National Academies Press: OpenBook

Enhancing Organizational Performance (1997)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
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Index

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

Index

A

Acquisitions, 126, 129, 132-133

Action learning, 116-117

Adhocracies, 33, 89

After-action reviews, 114

Agency theory, 5

Aid to domestic, civilian populations missions, 158, 177

Alliances

among enemies, 28

integrated (See Network organizations)

strategic, 124, 128-131, 134

Antiterrorism missions, 157, 174

Arms control verification missions, 157

Army. See U.S. Army

Army War College, 111, 168

Assumptions within organizations. See Culture of organizations

Automation, 16, 18

B

Baldrige, Malcolm. See Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

Battlefield. See Combat

Big-Q approach. See Total quality management (TQM)

Bluff-twist strategy, 181

Bonding, 83

Boundary characteristics. See Interorganizational relations

Business process redesign, 57

C

Center for Creative Leadership, 111, 201

Ceremonies. See Rites of passage

Change within organizations, 7, 36-37, 87-95, 267

constructive, 1-3

defining, 1-93

increased tempo of, 8, 12

motivations for, 63

sustainability of, 61-62, 176

theories of, 23-24

Civil conflicts, 204

Civilians. See Military-civilian divide

Collaboration, 3, 7, 126-128.

See also Interorganizational relations

life-cycle stages in, 137-142

rationale for, 127, 132-134, 149

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

Collective enforcement missions. See Enforcement missions, collective

Combat

lessons learned from, 28

missions, 164, 166-168

Commitment, 68, 76-77

Communications

advancing technologies, 13-14

computer-assisted, 16

restricting, 53

Competitiveness, 47

among organizations (See Environment)

within organizations, 15-16

Computers

expertise with, 15

transforming information, 2

Computer simulations, 38n

Configuration theory, 23

Conflict escalation, 171

Conflict management, 3, 268

training for, 172-208

Consensus, 87, 92

Constituencies. See Multiple-constituency approach

Consultants, role of, 25-26, 29-30

Consultation. See Decision making

Contacts with protagonists, 166-168

skills development, 170-172

Context. See Environment

Contingency theory, 20, 23, 40

in Army doctrine, 28, 171

Contractor organizations. See Prime contractor/subcontractor organizations

Control, 77-79, 134-135, 140, 146

within the military, 77-78, 258-265

during negotiations, 188

Cooperation, obstacles to, 135-136

Cost analysis, 28.

See also Productivity issues

Cross-licensing arrangements, 128, 130-131, 133-134

Culture of organizations, 4, 6, 53, 65-96, 119, 139-141, 267

concrete forms, 81-82

congruence of, 92-94

creating, 89-90

culture clashes, 127, 142-143

culture lag, 17

defining, 67-71

and effectiveness, 70-77

examples of, 65-67

managing, 77-95, 144-145

for change, 87, 90-95, 109

tools for, 77-87

market-focused, 89-90

measuring, 72-75

military, 263

and performance, 75-77

quality culture (See Quality)

reinforcing, 94-95, 102-103

subcultures, 82-86

Culture shock, 190-191

Customer satisfaction, 47

D

Data, proprietary, 5

Decentralized organizations, 36

Decision making, 76, 104-105, 148

delegating, 15

effects of technology on, 17

employee participation in, 15, 100-101

primary-party role, 179-183

third-party roles, 183-190

Decision support systems, 16

Declining organizations, 51

Defense Officer Personnel Management Act, 265

Deming Prize (Japanese), 43

Democracy. See Intervention missions in support of democracy

Demographic diversity, 18-19

Deployment strategies, 154.

See also Preventive deployment missions

Desert Shield/Storm, 29

Designing organizations. See Redesigning organizations

Developmental assessment centers, 115-116

Development of organizations, 5

literature on, 24

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

Disaster relief missions, 120, 156, 177, 179

Dispersed organizations, 36

Distribution arrangements, 128, 130-131, 133-134

Distributive processes, 174-176.

See also Problem solving

Doctrine-driven design.

See also Redesigning organizations;

U.S. Army, unit design process

advantages of, 31, 32

defining, 27, 31

Downsizing for effectiveness, 48, 51-57

defining, 51-52, 56-57

negative outcomes of, 52-55

Dress codes, 88, 263-264

Drug eradication missions, 157

E

Economics of organizations, 5

Effectiveness of organizations

defining, 45

quality and, 43-48

Election supervision missions, 156, 177

Electronic mail, 16

Enforcement missions, collective, 156, 174, 179

Engagement, principles of, 204

Entrepreneurship, 57

Environment, 122-137

growing competitiveness of, 14

growing complexity of, 7-8, 11-19, 104

growing turbulence of, 2, 14, 148

monitoring, 100

organizational compatibility with, 2, 7, 90-91, 137-139

understanding, 127-128

Ethnic diversity, 18-19

Ethnocentrism, 68

European Quality Award, 43

European Union (EU), 120-121

Evolution and revolution theory, 23-24

Exceptional Family Member Act, 262

Expectations, 80, 106

Expert systems, 16

External conditions. See Environment

F

Feedback, 109-110, 202-203

multirater, 114-115

Firefighting missions, 158

Forms of organizations, 21-22.

See also Interorganizational relations

new, 6, 32-36

Fortune (magazine), 2

Functional matrix organizations. See Matrix organizations

G

Game theory, 5

General Accounting Office. See U.S. General Accounting Office

General Staff College, 168

Globalization, 3, 13, 121, 148

Goals

for change, 59, 93-94, 99-100

(See also Role-clarification) for military missions, 161, 179-180, 183

H

Hawthorne studies, 20

High-reliability organizations, 17-18

High-risk technologies. See Technological change

Horizontally integrated organizations, 35

Human capital development missions, 158

Humanitarian relief missions, 38n, 156, 163

I

Identification with organizations. See Culture of organizations

Ideologies within organizations. See Culture of organizations

Industrial Revolution, 2

Inertia within organizations, 63-64, 74-75, 78, 87-90, 94

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

"Informal" organizations, 35

Information economy, shift to, 2, 12

Information technologies.

See also Reengineering for effectiveness

advancing, 14, 58

cost of, 17

In Search of Excellence, 26

Institutional theory, 5, 12

Integrated operations. See Joint ventures

Integrative processes, 176-179.

See also Problem solving

Interdependence.

See also Interorganizational relations

structuring, 184

Internal ventures, 3, 129, 132-134

International Red Cross. See Red Cross

International regimes. See Regime analysis

Interorganizational field analysis, 123

Interorganizational relations, 120-149, 268

boundary characteristics, 136, 145

collaboration, 3-4

governance structures for, 128-137

obstacles to, 135-136

Interpersonal skills, 103-104

Interpreters, managers as, 12

Intervention, evaluating, 8

Intervention missions in support of democracy, 157

Intraorganizational collaboration. See Internal ventures

"Inverted" organizations, 36

Irrational tactics, 182

J

Job rotation, 112-113

Joint ventures, 4, 128, 130-131, 134.

See also Interorganizational relations

Just Cause, 29

Just-in-time practices, 48

K

Kill mission, 256-257

"Krunching," 209n

L

Language skills, foreign, 191

Layoffs, 51-53

Leadership, 28, 77-78, 97-119, 267-268.

See also Training cultural, 86-87

defining, 97-105

enhancing, 105-117

inspirational, 101-102

skills, 103-105, 117-118, 143

studies of, 3-4, 6

"Lean-production" techniques, 48

Learning within organizations, 5

literature on, 24

vicarious, 25

Legitimacy of organizations, 2

Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Center , 167, 209n

Leveraging, 187

Life-cycle theory, 24

Little-q approach. See Total quality management (TQM)

M

Machine bureaucracies, 21

Machine intelligence, 18

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 43-44, 46

Managers, 3, 24-26.

See also Leadership

changing roles of, 12, 29, 92, 117-118

competing with professionals, 15

decreasing influence of, 12

supporting, 63

Maneuvers, 182, 187

Manipulators, managers as, 12

Mathematical modeling. See Modeling, mathematical

Matrix organizations, 20, 25, 35

McKinsey 7-S framework, 26

Mediation, 173.

See also Negotiation

Mentoring, 113-114

Mergers, 126, 129, 132-133

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

Military.

See also Control;

Socialization;

Technological change;

U.S. Army

funding, 28, 257, 260

materiel requirements, 28-29, 257

missions, new and changing, 3-4, 7, 28, 153-209

classifying, 155-164

evaluating effectiveness, 206-208

skills needed, 166-209

objectives, 28

organizational characteristics, 255-265, 268

value clashes within, 127

Military-civilian divide, 191-192

Missions. See Military

Modeling

behavioral role, 107-108

mathematical, 38n

Motivating leaders, 3, 106-107

Multiculturalism. See Culture of organizations;

Ethnic diversity;

Selection

Multidivisional organizations, 22

Multilateral operations, 4

Multinational operations, 120

military, 154

Multiple-constituency approach, 42

Mutual service consortia, 128, 130-133

N

NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

National Security Strategy, changes in, 154

"Negotiate to Win" seminar, 176

Negotiation, 139-142, 173-179, 185-186

Networking, 103

Network organizations, 22, 33-34, 129, 132-134

"New world order,"; 154

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 120

O

Observation missions, 155-156, 177

Operations other than war (OOTW), 153-209

Operator remoteness, 18

Organizational change. See Change within organizations

Organizational constituencies. See Multiple-constituency approach

Organizational culture. See Culture of organizations

Organizational designs, 21-22.

See also Redesigning organizations

Organizational development. See Development of organizations

Organizational effectiveness. See Effectiveness of organizations

Organizational forms. See Forms of organizations

Organizational inertia. See Inertia within organizations

Organizational network analysis, 124

Organizational networks. See Network organizations

Organizational performance. See Performance of organizations

Organizational set analysis, 123

Organizational tables. See Tables of organization

Organizational teamwork. See Team-based organizations;

Teamwork within organizations

Organizational theory, 8

utility of, 30-31

Outplacement services, 54-55

Overreacting, 197

Ownership. See Control

P

Pacification missions, 156, 163, 174

Participative leadership. See Decision making

Peace-keeping missions, traditional, 38n, 120, 155, 160, 171-172, 198,

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

203, 207.

See also Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Center

Perceptions, 192-193

Performance of organizations

analyses, 7, 115

theories of, 92

Persian Gulf War, 17, 38n

Planning. See Goals, for change

Plebe system, 83

Population

changes in, 18-19

ecology, 12

Post-cold war era, 120, 153-155

Postmortems. See After-action reviews

Posturing tactics, 182

Praise. See Recognition

Prescriptive organizational theory. See Organizational theory

Preventive deployment missions, 157, 174

Prime contractor/subcontractor organizations, 22

Problem solving, 99-100

distributive processes, 174-176

integrative processes, 176-179

Productivity issues, 47-48, 52-53

Product life cycle, shortening, 14

Professional bureaucracies, 21

Professionalism, trends in, 14-16

Profit Impact of Market Strategies (PIMS) analysis, 47

Progress, defining, 8

Project-based team structures. See Adhocracies

Project matrix organizations. See Matrix organizations;

Team-based organizations

Protective services missions, 157

Protégé system. See Mentoring

Public health assistance missions, 158

Pulsating organizations, 36

Q

Quality

as a construct, 39-40

culture of, 48-49

defining, 40-43

summum bonum, 40

Quality circles, 48

R

Racial diversity. See Ethnic diversity

Rationalizing processes, 63

R&D. See Research and development (R&D) partnerships

Recognition, 103

Reconfiguring organizations. See Reengineering for effectiveness

Red Cross, 120

Redesigning organizations, 3, 11, 19-32, 37-38, 267

assessment of bases for, 29-32

based on doctrine, 26-29, 31-32

based on experience, 24-26, 29-30, 109-117

Reengineering for effectiveness, 57-62

as a fad, 60

as a form of downsizing, 61

"Reflexive" tactics, 186

Regime analysis, 125

Rehabilitation of infrastructure missions, 158

Reinforcement, 95, 99, 102-103

Reinventing organizations. See Reengineering for effectiveness

Relief operations. See Disaster relief missions

Remote sensing, 18

Renegotiation, 141-142, 144, 146

Research and development (R&D) partnerships, 128, 130-133

Resources

allocating, 102, 121

analysis of, 28

Reviews. See After-action reviews

Risks, increasing, 17-18

Rites of passage, 83-85, 95

Role-clarification, 98-99

Role-playing, 108, 200, 209n

Rules of engagement. See Engagement, principles of

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

S

Sanctions enforcement missions, 157-158

Saving face, 184

Scientific knowledge, explosion in, 13-14

Selection, 78-79, 95

Service consortia. See Mutual service consortia

7-S framework. See McKinsey 7-S framework

Shared decision making. See Decision making

Simple organizations, 21

Simulations.

See also Computer simulations

in training programs, 108-109, 196-197

Skunkworks, 36

Social contagion, 102

Socialization, 79-81, 95

within the military, 79

Societal structure, 193-195

Soviet Union, breakup of, 153-154

Special assignments, 111-112

Spread sheets, 16

State/nation building missions, 156, 163

Strategic alliances. See Alliances

Strategic choices, 12, 181-184

Stress, 54

Subcultures. See Culture of organizations

Summum bonum. See Quality

Supraorganizational designs, 22, 34

Symbolic action, 102

T

Tables of organization, 28-29

Team-based organizations, 21, 32-33.

See also Adhocracies

Teamwork within organizations, 63, 80

Technological change, 2, 16-18

higher risks associated with, 17-18

impact on military, 28

Temporary team structures. See Adhocracies

Theory. See Agency theory;

Configuration theory;

Contingency theory;

Evolution and revolution theory;

Game theory;

Institutional theory;

Life-cycle theory;

Organizational theory

Threats, military, 28

Total quality management (TQM), 5-6, 8, 39-51

defining, 49-50

as a fad, 45

Training

cost of, 118

evaluating, 201-208

for leadership, 3, 105-109

for operations other than war, 168-169, 195-205

techniques, 107

technological, 17

Training-effectiveness nexus, 203-205

Transaction cost analysis, 5, 34, 126

Transforming organizations, 8, 63.

See also Leadership

Transnational demands, 3

Transportation technologies, advancing, 14

Trial with memory strategy, 189-190

Trust within organizations, 53, 60, 76

Turbulence in organizations. See Environment

Two-faced organizations, 36

U

Underlying assumptions within organizations. See Culture of organizations

Unit design process. See U.S. Army, unit design process

United Nations (UN)

command, 154-155

Department of Peacekeeping Operations, 172, 209n

mandates, 206

United States Military Academy at West Point, 82-86

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
×

U.S. Army

all-volunteer, 91-92

changing missions of, 153-209

leadership development programs, 111

unit design process, 27-29

U.S. Army Research Institute, 3-4

U.S. Department of Commerce, 43

U.S. General Accounting Office, 45-46

U.S. Institute of Peace, 209n

V

Value network partnerships. See Network organizations

Vertically integrated organizations. See Network organizations

Viability of organizations, 2

Video conferencing, 16

Virtual organizations. See Network organizations

Vision of the future, 59, 63, 102, 104

W

West Point. See United States Military Academy at West Point

Women in the labor force, 18, 91, 114

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Enhancing Organizational Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5128.
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Enhancing Organizational Performance Get This Book
×

Total quality management (TQM), reengineering, the workplace of the twenty-first century--the 1990s have brought a sense of urgency to organizations to change or face stagnation and decline, according to Enhancing Organizational Performance. Organizations are adopting popular management techniques, some scientific, some faddish, often without introducing them properly or adequately measuring the outcome.

Enhancing Organizational Performance reviews the most popular current approaches to organizational change--total quality management, reengineering, and downsizing--in terms of how they affect organizations and people, how performance improvements can be measured, and what questions remain to be answered by researchers.

The committee explores how theory, doctrine, accepted wisdom, and personal experience have all served as sources for organization design. Alternative organization structures such as teams, specialist networks, associations, and virtual organizations are examined.

Enhancing Organizational Performance looks at the influence of the organization's norms, values, and beliefs--its culture--on people and their performance, identifying cultural "levers" available to organization leaders. And what is leadership? The committee sorts through a wealth of research to identify behaviors and skills related to leadership effectiveness. The volume examines techniques for developing these skills and suggests new competencies that will become required with globalization and other trends.

Mergers, networks, alliances, coalitions--organizations are increasingly turning to new intra- and inter-organizational structures. Enhancing Organizational Performance discusses how organizations cooperate to maximize outcomes.

The committee explores the changing missions of the U.S. Army as a case study that has relevance to any organization. Noting that a musical greeting card contains more computing power than existed in the entire world before 1950, the committee addresses the impact of new technologies on performance.

With examples, insights, and practical criteria, Enhancing Organizational Performance clarifies the nature of organizations and the prospects for performance improvement.

This book will be important to corporate leaders, executives, and managers; faculty and students in organizational performance and the social sciences; business journalists; researchers; and interested individuals.

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