National Academies Press: OpenBook

Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability (1997)

Chapter: 19 Assessment of Cellular Dysfunction During Physiologic Stress

« Previous: 18 Use of Isolated-Cell and Metabolic Techniques Applied to Vitamin Transport and Disposition
Suggested Citation:"19 Assessment of Cellular Dysfunction During Physiologic Stress." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5827.
×

VII
Assessment of Immune Function

THE ROLE OF NUTRITIONAL IMMUNE function is of considerable interest to the military. Of particular interest are the optimization and assessment of immune function in the field as well as the development of improved methods of immunization, including oral vaccines. Chapters 20 and 21 review techniques for the assessment of abnormal immune function, while Chapter 22 focuses on the development of vaccines targeted toward mucosal immunity.

In Chapter 20, the use of plasma and urinary cytokine measurements to document the presence of inflammatory stress is assessed, focusing on tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 because they are overlapping and distinct mediators that affect nearly every organ system in the host. The author concludes that plasma TNF-a and IL-1 are not reliable indicators of inflammation, but plasma IL-6 levels often seem to be elevated in inflammatory processes, correlating with physiologic parameters. While urinary TNF-a and IL-1 levels often are not detected in the circulation or in the urine of most surgical patients, they are increased after ''eccentric" exercise. Under the same conditions, urinary IL-6 is increased. The plasma and urinary measurements of IL-6 in particular can be used for detecting metabolic stress.

Chapter 21 focuses on defining measurable, functional parameters for studying abnormalities of the immune system related to malnutrition, stress, and

Suggested Citation:"19 Assessment of Cellular Dysfunction During Physiologic Stress." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5827.
×

aging. Although the multiple components involved in immune response make this difficult, longitudinal studies incorporating measurement of serum immunoglobulin concentrations and humoral responses to vaccines and boosters, and determination of serum and urinary levels of select cytokines involved in inflammatory processes and immunoregulatory processes have shown promise. Functional assays of immune function, such as delayed hypersensitivity skin tests or natural killer cell function tests, are ideal but not always practical.

Because the effects of exposure to infectious agents and toxins can significantly impair military performance, safe and effective immunization is a priority, as the discussion of mucosal immunity in Chapter 22 indicates. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are the route of entry into the body for many pathogens that may alter nutritional status, and the mucosal immune system is the point of defense against these pathogens. A better understanding of mucosal immunology, coupled with progress in biotechnology and molecular genetics, may lead to the optimization of oral vaccine administration using antibodies and antigens.

Suggested Citation:"19 Assessment of Cellular Dysfunction During Physiologic Stress." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5827.
×
Page 415
Suggested Citation:"19 Assessment of Cellular Dysfunction During Physiologic Stress." Institute of Medicine. 1997. Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5827.
×
Page 416
Next: VII Assessment of Immune Function »
Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $95.00 Buy Ebook | $74.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The latest of a series of publications based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, this book's focus on emerging technologies for nutrition research arose from a concern among scientists at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine that traditional nutrition research, using standard techniques, centered more on complex issues of the maintenance or enhancement of performance, and might not be sufficiently substantive either to measure changes in performance or to predict the effects on performance of stresses soldiers commonly experience in operational environments. The committee's task was to identify and evaluate new technologies to determine whether they could help resolve important issues in military nutrition research. The book contains the committee's summary and recommendations as well as individually authored chapters based on presentations at a 1995 workshop. Other chapters cover techniques of body composition assessment, tracer techniques for the study of metabolism, ambulatory techniques for the determination of energy expenditure, molecular and cellular approaches to nutrition, the assessment of immune function, and functional and behavioral measures of nutritional status.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!