National Academies Press: OpenBook

Simulation Options for Airport Planning (2019)

Chapter: Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics

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Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
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Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
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Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 68
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 69
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 70
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 71
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 72
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 73
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Simulation Model Characteristics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Simulation Options for Airport Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25573.
×
Page 74

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62 A P P E N D I X C Simulation Model Characteristics ADSIM Scope Airspace and airside Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Movement of aircraft on the airport surface and in the immediate airspace, composed of the common approach and departure corridors. Applicable Project Runway capacity planning Simulation Output Hourly arrival and departure flow rates, travel time, arrival and departure delays. Visualization Capabilities Yes AirTOp Scope Airspace, airside, and terminal Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities En-route traffic and ATC modeling Advanced Airport TMA/TRACON modeling Network and Flow Management modeling (taxiway, terminal) Applicable Project Airspace planning, airside planning, terminal planning Simulation Output Capacity, delay, conflict, fuel burn, processing time Visualization Capabilities Yes

Simulation Model Characteristics 63 Arena Scope Generic tool Fidelity Medium–High Functionality and Capabilities Build, analyze, and visualize flows of passengers, vehicles, baggage, and cargo within the airport infrastructure. Applicable Project Airside planning, terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Detailed statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes AutoMod Scope Generic tool Fidelity Medium–High Functionality and Capabilities Build, analyze, and visualize flows of passengers, vehicles, baggage, and cargo within the airport infrastructure. Applicable Project Airside planning, terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Detailed statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes AviPlan Airside Pro Scope Taxiway, apron Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Aircraft and ground vehicle simulations and accounting. Aircraft pushback operations both without towbars and with tractor and towbar configurations. Jet blast contours and impact surfaces for various engine thrust levels. Applicable Project Airside planning, design, and operations Simulation Output Jet blast contour, nose gear, or cockpit ground marking in Word and/or CAD format. Visualization Capabilities Yes ArcPort Scope Taxiway, apron, terminal Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Analyze and visualize flows of passengers, aircraft, vehicles, baggage, and cargo within the airport infrastructure, in fast time. Applicable Project Airside planning, terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Capacity, delay Visualization Capabilities Yes

64 Simulation Options for Airport Planning Comprehensive Airport Simulation Technology (CAST): Aircraft Scope Runway, taxiway Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Multiagent fast time simulation of aircraft traffic schedule-based traffic generation. Dynamic aircraft stand allocation. ATMrunway and traffic management. Sophisticated routing and taxiing behavior. Applicable Project Airspace planning, airside planning, terminal planning Simulation Output Taxi times, average waiting times, queue length, flow rates, throughput, delays, number of runway crossings, and runway occupancy times. Visualization Capabilities Yes Comprehensive Airport Simulation Technology (CAST): Curbside Scope Curbside Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Flexible and efficient road network set-up Several options for automated traffic demand generation Demand generation based on flight schedule or “random” traffic generation. Scalable level of detail: quick facility requirement analysis or detailed simulation. Applicable Project Landside planning and management Simulation Output Travel and process times, parking and road utilization, delays Visualization Capabilities Yes Comprehensive Airport Simulation Technology (CAST): Terminal Scope Terminal Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Evaluation of terminal layouts and operational strategies, identification of potential in capacity, passenger flow simulation. Applicable Project Terminal planning Simulation Output Utilization of stopover and movement areas as well as waiting queue development. Identification of bottlenecks. Visualization Capabilities Yes

Simulation Model Characteristics 65 DART Scope NAS, Air Traffic Management Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Integrated system-wide airport, airspace, weather, and TMI simulation. Applicable Project Air Traffic Management and Concept Evaluation Simulation Output Delays, cancellations, diversions, excess miles flown, fuel burn, airport movement, sector demand and capacity, sector occupancy, individual flight statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes DELAYSIM Scope Runway Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Simulate how air traffic controllers might use the airport’s runways based on specified demand characteristics and actual weather observations. Operates by sequencing through hourly weather observations and simulating the controllers' selection of runway for each hour. Applicable Project Runway capacity planning Simulation Output Runway capacity and detailed statistics on delays, runway use, and exit utilization by aircraft class Visualization Capabilities No ExtendSim Scope Generic tool Fidelity Medium–High Functionality and Capabilities Build, analyze, and visualize flows of passengers, vehicles, baggage, and cargo within the airport infrastructure. Applicable Project Airside planning, terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Detailed statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes

66 Simulation Options for Airport Planning Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Scope Air traffic management Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Advanced ATM concept development and evaluation Applicable Project Airspace planning, concept evaluation Simulation Output Sector, airport, fix, and airway usage Visualization Capabilities Yes Flexible Airport Simulation (FLAPS) Scope Runway Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Modeling aircraft from the approach fix to the runway exit and runway departure queue to the departure fix Applicable Project Runway capacity planning Simulation Output Detailed statistical outputs on runway capacity and utilization, aircraft delays, exit use, and runway queues Visualization Capabilities No FlexSim Scope Generic tool Fidelity Medium–High Functionality and Capabilities Build, analyze, and visualize flows of passengers, vehicles, baggage, and cargo within the airport infrastructure. Applicable Project Airside planning, terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Detailed statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes MassMotion Scope Terminal area (pedestrian and crowd) Fidelity Medium–High Functionality and Capabilities Pedestrian simulation and crown analysis Capable of simulating hundreds of thousands of people within a matter of hours Applicable Project Terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Detailed statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes

Simulation Model Characteristics 67 Pax2Sim Scope Passenger terminal Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Data-driven solution to plan resources and optimize passenger flows and waiting times in terminals. Applicable Project Resource planning, passenger flow management Simulation Output Queue occupation stats, throughput Visualization Capabilities Yes PaxSim Scope Terminal Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Passenger flows, check-in and carry-on baggage processing and flows Applicable Project Terminal planning Simulation Output Detailed stats on passengers and flows Visualization Capabilities Yes Quick Analysis Tool for Airport Roadways (QATAR) Scope Roadway Fidelity Low Functionality and Capabilities Interaction between curbside and bypass lanes Applicable Project Landside planning and management Simulation Output Delay, throughput, utilization Visualization Capabilities No RAMS Plus Scope Airspace, Air Traffic Control Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Flight trajectory, spatial conflict detection and rule-based conflict resolution, TMA, time-based metering with user-defined subscription, runway scheduling and runway usage conflicts, weather and wind. Applicable Project Airside planning Simulation Output Workload, capacity, delay Visualization Capabilities Yes

68 Simulation Options for Airport Planning Scope Runway Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Trace the path of each aircraft through space and time on the runway network. Consider implicitly only the final approach and initial departure airspace. Applicable Project Runway capacity and planning Simulation Output Hourly airport capacity Total and average aircraft delays Visualization Capabilities No REDIM Scope Runway Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Simulate runway roll from threshold to runway exit Applicable Project Runway exit design and valuation Simulation Output Runway exit utilization, occupancy time Visualization Capabilities No runwaySimulator Scope Runway Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Simulate arriving and departing traffic taking into account the decisions made about runway assignment and sequencing. Applicable Project Runway capacity planning Simulation Output Capacity, maximum runway throughput Visualization Capabilities Yes RDSIM (Runway Delay SIM)

Simulation Model Characteristics 69 Simio Scope Generic tool Fidelity Medium–High Functionality and Capabilities Build, analyze, and visualize flows of passengers, vehicles, baggage, and cargo within the airport infrastructure. Applicable Project Airside planning, terminal planning, landside planning Simulation Output Detailed statistics Visualization Capabilities Yes SIMMOD Pro Scope Runway, taxiway, apron Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Capable of simulating full individual airfield (runway, taxiway, and apron), an airfield and its associated terminal airspace, regional system of airports and its associated terminal airspace. Applicable Project Airspace planning, airside planning Simulation Output Travel times, traffic flows past specified points, throughput capacity, delay, fuel burn Visualization Capabilities Yes SIMWALK Airport Scope Terminal area Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Integrate all standard airport facilities (check-in counter, security, immigration). Airport evacuation simulation. Applicable Project Terminal planning, crowd and people flow management Simulation Output Facility capacity and delay, queue length Visualization Capabilities Yes

70 Simulation Options for Airport Planning Synchro Scope Ground traffic analysis and optimization Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Design, model, and optimize traffic signal infrastructure Applicable Project Ground traffic analysis and management Simulation Output Capacity, throughput, delay Visualization Capabilities Yes systemwideModeler Scope NAS System Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities NAS-wide simulation tool. Capable of measuring impacts on traffic loads (airport, arrival/departure queues), sectors, airways, controller workload, fuel burn. Applicable Project Air traffic management, system design and concept evaluation Simulation Output Delay, workload, fuel burn, sector utilization Visualization Capabilities Yes but postprocessing required TARGETS Scope Procedure (Arrival/Departure) design Fidelity Medium Functionality and Capabilities Design, analysis, and operational assessments of procedures and airspace Applicable Project Procedure design Simulation Output Flyability (FAA compliance) Visualization Capabilities Yes

Simulation Model Characteristics 71 PTV Vissim Scope Roadway, curbside Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Microscopic simulation of car, train, and person. It is represented by a corresponding entity in the simulation, thereby considering all relevant properties. Applicable Project Landside planning and management Simulation Output Capacity, throughput, delay by each entity Visualization Capabilities Yes Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Airport capacity (gate, taxiway, runway capacity), deicing, noise impact, impact of severe weather, design of SIDs and STARs, design of ATC sectors, ATC workload. Applicable Project Airspace planning, airside planning Simulation Output System delays, conflicts, airport movements, operations on taxiways and runways, runway occupancy, noise contours, fuel burn, ATC workloads, individual AC profiles. Visualization Capabilities Yes Total Airspace and Airport Modeler (TAAM) Scope Airspace, runway, taxiway, gate (gate to gate) TRACS (Terminal, Roadway, and Curbside Simulation) Scope Roadway, curbside Fidelity High Functionality and Capabilities Driver behavior, multimodal transit operations, interface with planning and forecasting models, and 3-D simulation. Applicable Project Landside planning and management Simulation Output Capacity, flow rate, delay, bottleneck Visualization Capabilities Yes

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

ISBN 978-0-309-48066-6 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 0 6 6 6 9 0 0 0 0 TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88

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Global business and tourism depend heavily on the efficient operation of airports and movement of passengers, baggage, and cargo across many areas. With increasing demand and connectivity requirements for airports comes the need for more sophisticated simulation and modeling tools to validate design assumptions.

Furthermore, airport design and planning decisions have significant impacts on policy and major capital improvement decisions, which can be supported by simulation and modeling tools at many levels.

ACRP Synthesis 98: Simulation Options for Airport Planning is the result of the collection and analysis of information on current industry practices and on applications of simulation tools for airport planning and design. Credible simulation projects can help airport administrators, designers, engineers, and planners estimate the impact of planned changes on passenger traffic, aircraft traffic, roadway traffic, baggage movements, and other subsystems such as bus and train links and aircraft ground support operations.

The toolsets and processes used to analyze and simulate airport operations have changed significantly since the 1980s, when analysis techniques were limited to general purpose queuing and network analysis concepts or purpose-built simulation tools. These tools have become much more sophisticated and accurate in emulating real-world aircraft, passenger, and vehicle dynamics.

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