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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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106 GLOSSARY 5G. Next generation, advanced wireless technology offering faster speeds and lower latency than current cellular communications technology. Automated Vehicle (AV). According to the USDOT, AVs are those in which at least some aspect of a safety-critical control function (e.g., steering, throttle, or braking) occurs without direct driver input (ITS JPO, 2018). AVs may be autonomous (i.e., use only vehicle sensors) or may be connected (i.e., use communications systems such as connected vehicle technology, in which cars and roadside infrastructure communicate wirelessly). Business Case. A business case is the justification for a proposed undertaking based on its expected benefit. For public sector undertakings, justification is often provided based on policy relevance, cost-benefit analyses, risk evaluation, and opportunity costs. The business case provides the method by which the agency can review a broad range of opportunities and challenges (technical, programmatic, institutional), weigh potential alternatives, and define appropriate investment decisions. Business Model. A business model describes the rationale of how an agency creates, delivers, and captures value for an undertaking. It is a framework for operationalizing an undertaking with a good business case. It should articulate the value proposition, identify the customer segments served, cost structure, revenue sources, key activities, and partnerships. Connected Vehicle. “Connected vehicles” is a concept built around wireless radio transmission of data that plays an important role in a wide range of transportation applications by: • Connecting vehicles directly to each other (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and to non- motorized travelers (e.g., Vehicle-to-Pedestrian, Vehicle-to-Bicycle or Vehicle-to- Anything, V2X) for a variety of safety, mobility and environmental applications. • Connecting vehicles directly to traffic management infrastructure (V2I) including traffic control devices via radios in Road Side Units (RSUs) and Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) to provide infrastructure-based messages, collect probe data for systems and asset management, and potentially provide an external gateway to third-party services (e.g., such as wireless message security credential management services). • Connecting vehicles via a communications network both to bypass the need for RSUs and to connect vehicles and TMCs directly to applications platforms in the cloud. Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture (CVRIA). Published by the USDOT ITS Joint Program Office, the CVRIA provides a comprehensive listing, a common language basis, and an architectural framework for nearly 100 V2I and V2X connected vehicle applications (ITS JPO, 2016). Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC). Field-tested commercially available technology that provides direct high-speed, low-latency peer-to-peer communication using the Federal Communications Commission allocated 75 MHz of spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band set aside for ITS vehicle safety and mobility applications.

107 C-V2X. Cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) communication is an emerging, alternative standard to DSRC for direct high-speed, low-latency peer-to-peer communication based on cellular technology. Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO). A bundle of V2I applications that relate to improving roadway throughput and reducing crashes through the use of frequently collected and rapidly disseminated multisource data drawn from connected vehicles, travelers, and infrastructure. The bundle includes queue warning and speed harmonization (ITS JPO, Undated B). Market Penetration Rate (MPR). MPR in relation to CVs is the percentage of vehicles operated on the transportation network that are CVs. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems (MMITSS). A bundle of V2I applications related to traffic signal systems that seeks to provide a comprehensive traffic information framework to service all modes of transportation, including general vehicles, transit, emergency vehicles, freight fleets, and pedestrians and bicyclists in a connected vehicle environment. The vision for the MMITSS application is to provide overarching system optimization that accommodates transit and freight signal priority, preemption for emergency vehicles, and pedestrian movements while maximizing overall arterial network performance (ITS JPO, Undated B). On-board Units (OBUs). The OBUs are the vehicle side of the V2I system and can be either built-in or brought into the vehicle. Built-in OBUs are integrated into the vehicles by the Original Equipment Manufacturers who work with their suppliers to manufacture the units in accordance with governing vehicular standards and requirements of the auto companies. An OBU is composed of a radio transceiver, a GPS system, an applications processor and interfaces to vehicle systems and the vehicle’s human machine interface (Gáspár et al., 2014). OBUs provide V2V communications as well as V2I and V2X communications. Roadside Units (RSUs). An RSU is composed of a radio transceiver, an application processor, and interface to the V2I and V2X communications network. It also has a GPS unit attached. The RSU is mounted on a pole on the side of a roadway or in a traffic signal and requires power, fiber connection, and appropriate network equipment like switches to transmit and receive data from OBUs and other networked elements. Value Proposition. A clear statement that explains how a service, product, or feature uniquely solves the problems of a specific customer segment (relevancy) and delivers specific benefits (quantified value). Traffic Management Centers (TMCs). TMCs are part of the infrastructure necessary to enable V2I functionality. These centers collect and process data from OBUs and RSUs (Steadman and Huntsman, 2018). TMCs exist today and typically collect volume, speed, and occupancy data, and more recently collect data using toll tag readers, Bluetooth wireless communication readers, and third-party data. TMCs in a CV environment could be used to manage crashes, control traffic signal systems, disseminate traffic information and route guidance to drivers (Kimley-Horn and Associates and Noblis, 2013).

108 Backhaul. An important aspect of V2I is backhaul communications for security applications as well as data transfer and storage. It comprises a robust, high-bandwidth Ethernet communications network with the capability of meeting the latest Internet protocols. A fiber optic network is viewed as a sustainable backhaul solution for both CV infrastructure and ITS functions. Many agencies are in the process of locating fiber optic networks within their rights of way and connecting traffic signal controllers (FHWA, 2012).

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State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) and other government agencies recognize the value of connected vehicle (CV) technologies in helping achieve the strategic objectives of saving lives and relieving congestion. Several agencies are currently planning and preparing for a future where CV technologies could become a part of their routine business operations. A core consideration in any such planning effort is an assessment of the need for and the nature of public CV infrastructure investments to support applications based on CV technologies.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 289: Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations presents methods to identify the most plausible CV infrastructure investments, shows how to build effective business case arguments, and details specific business model options during project procurement and delivery.

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