National Academies Press: OpenBook

Air Quality Management in the United States (2004)

Chapter: Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
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Appendix C
188 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)a,b

Acetaldehyde

Acetamide

Acetonitrile

Acetophenone

2-Acetylaminofluorene

Acrolein

Acrylamide

Acrylic acid

Acrylonitrile

Allyl chloride

4-Aminobiphenyl

Aniline

o-Anisidine

Asbestos

Benzene

Benzidine

Benzotrichloride

Benzyl chloride

Biphenyl

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Bis(chloromethyl) ether

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDE)

Bromoform

1,3-Butadiene

Calcium cyanamide

Captan

Carbaryl

Carbon disulfide

Carbon tetrachloride

Carbonyl sulfide

Catechol

Chloramben

Chlordane

Chlorine

Chloroacetic acid

2-Chloroacetophenone

Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzilate

Chloroform

Chloromethyl methyl ether

Chloroprene

Cresols/cresylic acid

o-Cresol

m-Cresol

p-Cresol

Cumene

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (including salts and esters) (2,4-D)

Diazomethane

Dibenzofurans

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane

Dibutylphthalate

1,4-Dichlorobenzene(p)

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine

Dichloroethyl ether

1,3-Dichloropropene

Dichlorvos

Diethanolamine

Diethyl sulfate

3,3'-Dimethoxy benzidine

p-Dimethyl amino azobenzene

N,N-Dimethyl aniline

3,3'-Dimethyl benzidine

Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride

N,N-Dimethyl formamide

1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine

Dimethyl phthalate

Dimethyl sulfate

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol (including salts)

2,4-Dinitrophenol

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

1,4-Dioxane

1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

Epichlorohydrin

1,2-Epoxybutane

Ethyl acrylate

Ethyl benzene

Ethyl carbamate

Ethyl chloride

Ethylene dibromide

Ethylene dichloride

Ethylene glycol

Ethylene imine

Ethylene oxide

Ethylene thiourea

Ethylidene dichloride

Formaldehyde

Heptachlor

Hexachlorobenzene

Hexachlorobutadiene

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

Hexachloroethane

Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate

Hexamethylphosphoramide

Hexane

Hydrazine

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrogen fluoride

Hydroquinone

Isophorone

Lindane (all isomers)

Maleic anhydride

Methanol

Methoxychlor

Methyl bromide

Methyl chloride

Methyl chloroform

Methyl ethyl ketone

Methyl hydrazine

Methyl iodide

Methyl isobutyl ketone

Methyl isocyanate

Methyl methacrylate

Methyl tert-butyl ether

4,4'-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline)

Methylene chloride

4,4'-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate

4,4'-Methylene dianiline

Naphthalene

Nitrobenzene

4-Nitrobiphenyl

4-Nitrophenol

2-Nitropropane

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

N-Nitrosomorpholine

Parathion

Pentachloronitrobenzene

Pentachlorophenol

Phenol

p-Phenylenediamine

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

Phosgene

Phosphine

Phosphorus

Phthalic anhydride

Polychlorinated biphenyls

1,3-Propane sultone

β-Propiolactone

Propionaldehyde

Propoxur (Baygon)

Propylene dichloride

Propylene oxide

1,2-Propylenimine

Quinoline

Quinone (p-benzoquinone)

Styrene

Styrene oxide

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

Tetrachloroethylene

Titanium tetrachloride

Toluene

2,4-Toluene diamine

2,4-Toluene diisocyanate

o-Toluidine

Toxaphene

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

Trichloroethylene

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

Triethylamine

Trifluralin

2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

Vinyl acetate

Vinyl bromide

Vinyl chloride

Vinylidene chloride

Xylenes (mixed isomers)

o-Xylenes

m-Xylenes

p-Xylenes

Antimony compounds

Arsenic compounds (inorganic)

Beryllium compounds

Cadmium compounds

Chromium compounds

Cobalt compounds

Coke oven emissions

Cyanide compoundsc

Glycol ethersd

Lead compounds

Manganese compounds

Mercury compounds

Fine mineral fiberse

Nickel compounds

Polycyclic organic matterf

Radionuclides (including radon)

Selenium compounds

   

Note: For all listings above that contain the word “compounds” and for glycol ethers, the following applies: Unless otherwise specified, these listings are defined as including any unique chemical substance that contains the named chemical (antimony, arsenic, etc.).

a  

The original list established under section 112(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act contained 189 HAPs. Caprolactam was removed June 18, 1996 (see 61 Fed. Reg. 30816 [1996]).

b  

On May 30, 2003, EPA proposed to remove the compound methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) from the HAPs list (see 68 Fed. Reg. 32605 [2003]), and on November 21, 2003, it proposed to remove ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list (see 68 Fed. Reg. 65648 [2003]).

c  

X′CN where X = H′ or any other group where a formal dissociation may occur. For example, KCN or Ca(CN)2.

d  

The definition of glycol ethers has been modified to exclude surfactant alcohol ethoxylates and their derivatives (SAEDs) (65 Fed. Reg. 47342 [2000]).

e  

Includes mineral fiber emissions from facilities manufacturing or processing glass, rock, or slag fibers (or other mineral derived fibers) of average diameter of 1 micrometer or less.

f  

Includes organic compounds with more than one benzene ring and that have a boiling point greater than or equal to 100°C.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×
Page 365
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×
Page 366
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×
Page 367
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants." National Research Council. 2004. Air Quality Management in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10728.
×
Page 368
Next: Appendix D: Recommendations for Continous Development and Implementation of Measurements to Determine Status and Trends in Ecosystem Exposure and Condition »
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The implementation of air quality regulations should be less bureaucratic -- with more emphasis on results than process -- and should be designed to protect ecosystems as well as people. The report recommends that The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) use an approach to target groups of pollutants instead of individual ones and that revised or new regulations also should consider how air pollution travels from state to state and across international borders. In addition, improved tracking of emissions is needed to accurately assess what populations are at the highest risk of health problems from pollution and to better measure the progress of pollution-control strategies.

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