. Brussaard. 2017. Marine viruses: Key players in marine ecosystems. Viruses 9(10):302.

Middlebrook, R., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and W. Leggat. 2008. The effect of thermal history on the susceptibility of reef-building corals to thermal stress. Journal of Experimental Biology 211(7):1050-1056. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.013284.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Miller, D. J., E. E. Ball, S. Forêt, and N. Satoh. 2011. Coral genomics and transcriptomics—Ushering in a new era in coral biology. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 408(1):114-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.07.031.

Miller, M. W., I. B. Baums, R. E. Pausch, A. J. Bright, C. M. Cameron, D. E. Williams, Z. J. Moffitt, and C. M. Woodley. 2018. Clonal structure and variable fertilization success in Florida Keys broadcast-spawning corals. Coral Reefs 37(1):239-249. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1651-0.

Moberg, F., and C. Folke. 1999. Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems. Ecological Economics 29(2):215-233. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00009-9.

Mohamed, A. R., V. Cumbo, S. Harii, C. Shinzato, C. X. Chan, M. A. Ragan, D. G. Bourne, B. L. Willis, E. E. Ball, N. Satoh, and D. J. Miller. 2016. The transcriptomic response of the coral Acropora digitifera to a competent Symbiodinium strain: The symbiosome as an arrested early phagosome. Molecular Ecology 25(13):3127-3141. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13659.

Molnar, J. L., R. L. Gamboa, C. Revenga, and M. D. Spalding. 2008. Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(9):485-492. DOI: 10.1890/070064.

Mongin, M., M. E. Baird, S. Hadley, and A. Lenton. 2016a. Optimising reef-scale CO2 removal by seaweed to buffer ocean acidification. Environmental Research Letters 11(3). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/034023.

Mongin, M., M. E. Baird, B. Tilbrook, R. J. Matear, A. Lenton, M. Herzfeld, K. Wild-Allen, J. Skerratt, N. Margvelashvili, B. J. Robson, C. M. Duarte, M. S. M. Gustafsson, P. J. Ralph, and A. D. L. Steven. 2016b. The exposure of the Great Barrier Reef to ocean acidification. Nature Communications 7. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10732.

Mooney, H. A., and E. E. Cleland. 2001. The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(10):5446-5451. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.091093398.

Mora, C., O. Aburto-Oropeza, A. Ayala Bocos, P. M. Ayotte, S. Banks, A. G. Bauman, M. Beger, S. Bessudo, D. J. Booth, E. Brokovich, A. Brooks, P. Chabanet, J. E. Cinner, J. Cortés, J. J. Cruz-Motta, A. Cupul Magaña, E. E. DeMartini, G. J. Edgar, D. A. Feary, S. C. A. Ferse, A. M. Friedlander, K. J. Gaston, C. Gough, N. A. J. Graham, A. Green, H. Guzman, M. Hardt, M. Kulbicki, Y. Letourneur, A. López Pérez, M. Loreau, Y. Loya, C. Martinez, I. Mascareñas-Osorio, T. Morove, M.-O. Nadon, Y. Nakamura, G. Paredes, N. V. C. Polunin, M. S. Pratchett, H. Reyes Bonilla, F. Rivera, E. Sala, S. A. Sandin, G. Soler, R. Stuart-Smith, E. Tessier, D. P. Tittensor, M. Tupper, P. Usseglio, L. Vigliola, L. Wantiez, I. Williams, S. K. Wilson, and F. A. Zapata. 2011. Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes. PLoS Biology 9(4):e1000606. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000606.

Moran, N. A., and D. B. Sloan. 2015. The hologenome concept: Helpful or hollow? PLoS Biology 13(12):e1002311.

Morikawa, M., and S. Palumbi. In press. Using naturally occurring climate resilient corals to construct bleaching resistant nurseries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

Mortzfeld, B. M., S. Urbanski, A. M. Reitzel, S. Künzel, U. Technau, and S. Fraune. 2016. Response of bacterial colonization in Nematostella vectensis to development, environment and biogeography. Environmental Microbiology 18(6):1764-1781.

Motone, K., T. Takagi, S. Aburaya, W. Aoki, N. Miura, H. Minakuchi, H. Takeyama, Y. Nagasaki, C. Shinzato, and M. Ueda. 2018. Protection of coral larvae from thermally induced oxidative stress by redox nanoparticles. Marine Biotechnology 20(4):542-548. DOI: 10.1007/s10126-018-9825-5.

Msuya, F. E., M. S. Shalli, K. Sullivan, B. Crawford, J. Tobey, and A. J. Mmochi. 2007. A comparative economic analysis of two seaweed farming methods in Tanzania. The Sustainable Coastal Communities and Ecosystems Program. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island and the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association. 27 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Mueller, J. M., and J. J. Hellmann. 2008. An assessment of invasion risk from assisted migration. Conservation Biology 22(3):562-567. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00952.x.

Muir, P. R., C. C. Wallace, T. Done, and J. D. Aguirre. 2015. Limited scope for latitudinal extension of reef corals. Science 348(6239):1135-1138. DOI: 10.1126/science.1259911.

Muller, E. M., E. Bartels, and I. B. Baums. 2018. Bleaching causes loss of disease resistance within the threatened coral species Acropora cervicornis. eLife 7:e35066. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.35066.

Mumby, P. J., and R. S. Steneck. 2008. Coral reef management and conservation in light of rapidly evolving ecological paradigms. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(10):555-563. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.011.

Mumby, P. J., J. R. M. Chisholm, A. J. Edwards, S. Andrefouet, and J. Jaubert. 2001. Cloudy weather may have saved Society Island reef corals during the 1998 ENSO event. Marine Ecology Progress Series 222:209-216. DOI: 10.3354/meps222209.

Mumby, P. J., A. Hastings, and H. J. Edwards. 2007. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. Nature 450:98. DOI: 10.1038/nature06252.

Mumby, P. J., R. S. Steneck, and A. Hastings. 2013. Evidence for and against the existence of alternate attractors on coral reefs. Oikos 122(4):481-491. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.00262.x.

Munday, P. L., G. P. Jones, M. S. Pratchett, and A. J. Williams. 2008. Climate change and the future for coral reef fishes. Fish and Fisheries 9(3):261-285. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00281.x.

Muscatine, L., L. McCloskey, and R. Marian. 1981. Estimating the daily contribution of carbon from zooxanthellae to coral animal respiration. Limnology and Oceanography 26:601-611.

Nadaoka, K., Y. Nihei, K. Wakaki, R. Kumano, S. Kakuma, S. Moromizato, T. Omija, K. Iwao, K. Shimoike, H. Taniguchi, Y. Nakano, and T. Ikema. 2001. Regional variation of water temperature around Okinawa coasts and its relationship to offshore thermal environments and coral bleaching. Coral Reefs 20(4):373-384. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-001-0187-4.

Naish, K. A., J. E. Taylor, P. S. Levin, T. P. Quinn, J. R. Winton, D. Huppert, and R. Hilborn. 2008. An evaluation of the effects of conservation and fishery enhancement hatcheries on wild populations of salmon. Advances in Marine Biology 53:61-194.

Nakamura, R., W. Ando, H. Yamamoto, M. Kitano, A. Sato, M. Nakamura, H. Kayanne, and M. Omori. 2011. Corals mass-cultured from eggs and transplanted as juveniles to their native, remote coral reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 436:161-168.

NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2016a. Gene drives on the horizon: Advancing science, navigating uncertainty, and aligning research with public values. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2016b. Attribution of extreme weather events in the context of climate change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Naughton, J., and P. L. Jokiel. 2001. Coral reef mitigation and restoration techniques employed in the Pacific islands. I. Overview. Presented at MTS/IEEE Oceans 2001. An Ocean Odyssey. Conference Proceedings (IEEE Cat. No.01CH37295), November 5-8.

Neave, M. J., R. Rachmawati, L. Xun, C. T. Michell, D. G. Bourne, A. Apprill, and C. R. Voolstra. 2017. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales. The ISME Journal 11(1):186.

Neilson, B. J., C. B. Wall, F. T. Mancini, and C. A. Gewecke. 2018. Herbivore biocontrol and manual removal successfully reduce invasive macroalgae on coral reefs. PeerJ 6:e5332. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5332.

Neira, C., E. D. Grosholz, L. A. Levin, and R. Blake. 2006. Mechanisms generating modification of benthos following tidal flat invasion by a Spartina hybrid. Ecological Applications 16(4):1391-1404.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2018. Coral Bleaching During & Since the 2014-2017 Global Coral Bleaching Event: Status and an Appeal for Observations. https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/analyses_guidance/global_coral_bleaching_2014-17_status.php. Accessed August 26, 2018.

Noble, C., B. Adlam, G. M. Church, K. M. Esvelt, and M. A. Nowak. 2018. Current CRISPR gene drive systems are likely to be highly invasive in wild populations. eLife 7:e33423. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.33423.

Nobrega, F. L., A. R. Costa, L. D. Kluskens, and J. Azeredo. 2015. Revisiting phage therapy: New applications for old resources. Trends in Microbiology 23(4):185-191.

Normark, B. H., and S. Normark. 2002. Evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance. Journal of Internal Medicine 252(2):91-106.

NRC (National Research Council). 2015. Climate intervention: Carbon dioxide removal and reliable sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nugues, M. M. 2002. Impact of a coral disease outbreak on coral communities in St. Lucia: What and how much has been lost? Marine Ecology Progress Series 229:61-71.

Nugues, M. M., G. W. Smith, R. J. van Hooidonk, M. I. Seabra, and R. P. M. Bak. 2004. Algal contact as a trigger for coral disease. Ecology Letters 7(10):919-923. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00651.x.

O’Donnell, K. E., K. E. Lohr, E. Bartels, I. B. Baums, and J. T. Patterson. 2018. Acropora cervicornis genet performance and symbiont identity throughout the restoration process. Coral Reefs 37(4):1109-1118. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-018-01743-y.

Oakley, C., and S. Davy. 2018. Cell Biology of Coral Bleaching. New York: Springer.

Oakley, C. A., E. Durand, S. P. Wilkinson, L. Peng, V. M. Weis, A. R. Grossman, and S. K. Davy. 2017. Thermal shock induces host proteostasis disruption and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the model symbiotic cnidarian Aiptasia. Journal of Proteome Research 16(6):2121-2134. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00797.

Ochatt, S. J., and R. S. Sangwan. 2008. In vitro shortening of generation time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 93(2):133-137. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-008-9351-7.

Oliver, T. A., and S. R. Palumbi. 2011. Do fluctuating temperature environments elevate coral thermal tolerance? Coral Reefs 30(2):429-440. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-011-0721-y.

Omori, M. 2011. Degradation and restoration of coral reefs: Experience in Okinawa, Japan. Marine Biology Research 7(1):3-12. DOI: 10.1080/17451001003642317.

Omori, M., T. Aota, A. Watanuki, and H. Taniguchi. 2003. Development of coral reef restoration method by mass culture, transportation and settlement of coral larvae. Presented at Palau Coral Reef Conference, Palau.

Ortiz, J. C., M. González-Rivero, and P. J. Mumby. 2013. Can a thermally tolerant symbiont improve the future of Caribbean coral reefs? Global Change Biology 19(1):273-281. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12027.

Ouellet-Plamondon, C., F. Chazarenc, Y. Comeau, and J. Brisson. 2006. Artificial aeration to increase pollutant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands in cold climate. Ecological Engineering 27(3):258-264. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.03.006.

Oxenford, H. A., and H. Vallès. 2016. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados. PeerJ 4:e2118. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2118.

Padilla, D. K., and S. L. Williams. 2004. Beyond ballast water: Aquarium and ornamental trades as sources of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(3):131-138. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0131:BBWAAO]2.0.CO;2.

Palacios, S. L., and R. C. Zimmerman. 2007. Response of eelgrass Zostera marina to CO2 enrichment: Possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 344:1-13.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Palardy, J. E., L. J. Rodrigues, and A. G. Grottoli. 2008. The importance of zooplankton to the daily metabolic carbon requirements of healthy and bleached corals at two depths. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 367(2):180-188.

Palumbi, S. R., D. J. Barshis, N. Traylor-Knowles, and R. A. Bay. 2014. Mechanisms of reef coral resistance to future climate change. Science 344(6186):895-898. DOI: 10.1126/science.1251336.

Pan, Y. W., W. Fan, D. H. Zhang, J. W. Chen, H. C. Huang, S. X. Liu, Z. P. Jiang, Y. N. Di, M. M. Tong, and Y. Chen. 2016. Research progress in artificial upwelling and its potential environmental effects. Science China Earth Sciences 59(2):236-248. DOI: 10.1007/s11430-015-5195-2.

Pandolfi, J. M., R. H. Bradbury, E. Sala, T. P. Hughes, K. A. Bjorndal, R. G. Cooke, D. McArdle, L. McClenachan, M. J. H. Newman, G. Paredes, R. R. Warner, and J. B. C. Jackson. 2003. Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems. Science 301(5635):955-958. DOI: 10.1126/science.1085706.

Pandolfi, J. M., J. B. C. Jackson, N. Baron, R. H. Bradbury, H. M. Guzman, T. P. Hughes, C. V. Kappel, F. Micheli, J. C. Ogden, H. P. Possingham, and E. Sala. 2005. Are U.S. coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? Science 307(5716):1725-1726. DOI: 10.1126/science.1104258.

Pandolfi, J. M., S. R. Connolly, D. J. Marshall, and A. L. Cohen. 2011. Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification. Science 333(6041):418-422. DOI: 10.1126/science.1204794.

Parkinson, J. E., and I. B. Baums. 2014. The extended phenotypes of marine symbioses: Ecological and evolutionary consequences of intraspecific genetic diversity in coral–algal associations. Frontiers in Microbiology 5(445). DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00445.

Parkinson, J. E., E. Bartels, M. K. Devlin-Durante, C. Lustic, K. Nedimyer, S. Schopmeyer, D. Lirman, T. C. LaJeunesse, and I. B. Baums. 2018. Extensive transcriptional variation poses a challenge to thermal stress biomarker development for endangered corals. Molecular Ecology 27(5):1103-1119. DOI: 10.1111/mec.14517.

Parmesan, C., and G. Yohe. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37. DOI: 10.1038/nature01286.

Peixoto, R. S., P. M. Rosado, D. C. de Assis Leite, A. S. Rosado, and D. G. Bourne. 2017. Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals (BMC): Proposed mechanisms for coral health and resilience. Frontiers in Microbiology 8:341.

Pérez, I., J. D. Anadón, M. Díaz, G. G. Nicola, J. L. Tella, and A. Giménez. 2012. What is wrong with current translocations?: A review and a decision-making proposal. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10(9):494-501. DOI: 10.1890/110175.

Perez, K., III, K. S. Rodgers, P. L. Jokiel, C. V. Lager, and D. J. Lager. 2014. Effects of terrigenous sediment on settlement and survival of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. PeerJ 2:e387. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.387.

Perry, C. T., L. Alvarez-Filip, N. A. J. Graham, P. J. Mumby, S. K. Wilson, P. S. Kench, D. P. Manzello, K. M. Morgan, A. B. A. Slangen, D. P. Thomson, F. Januchowski-Hartley, S. G. Smithers, R. S. Steneck, R. Carlton, E. N. Edinger, I. C. Enochs, N. Estrada-Saldívar, M. D. E. Haywood, G. Kolodziej, G. N. Murphy, E. Pérez-Cervantes, A. Suchley, L. Valentino, R. Boenish, M. Wilson, and C. Macdonald. 2018. Loss of coral reef growth capacity to track future increases in sea level. Nature 558(7710):396-400. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0194-z.

Pettay, D. T., D. C. Wham, R. T. Smith, R. Iglesias-Prieto, and T. C. LaJeunesse. 2015. Microbial invasion of the Caribbean by an Indo-Pacific coral zooxanthella. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112(24):7513-7518. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1502283112.

Philipp, E., and K. Fabricius. 2003. Photophysiological stress in scleractinian corals in response to short-term sedimentation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 287(1):57-78. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00495-1.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Pikitch, E. K., C. Santora, E. A. Babcock, A. Bakun, R. Bonfil, D. O. Conover, P. Dayton, P. Doukakis, D. Fluharty, B. Heneman, E. D. Houde, J. Link, P. A. Livingston, M. Mangel, M. K. McAllister, J. Pope, and K. J. Sainsbury. 2004. Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science 305(5682):346-347. DOI: 10.1126/science.1098222.

Piniak, G. A., and E. K. Brown. 2008. Growth and mortality of coral transplants (Pocillopora damicornis) along a range of sediment influence in Maui, Hawai’i. Pacific Science 62(1):39-55. DOI: 10.2984/1534-6188(2008)62[39:GAMOCT]2.0.CO;2.

Pinzón, J. H., and T. C. LaJeunesse. 2011. Species delimitation of common reef corals in the genus Pocillopora using nucleotide sequence phylogenies, population genetics and symbiosis ecology. Molecular Ecology 20(2):311-325. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04939.x.

Plough, L. V. 2016. Genetic load in marine animals: A review. Current Zoology 62(6):567-579. DOI: 10.1093/cz/zow096.

Plowright, R. K., S. H. Sokolow, M. E. Gorman, P. Daszak, and J. E. Foley. 2008. Causal inference in disease ecology: Investigating ecological drivers of disease emergence. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 6(8):420-429. DOI: 10.1890/070086.

Poland, D. M., and M. A. Coffroth. 2017. Trans-generational specificity within a cnidarian–algal symbiosis. Coral Reefs 36(1):119-129. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-016-1514-0.

Polizzi, K., L. Stanbrough, and J. Heap. 2018. A new lease of life: Understanding the risks of synthetic biology. Lloyd’s of London.

Pollock, F. J., J. B. Lamb, S. N. Field, S. F. Heron, B. Schaffelke, G. Shedrawi, D. G. Bourne, and B. L. Willis. 2014. Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase coral disease prevalence on nearby reefs. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102498.

Pollock, F. J., S. M. Katz, J. A. J. M. van de Water, S. W. Davies, M. Hein, G. Torda, M. V. Matz, V. H. Beltran, P. Buerger, E. Puill-Stephan, D. Abrego, D. G. Bourne, and B. L. Willis. 2017a. Coral larvae for restoration and research: A large-scale method for rearing Acropora millepora larvae, inducing settlement, and establishing symbiosis. PeerJ 5:e3732. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3732.

Pollock, F. J., N. Wada, G. Torda, B. L. Willis, and D. G. Bourne. 2017b. White syndrome-affected corals have a distinct microbiome at disease lesion fronts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83(2). DOI: 10.1128/aem.02799-16.

Pratlong, M., A. Haguenauer, O. Chabrol, C. Klopp, P. Pontarotti, and D. Aurelle. 2015. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: A new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies. Molecular Ecology Resources 15(5):1205-1215. DOI: 10.1111/1755-0998.12383.

Precht, W. F. 2006. Coral Reef Restoration Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Precht, W. F., and R. B. Aronson. 2004. Climate flickers and range shifts of reef corals. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(6):307-314. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0307:CFARSO]2.0.CO;2.

Pugh, J. 2016. Driven to extinction?: The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies. Journal of Medical Ethics 42(9):578-581. DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2016-103462.

Putnam, H. M., and R. D. Gates. 2015. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions. The Journal of Experimental Biology 218(15):2365-2372. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.123018.

Putnam, H. M., J. M. Davidson, and R. D. Gates. 2016. Ocean acidification influences host DNA methylation and phenotypic plasticity in environmentally susceptible corals. Evolutionary Applications 9(9):1165-1178. DOI: 10.1111/eva.12408.

Quigley, K. M., B. L. Willis, and L. K. Bay. 2016. Maternal effects and Symbiodinium community composition drive differential patterns in juvenile survival in the coral Acropora tenuis. Royal Society Open Science 3(10). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160471.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Quigley, K. M., B. L. Willis, and L. K. Bay. 2017. Heritability of the Symbiodinium community in vertically- and horizontally-transmitting broadcast spawning corals. Scientific Reports 7(1):8219. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-08179-4.

Quigley, K. M., G. Torda, and L. K. Bay. 2018a. The use of larvae or recruits in coral restoration initiatives: Symbiodinium acquisition does not differ between coral life stages in the wild. Restoration Ecology 26(3):422-425. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12695.

Quigley, K. M., P. A. Warner, L. K. Bay, and B. L. Willis. 2018b. Unexpected mixed-mode transmission and moderate genetic regulation of Symbiodinium communities in a brooding coral. Heredity (Edinb). DOI: 10.1038/s41437-018-0059-0.

Ran, F. A., P. D. Hsu, J. Wright, V. Agarwala, D. A. Scott, and F. Zhang. 2013. Genome engineering using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Nature Protocols 8(11):2281-2308. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2013.143.

Randall, C. J., and R. van Woesik. 2015. Contemporary white-band disease in Caribbean corals driven by climate change. Nature Climate Change 5:375. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2530.

Rau, G. H. 2008. Electrochemical splitting of calcium carbonate to increase solution alkalinity: Implications for mitigation of carbon dioxide and ocean acidity. Environmental Science and Technology 42(23):8935-8940. DOI: 10.1021/es800366q.

Rau, G. H., K. G. Knauss, W. H. Langer, and K. Caldeira. 2007. Reducing energy-related CO2 emissions using accelerated weathering of limestone. Energy 32(8):1471-1477. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2006.10.011.

Rau, G. H., E. L. McLeod, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2012. The need for new ocean conservation strategies in a high-carbon dioxide world. Nature Climate Change 2:720. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1555.

Raven, J., K. Caldeira, H. Elderfield, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, P. Liss, U. Riebesell, J. Shepherd, C. Turley, and A. Watson. 2005. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society, London, United Kingdom.

Regan, H. M., A. D. Syphard, J. Franklin, R. M. Swab, L. Markovchick, A. L. Flint, L. E. Flint, and P. H. Zedler. 2012. Evaluation of assisted colonization strategies under global change for a rare, fire-dependent plant. Global Change Biology 18(3):936-947. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02586.x.

Reynaud, S., N. Leclercq, S. Romaine-Lioud, C. Ferrier-Pagès, J. Jaubert, and J.-P. Gattuso. 2003. Interacting effects of CO2 partial pressure and temperature on photosynthesis and calcification in a scleractinian coral. Global Change Biology 9(11):1660-1668. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00678.x.

Rhymer, J. M., and D. Simberloff. 1996. Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27(1):83-109. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.83.

Ricaurte, M., N. V. Schizas, P. Ciborowski, and N. M. Boukli. 2016. Proteomic analysis of bleached and unbleached Acropora palmata, a threatened coral species of the Caribbean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 107(1):224-232. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.03.068.

Rice, K. J., and N. C. Emery. 2003. Managing microevolution: Restoration in the face of global change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(9):469-478. DOI: 10.2307/3868114.

Richards, Z. T., and J.-P. A. Hobbs. 2015. Hybridisation on coral reefs and the conservation of evolutionary novelty. Current Zoology 61(1):132-145. DOI: 10.1093/czoolo/61.1.132.

Richardson, D. M., and P. Pyšek. 2006. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility. Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment 30(3):409-431. DOI: 10.1191/0309133306pp490pr.

Richardson, D. M., J. J. Hellmann, J. S. McLachlan, D. F. Sax, M. W. Schwartz, P. Gonzalez, E. J. Brennan, A. Camacho, T. L. Root, O. E. Sala, S. H. Schneider, D. M. Ashe, J. R. Clark, R. Early, J. R. Etterson, E. D. Fielder, J. L. Gill, B. A. Minteer, S. Polasky, H. D. Safford, A. R. Thompson, and M. Vellend. 2009. Multidimensional evaluation of managed relocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(24):9721-9724. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0902327106.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Richmond, R. H., and C. L. Hunter. 1990. Reproduction and recruitment of corals: Comparisons among the Caribbean, the Tropical Pacific, and the Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 60:185-203.

Richmond, R. H., T. Rongo, Y. Golbuu, S. Victor, N. Idechong, G. Davis, W. Kostka, L. Neth, M. Hamnett, and E. Wolanski. 2007. Watersheds and coral reefs: Conservation science, policy, and implementation. Bioscience 57(7):598-607. DOI: 10.1641/B570710.

Richmond, R. H., K. H. Tisthammer, and N. P. Spies. 2018. The effects of anthropogenic stressors on reproduction and recruitment of corals and reef organisms. Frontiers in Marine Science 5(226). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00226.

Ricke, K. L., M. G. Morgan, and M. R. Allen. 2010. Regional climate response to solar-radiation management. Nature Geoscience 3:537. DOI: 10.1038/ngeo915.

Riebesell, U., V. J. Fabry, L. Hansson, J.-P. Gattuso. 2010. Guide to Best Practices for Ocean Acidification Research and Data Reporting. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. 260 pp.

Riegl, B. 2003. Climate change and coral reefs: Different effects in two high-latitude areas (Arabian Gulf, South Africa). Coral Reefs 22(4):433-446. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-003-0335-0.

Riegl, B., and W. E. Piller. 2003. Possible refugia for reefs in times of environmental stress. International Journal of Earth Sciences 92(4):520-531. DOI: 10.1007/s00531-003-0328-9.

Rinkevich, B. 1995. Restoration strategies for coral reefs damaged by recreational activities: The use of sexual and asexual recruits. Restoration Ecology 3(4):241-251. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.1995.tb00091.x.

Rinkevich, B. 2005. Conservation of coral reefs through active restoration measures: Recent approaches and last decade progress. Environmental Science & Technology 39(12):4333-4342.

Rinkevich, B. 2014. Rebuilding coral reefs: Does active reef restoration lead to sustainable reefs? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7(7):28-36.

Rinkevich, B., and Y. Loya. 1985. Intraspecific competition in a reef coral: Effects on growth and reproduction. Oecologia 66(1):100-105. DOI: 10.1007/bf00378559.

Robock, A., K. Jerch, and M. Bunzl. 2008a. 20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 64(2):14-59. DOI: 10.1080/00963402.2008.11461140.

Robock, A., L. Oman, and G. L. Stenchikov. 2008b. Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 113(D16). DOI: 10.1029/2008JD010050.

Roder, C., C. Arif, C. Daniels, E. Weil, and C. R. Voolstra. 2014. Bacterial profiling of white plague disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome. Molecular Ecology 23(4):965-974. DOI: 10.1111/mec.12638.

Roff, G., and P. J. Mumby. 2012. Global disparity in the resilience of coral reefs. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27(7):404-413. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.04.007.

Rogers, C. S. 1993. Hurricanes and coral reefs: The intermediate disturbance hypothesis revisited. Coral Reefs 12(3):127-137. DOI: 10.1007/bf00334471.

Rohwer, F., V. Seguritan, F. Azam, and N. Knowlton. 2002. Diversity and distribution of coral-associated bacteria. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 243:1-10.

Ronce, O., and M. Kirkpatrick. 2001. When sources become sinks: Migrational meltdown in heterogenous habitats. Evolution 55(8):1520-1531. DOI: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2001. tb00672.x.

Rosado, P. M., D. C. A. Leite, G. A. S. Duarte, R. M. Chaloub, G. Jospin, U. Nunes da Rocha, J. P. Saraiva, F. Dini-Andreote, J. A. Eisen, D. G. Bourne, and R. S. Peixoto. 2018. Marine probiotics: Increasing coral resistance to bleaching through microbiome manipulation. The ISME Journal. DOI: 10.1038/s41396-018-0323-6.

Rose, N. H., R. A. Bay, M. K. Morikawa, and S. R. Palumbi. 2018. Polygenic evolution drives species divergence and climate adaptation in corals. Evolution 72(1):82-94. DOI: 10.1111/evo.13385.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Rosenberg, E., and Y. Ben-Haim. 2002. Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environmental Microbiology 4(6):318-326. DOI: 10.1046/j.1462-2920.2002.00302.x.

Rosenberg, E., and I. Zilber-Rosenberg. 2013. Role of microorganisms in adaptation, development, and evolution of animals and plants: The hologenome concept. In The Prokaryotes. New York: Springer.

Rosenberg, E., O. Koren, L. Reshef, R. Efrony, and I. Zilber-Rosenberg. 2007. The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution. Nature Reviews Microbiology 5:355. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro1635.

Rosset, S., J. Wiedenmann, A. J. Reed, and C. D’Angelo. 2017. Phosphate deficiency promotes coral bleaching and is reflected by the ultrastructure of symbiotic dinoflagellates. Marine Pollution Bulletin 118(1-2):180-187.

Roth, M. S., R. Goericke, and D. D. Deheyn. 2012. Cold induces acute stress but heat is ultimately more deleterious for the reef-building coral Acropora yongei. Scientific Reports 2:240. DOI: 10.1038/srep00240.

Rougée, L. R. A., R. H. Richmond, and A. C. Collier. 2014. Natural variations in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: Developing tools for coral monitoring. Coral Reefs 33(2):523-535. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-014-1136-3.

Roux, S., J. R. Brum, B. E. Dutilh, S. Sunagawa, M. B. Duhaime, A. Loy, B. T. Poulos, N. Solonenko, E. Lara, and J. Poulain. 2016. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses. Nature 537(7622):689.

Rouzé, H., M. Leray, H. Magalon, L. Penin, P. Gélin, N. Knowlton, and C. Fauvelot. 2017. Molecular characterization reveals the complexity of previously overlooked coral-exosymbiont interactions and the implications for coral-guild ecology. Scientific Reports 7:44923. DOI: 10.1038/srep44923.

Rowan, R. 2004. Thermal adaptation in reef coral symbionts. Nature 430:742. DOI: 10.1038/430742a.

Rowan, R., and N. Knowlton. 1995. Intraspecific diversity and ecological zonation in coral–algal symbiosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92(7):2850-2853. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.92.7.2850.

Rowan, R., and D. A. Powers. 1991. A molecular genetic classification of zooxanthellae and the evolution of animal-algal symbioses. Science 251(4999):1348-1351. DOI: 10.1126/science.251.4999.1348.

Rowan, R., N. Knowlton, A. Baker, and J. Jara. 1997. Landscape ecology of algal symbionts creates variation in episodes of coral bleaching. Nature 388(6639):265-269. DOI: 10.1038/40843.

Ruiz-Jones, L. J., and S. R. Palumbi. 2017. Tidal heat pulses on a reef trigger a fine-tuned transcriptional response in corals to maintain homeostasis. Science Advances 3(3). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601298.

Ruiz-Moreno, D., B. L. Willis, A. C. Page, E. Weil, A. Croquer, B. Vargas-Angel, A. G. Jordan-Garza, E. Jordan-Dahlgren, L. Raymundo, and C. D. Harvell. 2012. Global coral disease prevalence associated with sea temperature anomalies and local factors. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 100(3):249-261. DOI: 10.3354/dao02488.

Russ, G. R., K. I. Miller, J. R. Rizzari, and A. C. Alcala. 2015. Long-term no-take marine reserve and benthic habitat effects on coral reef fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 529:233-248.

Ryman, N., and L. Laikre. 1991. Effects of supportive breeding on the genetically effective population size. Conservation Biology 5(3):325-329.

Safaie, A., N. J. Silbiger, T. R. McClanahan, G. Pawlak, D. J. Barshis, J. L. Hench, J. S. Rogers, G. J. Williams, and K. A. Davis. 2018. High frequency temperature variability reduces the risk of coral bleaching. Nature Communications 9(1):1671. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04074-2.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Sakai, A. K., F. W. Allendorf, J. S. Holt, D. M. Lodge, J. Molofsky, K. A. With, S. Baughman, R. J. Cabin, J. E. Cohen, N. C. Ellstrand, D. E. McCauley, P. O’Neil, I. M. Parker, J. N. Thompson, and S. G. Weller. 2001. The population biology of invasive species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32(1):305-332. DOI: 10.1146/annurev. ecolsys.32.081501.114037.

Salih, A., A. Larkum, G. Cox, M. Kühl, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2000. Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective. Nature 408:850. DOI: 10.1038/35048564.

Salih, A., G. Cox, R. Szymczak, S. Coles, A. Baird, A. Dunstan, G. Cocco, J. Mills, and A. Larkum. 2006. The role of host-based color and fluorescent pigments in photoprotection and in reducing bleaching stress in corals. Presented at 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, Okinawa, Japan, June 28-July 2, 2004.

Sammarco, P. W. 1982. Polyp bail-out: An escape response to environmental stress and a new means of reproduction in corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 10:57-65.

Sanford, E., and M. W. Kelly. 2011. Local adaptation in marine invertebrates. Annual Review of Marine Science 3(1):509-535. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142756.

Santos, H. F., G. A. S. Duarte, C. T. da Costa Rachid, R. M. Chaloub, E. N. Calderon, L. F. da Barros Marangoni, A. Bianchini, A. H. Nudi, F. L. do Carmo, J. D. van Elsas, A. S. Rosado, C. B. e Castro, and R. S. Peixoto. 2015. Impact of oil spills on coral reefs can be reduced by bioremediation using probiotic microbiota. Scientific Reports 5:18268. DOI: 10.1038/srep18268.

Schaffelke, B., and D. Klumpp. 1998. Nutrient-limited growth of the coral reef macroalga Sargassum baccularia and experimental growth enhancement by nutrient addition in continuous flow culture. Marine Ecology Progress Series 164:199-211.

Scheibling, R. E., D. G. Patriquin, and K. Filbee-Dexter. 2018. Distribution and abundance of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea and associated benthic macrofauna in Carriacou, Grenadines, Eastern Caribbean. Aquatic Botany 144:1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j. aquabot.2017.10.003.

Schiller, A., M. Herzfeld, R. Brinkman, and G. Stuart. 2014. Monitoring, predicting, and managing one of the seven natural wonders of the world. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95(1):23-30. DOI: 10.1175/bams-d-12-00202.1.

Schopmeyer, S. A., D. Lirman, E. Bartels, J. Byrne, D. S. Gilliam, J. Hunt, M. E. Johnson, E. A. Larson, K. Maxwell, K. Nedimyer, and C. Walter. 2012. In situ coral nurseries serve as genetic repositories for coral reef restoration after an extreme cold-water event. Restoration Ecology 20(6):696-703. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00836.x.

Schwartz, M. W., and T. G. Martin. 2013. Translocation of imperiled species under changing climates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1286:15-28. DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12050.

Schwartz, M. W., J. J. Hellmann, J. M. McLachlan, D. F. Sax, J. O. Borevitz, J. Brennan, A. E. Camacho, G. Ceballos, J. R. Clark, H. Doremus, R. Early, J. R. Etterson, D. Fielder, J. L. Gill, P. Gonzalez, N. Green, L. Hannah, D. W. Jamieson, D. Javeline, B. A. Minteer, J. Odenbaugh, S. Polasky, D. M. Richardson, T. L. Root, H. D. Safford, O. Sala, S. H. Schneider, A. R. Thompson, J. W. Williams, M. Vellend, P. Vitt, and S. Zellmer. 2012. Managed relocation: Integrating the scientific, regulatory, and ethical challenges. Bioscience 62(8):732-743. DOI: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.6.

Scott, J. M., D. D. Goble, A. M. Haines, J. A. Wiens, and M. C. Neel. 2010. Conservation-reliant species and the future of conservation. Conservation Letters 3(2):91-97. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00096.x.

Seddon, P. J. 1999. Persistence without intervention: Assessing success in wildlife reintroductions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14(12):503. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01720-6.

Seitz, R. 2011. Bright water: Hydrosols, water conservation and climate change. Climatic Change 105(3):365-381. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9965-8.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Selig, E. R., K. S. Casey, and J. F. Bruno. 2012. Temperature-driven coral decline: The role of marine protected areas. Global Change Biology 18(5):1561-1570. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02658.x.

SER (Society for Ecological Restoration Science and Policy Working Group). 2004. The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Tucson, AZ: Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Serafy, J. E., P. Gillette, M. W. Miller, D. Lirman, and T. R. Capo. 2013. Incorporating herbivorous sea urchins in ramet culture of staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis. Endangered Species Research 22(2):183-189.

Sgrò, C. M., A. J. Lowe, and A. A. Hoffmann. 2011. Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Evolutionary Applications 4(2):326-337. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00157.x.

Shamberger, K. E. F., A. L. Cohen, Y. Golbuu, D. C. McCorkle, S. J. Lentz, and H. C. Barkley. 2014. Diverse coral communities in naturally acidified waters of a Western Pacific reef. Geophysical Research Letters 41(2):499-504. DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058489.

Shantz, A. A., and D. E. Burkepile. 2014. Context-dependent effects of nutrient loading on the coral–algal mutualism. Ecology 95(7):1995-2005.

Sharp, K. H., K. B. Ritchie, P. J. Schupp, R. Ritson-Williams, and V. J. Paul. 2010. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species. PLoS ONE 5(5):e10898. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.001089.

Shashar, N., S. Kinane, P. L. Jokiel, and M. R. Patterson. 1996. Hydromechanical boundary layers over a coral reef. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 199(1):17-28. DOI: 10.1016/0022-0981(95)00156-5.

Shaver, E. C., D. E. Burkepile, and B. R. Silliman. 2018. Local management actions can increase coral resilience to thermally-induced bleaching. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2(7):1075-1079. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0589-0.

Shaw, E. C., B. I. McNeil, and B. Tilbrook. 2012. Impacts of ocean acidification in naturally variable coral reef flat ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 117(3). DOI: 10.1029/2011JC007655.

Sheets, E. A., P. A. Warner, and S. R. Palumbi. 2018. Accurate population genetic measurements require cryptic species identification in corals. Coral Reefs 37(2):549-563. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-018-1679-9.

Sheppard, C. R. C. 2003. Predicted recurrences of mass coral mortality in the Indian Ocean. Nature 425:294. DOI: 10.1038/nature01987.

Sheppard, C. R. C., D. J. Dixon, M. Gourlay, A. Sheppard, and R. Payet. 2005. Coral mortality increases wave energy reaching shores protected by reef flats: Examples from the Seychelles. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64(2):223-234. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.02.016.

Sheridan, C., E. Kramarsky-Winter, M. Sweet, A. Kushmaro, and M. C. Leal. 2013. Diseases in coral aquaculture: Causes, implications and preventions. Aquaculture 396-399:124-135. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.02.037.

Shick, J. M., K. Iglic, M. L. Wells, C. G. Trick, J. Doyle, and W. C. Dunlap. 2011. Responses to iron limitation in two colonies of Stylophora pistillata exposed to high temperature: Implications for coral bleaching. Limnology and Oceanography 56(3):813-828. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2011.56.3.0813.

Shore-Maggio, A., S. M. Callahan, and G. S. Aeby. 2018. Trade-offs in disease and bleaching susceptibility among two color morphs of the Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata. Coral Reefs 37(2):507-517. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-018-1675-0.

Silverstein, R. N., R. Cunning, and A. C. Baker. 2015. Change in algal symbiont communities after bleaching, not prior heat exposure, increases heat tolerance of reef corals. Global Change Biology 21(1):236-249. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12706.

Silverstein, R. N., R. Cunning, and A. C. Baker. 2017. Tenacious D: Symbiodinium in clade D remain in reef corals at both high and low temperature extremes despite impairment. Journal of Experimental Biology 220(7):1192-1196. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.148239.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Skurnik, M., and E. Strauch. 2006. Phage therapy: Facts and fiction. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 296(1):5-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2005.09.002.

Smith, D. J., D. J. Suggett, and N. R. Baker. 2005. Is photoinhibition of zooxanthellae photosynthesis the primary cause of thermal bleaching in corals? Global Change Biology 11(1):1-11.

Smith, R. T., J. H. Pinzón, and T. C. LaJeunesse. 2009. Symbiodinium (dinophyta) diversity and stability in aquarium corals. Journal of Phycology 45(5):1030-1036. DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00730.x.

Soler, G. A., G. J. Edgar, R. J. Thomson, S. Kininmonth, S. J. Campbell, T. P. Dawson, N. S. Barrett, A. T. F. Bernard, D. E. Galván, T. J. Willis, T. J. Alexander, and R. D. Stuart-Smith. 2015. Reef fishes at all trophic levels respond positively to effective marine protected areas. PLoS ONE 10(10):e0140270. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140270.

Spichtig, M., and T. Kawecki. 2004. The maintenance (or not) of polygenic variation by soft selection in heterogeneous environments. The American Naturalist 164(1):70-84. DOI: 10.1086/421335.

Stat, M., and R. D. Gates. 2011. Clade D Symbiodinium in scleractinian corals: A “nugget” of hope, a selfish opportunist, an ominous sign, or all of the above? Journal of Marine Biology 2011:9. DOI: 10.1155/2011/730715.

Stat, M., A. C. Baker, D. G. Bourne, A. M. Correa, Z. Forsman, M. J. Huggett, X. Pochon, D. Skillings, R. J. Toonen, M. J. H. van Oppen, and R. D. Gates. 2012. Molecular delineation of species in the coral holobiont. Advances in Marine Biology 63:1-65. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-394282-1.00001-6.

Stella, J. S., G. P. Jones, and M. S. Pratchett. 2010. Variation in the structure of epifaunal invertebrate assemblages among coral hosts. Coral Reefs 29(4):957-973. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-010-0648-8.

Stier, A. C., M. A. Gil, C. S. McKeon, S. Lemer, M. Leray, S. C. Mills, and C. W. Osenberg. 2012. Housekeeping mutualisms: Do more symbionts facilitate host performance? PLoS ONE 7(4):e32079. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032079.

Stock, C. A., M. A. Alexander, N. A. Bond, K. M. Brander, W. W. L. Cheung, E. N. Curchitser, T. L. Delworth, J. P. Dunne, S. M. Griffies, M. A. Haltuch, J. A. Hare, A. B. Hollowed, P. Lehodey, S. A. Levin, J. S. Link, K. A. Rose, R. R. Rykaczewski, J. L. Sarmiento, R. J. Stouffer, F. B. Schwing, G. A. Vecchi, and F. E. Werner. 2011. On the use of IPCC-class models to assess the impact of climate on living marine resources. Progress in Oceanography 88(1):1-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.001.

Storlazzi, C. D., M. van Ormondt, Y.-L. Chen, and E. P. L. Elias. 2017. Modeling fine-scale coral larval dispersal and interisland connectivity to help designate mutually-supporting coral reef marine protected areas: Insights from Maui Nui, Hawaii. Frontiers in Marine Science 4(381). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00381.

Strauss, S. Y., C. O. Webb, and N. Salamin. 2006. Exotic taxa less related to native species are more invasive. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(15):5841-5845. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0508073103.

Strong, A. E., F. Arzayus, W. Skirving, and S. F. Heron. 2006. Identifying coral bleaching remotely via coral reef watch – improved integration and implications for changing climate. In Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. Phinney, J. T., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong, eds. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union.

Stuart, J. M., E. Segal, D. Koller, and S. K. Kim. 2003. A gene-coexpression network for global discovery of conserved genetic modules. Science 302(5643):249-255. DOI: 10.1126/science.1087447.

Stuart-Smith, R. D., C. J. Brown, D. M. Ceccarelli, and G. J. Edgar. 2018. Ecosystem restructuring along the Great Barrier Reef following mass coral bleaching. Nature 560(7716):92-96. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0359-9.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Suggett, D. J., M. E. Warner, and W. Leggat. 2017. Symbiotic dinoflagellate functional diversity mediates coral survival under ecological crisis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 32(10):735-745. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.07.013.

Sunagawa, S., T. Z. Desantis, Y. M. Piceno, E. L. Brodie, M. K. Desalvo, C. R. Voolstra, E. Weil, G. L. Andersen, and M. Medina. 2009. Bacterial diversity and white plague disease-associated community changes in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata. ISME Journal 3(5):512-521. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2008.131.

Suzuki, G., and H. Fukami. 2012. Evidence of genetic and reproductive isolation between two morphs of subtropical-dominant coral Acropora solitaryensis in the non-reef region of Japan. Zoological Science 29(2):134-140. DOI: 10.2108/zsj.29.134.

Sweet, M. J., R. Jones, and J. Bythell. 2011. Coral diseases in aquaria and in nature. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92(4):791-801. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315411001688.

Sweet, M. J., A. Croquer, and J. C. Bythell. 2014. Experimental antibiotic treatment identifies potential pathogens of white band disease in the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281(1788):20140094.

Sweet, M. J., A. Ramsey, and M. Bulling. 2017. Designer reefs and coral probiotics: Great concepts but are they good practice? Biodiversity 18(1):19-22.

Szmant, A. M., E. Weil, M. W. Miller, and D. E. Colón. 1997. Hybridization within the species complex of the scleractinan coral Montastraea annularis. Marine Biology 129(4):561-572. DOI: 10.1007/s002270050197.

Takeshita, Y., T. Cyronak, T. R. Martz, T. Kindeberg, and A. J. Andersson. 2018. Coral reef carbonate chemistry variability at different functional scales. Frontiers in Marine Science 5(175). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00175.

Tallmon, D. A., G. Luikart, and R. S. Waples. 2004. The alluring simplicity and complex reality of genetic rescue. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19(9):489-496.

Tambutté, E., A. A. Venn, M. Holcomb, N. Segonds, N. Techer, D. Zoccola, D. Allemand, and S. Tambutté. 2015. Morphological plasticity of the coral skeleton under CO2 driven seawater acidification. Nature Communications 6. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8368.

Telesnicki, G. J., and W. M. Goldberg. 1995. Effects of turbidity on the photosynthesis and respiration of two South Florida reef coral species. Bulletin of Marine Science 57(2):527-539.

Templeton, A. R. 1986. Coadaptation and outbreeding depression. In Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Soule, M. E., ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

ten Lohuis, M. R., and D. J. Miller. 1998. Genetic transformation of dinoflagellates (Amphidinium and Symbiodinium): Expression of GUS in microalgae using heterologous promoter constructs. The Plant Journal 13(3):427-435. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1998.00040.x.

Teneva, L., M. Karnauskas, C. A. Logan, L. Bianucci, J. C. Currie, and J. A. Kleypas. 2012. Predicting coral bleaching hotspots: The role of regional variability in thermal stress and potential adaptation rates. Coral Reefs 31(1):1-12. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-011-0812-9.

Teplitski, M., and K. Ritchie. 2009. How feasible is the biological control of coral diseases? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(7):378-385. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2009.02.008.

Thomas, L., N. H. Rose, R. A. Bay, E. H. López, M. K. Morikawa, L. Ruiz-Jones, and S. R. Palumbi. 2018. Mechanisms of thermal tolerance in reef-building corals across a fine-grained environmental mosaic: Lessons from Ofu, American Samoa. Frontiers in Marine Science 4(434). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00434.

Thornhill, D. J., W. K. Fitt, and G. W. Schmidt. 2006a. Highly stable symbioses among western Atlantic brooding corals. Coral Reefs 25(4):515-519. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-006-0157-y.

Thornhill, D. J., T. C. LaJeunesse, D. W. Kemp, W. K. Fitt, and G. W. Schmidt. 2006b. Multiyear, seasonal genotypic surveys of coral-algal symbioses reveal prevalent stability or post-bleaching reversion. Marine Biology 148(4):711-722. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-005-0114-2.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Tisthammer, K. H., and R. H. Richmond. 2018. Corallite skeletal morphological variation in Hawaiian Porites lobata. Coral Reefs 37(2):445-456. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-018-1670-5.

Toh, T. C., C. S. L. Ng, J. W. K. Peh, K. B. Toh, and L. M. Chou. 2014. Augmenting the post-transplantation growth and survivorship of juvenile scleractinian corals via nutritional enhancement. PLoS ONE 9(6):e98529. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098529.

Toonen, R. J., K. R. Andrews, I. B. Baums, C. E. Bird, G. T. Concepcion, T. S. Daly-Engel, J. A. Eble, A. Faucci, M. R. Gaither, M. Iacchei, J. B. Puritz, J. K. Schultz, D. J. Skillings, M. A. Timmers, and B. W. Bowen. 2011. Defining boundaries for ecosystem-based management: A multispecies case study of marine connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago. Journal of Marine Biology 2011:460173. DOI: 10.1155/2011/460173.

Topp, E., D. J. Larsson, D. N. Miller, C. Van den Eede, and M. P. Virta. 2017. Antimicrobial resistance and the environment: Assessment of advances, gaps and recommendations for agriculture, aquaculture and pharmaceutical manufacturing. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 94(3).

Torda, G., P. Lundgren, B. L. Willis, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2013. Revisiting the connectivity puzzle of the common coral Pocillopora damicornis. Molecular Ecology 22(23):5805-5820. DOI: 10.1111/mec.12540.

Torda, G., J. M. Donelson, M. Aranda, D. J. Barshis, L. Bay, M. L. Berumen, D. G. Bourne, N. Cantin, S. Foret, M. Matz, D. J. Miller, A. Moya, H. M. Putnam, T. Ravasi, M. J. H. van Oppen, R. Vega-Thurber, J. Vidal-Dupiol, C. V. Voolstra, S.-A. Watson, E. Whitelaw, B. Willis, and P. L. Munday. 2017. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals. Nature Climate Change 7:627-636. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMAT3374.

Torres-Barceló, C., and M. E. Hochberg. 2016. Evolutionary rationale for phages as complements of antibiotics. Trends in Microbiology 24(4):249-256. DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2015.12.011.

Traylor-Knowles, N., N. H. Rose, and S. R. Palumbi. 2017. The cell specificity of gene expression in the response to heat stress in corals. Journal of Experimental Biology 220(10):1837-1845. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.155275.

Tremblay, P., J. F. Maguer, R. Grover, and C. Ferrier-Pagès. 2015. Trophic dynamics of scleractinian corals: A stable isotope evidence. Journal of Experimental Biology 115303.

Tremblay, P., A. Gori, J. F. Maguer, M. Hoogenboom, and C. Ferrier-Pagès. 2016. Heterotrophy promotes the re-establishment of photosynthate translocation in a symbiotic coral after heat stress. Scientific Reports 6:38112.

Tuckett, C. A., T. de Bettignies, J. Fromont, and T. Wernberg. 2017. Expansion of corals on temperate reefs: Direct and indirect effects of marine heatwaves. Coral Reefs 36(3):947-956. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1586-5.

Ulstrup, K. E., R. Berkelmans, P. J. Ralph, and M. J. H. van Oppen. 2006. Variation in bleaching sensitivity of two coral species across a latitudinal gradient on the Great Barrier Reef: The role of zooxanthellae. Marine Ecology Progress Series 314:135-148.

Unsworth, R. K. F., C. J. Collier, G. M. Henderson, and L. J. McKenzie. 2012. Tropical seagrass meadows modify seawater carbon chemistry: Implications for coral reefs impacted by ocean acidification. Environmental Research Letters 7(2). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/2/024026.

Uthicke, S., M. Furnas, and C. Lønborg. 2014. Coral reefs on the edge?: Carbon chemistry on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. PLoS ONE 9(10):e109092. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0109092.

Uthicke, S., K. Fabricuis, G. De’ath, A. Negri, M. Warne, R. Smith, S. Noonan, C. Johansson, H. Gorsuch, and K. Anthony. 2016. Multiple and cumulative impacts on the GBR: Assessment of current status and development of improved approaches for management. Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Limited, Cairns: 144.

van Dam, S., U. Vosa, A. van der Graaf, L. Franke, and J. P. de Magalhaes. 2018. Gene co-expression analysis for functional classification and gene-disease predictions. Briefings in Bioinformatics 19(4):575-592. DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbw139.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

van Hooidonk, R., J. A. Maynard, and S. Planes. 2013. Temporary refugia for coral reefs in a warming world. Nature Climate Change 3:508. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1829.

van Hooidonk, R., J. A. Maynard, D. Manzello, and S. Planes. 2014. Opposite latitudinal gradients in projected ocean acidification and bleaching impacts on coral reefs. Global Change Biology 20(1):103-112. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12394.

van Hooidonk, R., J. A. Maynard, Y. Liu, and S.-K. Lee. 2015. Downscaled projections of Caribbean coral bleaching that can inform conservation planning. Global Change Biology 21(9):3389-3401. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12901.

van Hooidonk, R., J. Maynard, J. Tamelander, J. Gove, G. Ahmadia, L. Raymundo, G. Williams, S. F. Heron, and S. Planes. 2016. Local-scale projections of coral reef futures and implications of the Paris Agreement. Scientific Reports 6. DOI: 10.1038/srep39666.

van Oppen, M. J. H., E. Puill-Stephan, P. Lundgren, G. De’ath, and L. K. Bay. 2014. First-generation fitness consequences of interpopulational hybridisation in a Great Barrier Reef coral and its implications for assisted migration management. Coral Reefs 33(3):607-611. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-014-1145-2.

van Oppen, M. J. H., V. Lukoschek, R. Berkelmans, L. M. Peplow, and A. M. Jones. 2015a. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef. PeerJ 3:e1092. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1092.

van Oppen, M. J., J. K. Oliver, H. M. Putnam, and R. D. Gates. 2015b. Building coral reef resilience through assisted evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112(8):2307-2313.

van Woesik, R., K. Sakai, A. Ganase, and Y. Loya. 2011. Revisiting the winners and the losers a decade after coral bleaching. Marine Ecology Progress Series 434:67-76.

van Woesik, R., P. Houk, A. L. Isechal, J. W. Idechong, S. Victor, and Y. Golbuu. 2012. Climate-change refugia in the sheltered bays of Palau: Analogs of future reefs. Ecology and Evolution 2(10):2474-2484. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.363.

van Woesik, R., W. J. Scott, and R. B. Aronson. 2014. Lost opportunities: Coral recruitment does not translate to reef recovery in the Florida Keys. Marine Pollution Bulletin 88(1):110-117. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.017.

Veal, C. J., M. Carmi, G. Dishon, Y. Sharon, K. Michael, D. Tchernov, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and M. Fine. 2010. Shallow-water wave lensing in coral reefs: A physical and biological case study. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(Pt 24):4304-4312. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.044941.

Vega Thurber, R. L., D. E. Burkepile, C. Fuchs, A. A. Shantz, R. McMinds, and J. R. Zaneveld. 2014. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching. Global Change Biology 20(2):544-554.

Vermeij, M. J. A., J. E. Smith, C. M. Smith, R. Vega Thurber, and S. A. Sandin. 2009. Survival and settlement success of coral planulae: Independent and synergistic effects of macroalgae and microbes. Oecologia 159(2):325-336. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-008-1223-7.

Veron, J. E. N. 2008. Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: Biological constraints on geological dilemmas. Coral Reefs 27(3):459-472. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-008-0381-8.

Villanueva, R. D., M. V. B. Baria, and D. W. dela Cruz. 2012. Growth and survivorship of juvenile corals outplanted to degraded reef areas in Bolinao-Anda Reef Complex, Philippines. Marine Biology Research 8(9):877-884. DOI: 10.1080/17451000.2012.682582.

Visscher, P. M., N. R. Wray, Q. Zhang, P. Sklar, M. I. McCarthy, M. A. Brown, and J. Yang. 2017. 10 years of GWAS discovery: Biology, function, and translation. The American Journal of Human Genetics 101(1):5-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.06.005.

Viyakarn, V., S. Chavanich, G. Chong, S. Tsai, and C. Lin. 2018. Cryopreservation of sperm from the coral Acropora humilis. Cryobiology 80:130-138. DOI: 10.1016/j. cryobiol.2017.10.007.

Vollmer, S. V., and D. I. Kline. 2008. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals. PLoS ONE 3(11):e3718. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003718.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Vollmer, S. V., and S. R. Palumbi. 2002. Hybridization and the evolution of reef coral diversity. Science 296(5575):2023-2025. DOI: 10.1126/science.1069524.

Vollmer, S. V., and S. R. Palumbi. 2007. Restricted gene flow in the Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: Implications for the recovery of endangered reefs. Journal of Heredity 98(1):40-50. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esl057.

Vong, L. B., T. Yoshitomi, H. Matsui, and Y. Nagasaki. 2015. Development of an oral nanotherapeutics using redox nanoparticles for treatment of colitis-associated colon cancer. Biomaterials 55:54-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.03.037.

Vong, L. B., M. Kobayashi, and Y. Nagasaki. 2016. Evaluation of the toxicity and antioxidant activity of redox nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Molecular Pharmaceuticals 13(9):3091-3097. DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.6b00225.

Voss, J. D., and L. L. Richardson. 2006. Nutrient enrichment enhances black band disease progression in corals. Coral Reefs 25(4):569-576. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-006-0131-8.

Walker, D. I., and R. F. G. Ormond. 1982. Coral death from sewage and phosphate pollution at Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 13(1):21-25. DOI: 10.1016/0025-326X(82)90492-1.

Walsh, W. J., S. Cotton, L. Jackson, M. Lamson, R. Martin, K. Osada-D’Avella, and L. Preskitt. 2014. First record of Acropora gemmifera in the main Hawaiian Islands. Coral Reefs 33(1):57. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-013-1092-3.

Walters, C. J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan.

Walters, C. J., and C. S. Holling. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71(6):2060-2068. DOI: 10.2307/1938620.

Wang, L., A. A. Shantz, J. P. Payet, T. J. Sharpton, A. Foster, D. E. Burkepile, and R. Vega Thurber. 2018. Corals and their microbiomes ere differentially affected by exposure to elevated nutrients and a natural thermal anomaly. Frontiers in Marine Science 5(101). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00101.

Waples, R., K. Hindar, and J. J. Hard. 2012. Genetic risks associated with marine aquaculture. U.S. Deparment of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-119:149 pp.

Wardle, D. A., R. D. Bardgett, R. M. Callaway, and W. H. Van der Putten. 2011. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to species gains and losses. Science 332(6035):1273-1277. DOI: 10.1126/science.1197479.

Warner, P. A., M. J. H. van Oppen, and B. L. Willis. 2015. Unexpected cryptic species diversity in the widespread coral Seriatopora hystrix masks spatial-genetic patterns of connectivity. Molecular Ecology 24(12):2993-3008. DOI: 10.1111/mec.13225.

Waters, C. D., J. J. Hard, M. S. O. Brieuc, D. E. Fast, K. I. Warheit, R. S. Waples, C. M. Knudsen, W. J. Bosch, and K. A. Naish. 2015. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding. Evolutionary Applications 8(10):956-971. DOI: 10.1111/eva.12331.

Waters, C. D., J. J. Hard, M. S. O. Brieuc, D. E. Fast, K. I. Warheit, C. M. Knudsen, W. J. Bosch, and K. A. Naish. 2018. Genomewide association analyses of fitness traits in captive-reared Chinook salmon: Applications in evaluating conservation strategies. Evolutionary Applications 11(6):853-868. DOI: 10.1111/eva.12599.

Watts, J. E., H. J. Schreier, L. Lanska, and M. S. Hale. 2017. The rising tide of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture: Sources, sinks and solutions. Marine Drugs 15(6):158.

Waycott, M., C. M. Duarte, T. J. B. Carruthers, R. J. Orth, W. C. Dennison, S. Olyarnik, A Calladine, J. W. Fourqurean, K. L. Heck, A. R. Hughes, G. A. Kendrick, W. J. Kenworthy, F. T. Short, and S. L. Williams. 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(30):12377-12381. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106.

Wear, S. L., and R. Vega Thurber. 2015. Sewage pollution: Mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1355:15-30. DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12785.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Webster, N. S., and T. B. Reusch. 2017. Microbial contributions to the persistence of coral reefs. The ISME Journal 11(10):2167.

Weeks, A. R., C. M. Sgro, A. G. Young, R. Frankham, N. J. Mitchell, K. A. Miller, M. Byrne, D. J. Coates, M. D. B. Eldridge, P. Sunnucks, M. F. Breed, E. A. James, and A. A. Hoffmann. 2011. Assessing the benefits and risks of translocations in changing environments: A genetic perspective. Evolutionary Applications 4(6):709-725. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2011.00192.x.

Wei, N., J. Quarterman, and Y.-S. Jin. 2013. Marine macroalgae: An untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals. Trends in Biotechnology 31(2):70-77. DOI: 10.1016/j. tibtech.2012.10.009.

Weil, E. 2004. Coral reef diseases in the wider Caribbean. In Coral Health and Disease. Rosenberg, E., and Y. Loya, eds. Berlin: Springer.

Weis, V. M. 2008. Cellular mechanisms of cnidarian bleaching: Stress causes the collapse of symbiosis. Journal of Experimental Biology 211(Pt 19):3059-3066. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.009597.

Weis, V. M., S. K. Davy, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, M. Rodriguez-Lanetty, and J. R. Pringe. 2008. Cell biology in model systems as the key to understanding corals. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(7):369-376. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.03.004.

Welsh, R. M., and R. Vega Thurber. 2016. Bacterial predators in host microbiomes. Microbe 11:61-67.

Welsh, R. M., J. R. Zaneveld, S. M. Rosales, J. P. Payet, D. E. Burkepile, and R. Vega Thurber. 2016. Bacterial predation in a marine host-associated microbiome. The ISME Journal 10(6):1540.

Welsh, R. M., S. M. Rosales, J. R. Zaneveld, J. P. Payet, R. McMinds, S. L. Hubbs, and R. Vega Thurber. 2017. Alien vs. predator: Bacterial challenge alters coral microbiomes unless controlled by Halobacteriovorax predators. PeerJ 5:e3315.

Wenger, A. S., D. H. Williamson, E. T. da Silva, D. M. Ceccarelli, N. K. Browne, C. Petus, and M. J. Devlin. 2016. Effects of reduced water quality on coral reefs in and out of no-take marine reserves. Conservation Biology 30(1):142-153. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12576.

White, A. T., H. P. Vogt, and T. Arin. 2000. Philippine coral reefs under threat: The economic losses caused by reef destruction. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(7):598-605. DOI: 10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00022-9.

Whiteley, A. R., S. W. Fitzpatrick, W. C. Funk, and D. A. Tallmon. 2015. Genetic rescue to the rescue. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30(1):42-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2014.10.009.

Wiedenmann, J., C. D’Angelo, E. G. Smith, A. N. Hunt, F.-E. Legiret, A. D. Postle, and E. P. Achterberg. 2013. Nutrient enrichment can increase the susceptibility of reef corals to bleaching. Nature Climate Change 3(2):160.

Wietheger, A., D. E. Starzak, K. S. Gould, and S. K. Davy. 2018. Differential ROS generation in response to stress in Symbiodinium spp. The Biological Bulletin 234(1):11-21. DOI: 10.1086/696977.

Wild, C., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, M. S. Naumann, M. F. Colombo-Pallotta, M. Ateweberhan, W. K. Fitt, R. Iglesias-Prieto, C. Palmer, J. C. Bythell, J. C. Ortiz, Y. Loya, and R. Van Woesik. 2011. Climate change impedes scleractinian corals as primary reef ecosystem engineers. Marine and Freshwater Research 62(2):205-215. DOI: 10.1071/MF10254.

Wilkinson, C. R. 1999. Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: Review and predictions. Marine and Freshwater Research 50(8):867-878. DOI: 10.1071/MF99121.

Williams, S. 2016. Seeding reefs with Diadema antillarum to enhance coral recovery in Puerto Rico 2015-2016: Final Report. https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/13514.

Williams, D. E., M. W. Miller, and K. L. Kramer. 2008. Recruitment failure in Florida Keys Acropora palmata, a threatened Caribbean coral. Coral Reefs 27(3):697-705. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-008-0386-3.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Willis, B. L., R. C. Babcock, P. L. Harrison, and C. C. Wallace. 1997. Experimental hybridization and breeding incompatibilities within the mating systems of mass spawning reef corals. Coral Reefs 16(1):S53-S65. DOI: 10.1007/s003380050242.

Willis, B. L., M. J. H. van Oppen, D. J. Miller, S. V. Vollmer, and D. J. Ayre. 2006. The role of hybridization in the evolution of reef corals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37(1):489-517. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110136.

Willis, S. G., J. K. Hill, C. D. Thomas, D. B. Roy, R. Fox, D. S. Blakeley, and B. Huntley. 2009. Assisted colonization in a changing climate: A test-study using two U.K. butterflies. Conservation Letters 2(1):46-52. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00043.x.

Wilson, S. K., N. A. J. Graham, M. S. Pratchett, G. P. Jones, and N. V. C. Polunin. 2006. Multiple disturbances and the global degradation of coral reefs: Are reef fishes at risk or resilient? Global Change Biology 12(11):2220-2234. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01252.x.

Winter, R. 2017. Environmental controls on the reassembly of Symbiodinium communities in reef corals following perturbation: Implications for reef futures under climate change. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Miami, Coral Gables. 160pp.

Wisshak, M., C. H. L. Schönberg, A. Form, and A. Freiwald. 2012. Ocean acidification accelerates reef bioerosion. PLoS ONE 7(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045124.

Wobeser, G. A. 2007. Disease in Wild Animals: Investigations and Management. Berlin: Springer.

Wolff, N. H., A. Wong, R. Vitolo, K. Stolberg, K. R. N. Anthony, and P. J. Mumby. 2016. Temporal clustering of tropical cyclones on the Great Barrier Reef and its ecological importance. Coral Reefs 35(2):613-623. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-016-1400-9.

Wood, S., C. B. Paris, A. Ridgwell, and E. J. Hendy. 2014. Modelling dispersal and connectivity of broadcast spawning corals at the global scale. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(1):1-11. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12101.

Woodley, J. D., E. A. Chornesky, P. A. Clifford, J. B. Jackson, L. S. Kaufman, N. Knowlton, J. C. Lang, M. P. Pearson, J. W. Porter, M. C. Rooney, K. W. Rylaarsdam, V. J. Tunnicliffe, C. M. Wahle, J. L. Wulff, A. S. Curtis, M. D. Dallmeyer, B. P. Jupp, M. A. Koehl, J. Neigel, and E. M. Sides. 1981. Hurricane Allen’s impact on Jamaican coral reefs. Science 214(4522):749-755. DOI: 10.1126/science.214.4522.749.

Wooldridge, S. A. 2009a. Water quality and coral bleaching thresholds: Formalising the linkage for the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58(5):745-751.

Wooldridge, S. A. 2009b. A new conceptual model for the warm-water breakdown of the coral-algae endosymbiosis. Marine and Freshwater Research 60(6):483-496.

Worden, A. Z., M. J. Follows, S. J. Giovannoni, S. Wilken, A. E. Zimmerman, and P. J. Keeling. 2015. Rethinking the marine carbon cycle: Factoring in the multifarious lifestyles of microbes. Science 347(6223):1257594.

Work, T. M., and G. S. Aeby. 2014. Microbial aggregates within tissues infect a diversity of corals throughout the Indo-Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series 500:1-9.

Work, T. M., L. L. Richardson, T. L. Reynolds, and B. L. Willis. 2008. Biomedical and veterinary science can increase our understanding of coral disease. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 362(2):63-70.

Yamano, H., K. Sugihara, and K. Nomura. 2011. Rapid poleward range expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters 38(4). DOI: 10.1029/2010GL046474.

Yang, S. H., S. T. Lee, C. R. Huang, C. H. Tseng, P. W. Chiang, C. P. Chen, H. J. Chen, and S. L. Tang. 2016. Prevalence of potential nitrogen fixing, green sulfur bacteria in the skeleton of reef-building coral Isopora palifera. Limnology and Oceanography 61(3):1078-1086.

Yap, H. T. 2004. Differential survival of coral transplants on various substrates under elevated water temperatures. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49(4):306-312. DOI: 10.1016/j. marpolbul.2004.02.017.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

Yap, H. T., P. M. Alino, and E. D. Gomez. 1992. Trends in growth and mortality of three coral species (Anthozoa: Scleractinia), including effects of transplantation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 83(1):91-101. DOI: 10.3354/meps083091.

Young, C. N., S. A. Schopmeyer, and D. Lirman. 2012. A review of reef restoration and coral propagation using the threatened genus Acropora in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. Bulletin of Marine Science 88(4):1075-1098. DOI: 10.5343/bms.2011.1143.

Yudowski, G., L. Roberson, and M. Marty-Rivera. 2018. Mitigation of coral bleaching by antioxidants. bioRxiv. DOI: 10.1101/281014.

Yuyama, I., S. Harii, and M. Hidaka. 2012. Algal symbiont type affects gene expression in juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis exposed to thermal stress. Marine Environmental Research 76:41-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2011.09.004.

Zaneveld, J. R., D. E. Burkepile, A. A. Shantz, C. E. Pritchard, R. McMinds, J. P. Payet, R. Welsh, A. M. S. Correa, N. P. Lemoine, S. Rosales, C. Fuchs, J. A. Maynard, and R. Vega Thurber. 2016. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales. Nature Communications 7:11833. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11833.

Zaneveld, J. R., R. McMinds, and R. Vega Thurber. 2017. Stress and stability: Applying the Anna Karenina principle to animal microbiomes. Nature Microbiology 2(9):17121.

Zeebe, R. E., and D. Wolf-Gladrow. 2001. CO2in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Zhang, Z., A. Jones, and M. J. C. Crabbe. 2018. Impacts of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering strategy on Caribbean coral reefs. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 10(4):523-532. DOI: 10.1108/IJCCSM-05-2017-0104.

Ziegler, M., F. O. Seneca, L. K. Yum, S. R. Palumbi, and C. R. Voolstra. 2017. Bacterial community dynamics are linked to patterns of coral heat tolerance. Nature Communications 8:14213. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14213.

Zychaluk, K., J. F. Bruno, D. Clancy, T. R. McClanahan, and M. Spencer. 2012. Data-driven models for regional coral-reef dynamics. Ecological Letters 15(2):151-158. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01720.x.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 190
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 194
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 195
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 196
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 198
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 199
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 200
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 201
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 202
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 204
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 205
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 206
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 207
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 208
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 210
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 218
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 220
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 221
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 222
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 223
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 224
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 225
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25279.
×
Page 226
Next: Glossary »
A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $70.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Coral reef declines have been recorded for all major tropical ocean basins since the 1980s, averaging approximately 30-50% reductions in reef cover globally. These losses are a result of numerous problems, including habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, disease, and climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions and the associated increases in ocean temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been implicated in increased reports of coral bleaching, disease outbreaks, and ocean acidification (OA). For the hundreds of millions of people who depend on reefs for food or livelihoods, the thousands of communities that depend on reefs for wave protection, the people whose cultural practices are tied to reef resources, and the many economies that depend on reefs for fisheries or tourism, the health and maintenance of this major global ecosystem is crucial.

A growing body of research on coral physiology, ecology, molecular biology, and responses to stress has revealed potential tools to increase coral resilience. Some of this knowledge is poised to provide practical interventions in the short-term, whereas other discoveries are poised to facilitate research that may later open the doors to additional interventions. A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs reviews the state of science on genetic, ecological, and environmental interventions meant to enhance the persistence and resilience of coral reefs. The complex nature of corals and their associated microbiome lends itself to a wide range of possible approaches. This first report provides a summary of currently available information on the range of interventions present in the scientific literature and provides a basis for the forthcoming final report.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!