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PART III: VITAMINS AND MINERALS 167 PART III VITAMINS MINERALS AND P art Three of this publication summarizes information from the DRI re- ports titled Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, So- dium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phos- phorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Bi- otin, and Choline (1998); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). This section is divided into chapters that are organized by nutrient for 35 individual vitamins and minerals. Each chapter provides a table of known nutrient reference values; reviews the function of a given nutrient in the human body; summarizes the known effects of deficien- cies and excessive intakes; describes how a nutrient may be related to chronic disease or developmental abnormalities, where data were available; and pro- vides the indicator of adequacy for determining the nutrient requirements. Vitamins covered in Part Three include vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin, vitamin C, carotenoids, choline, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, vitamin K, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin. Minerals covered in Part Three include calcium, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, magnesium, man- ganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium chloride, sul- fate, and zinc; there is also a chapter on other substances including arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium.
PART III: VITAMINS AND MINERALS 169 DEFINITIONS USED IN TABLES IN PART III EAR = Estimated Average Requirement. An EAR is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individu- als in a group. RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97â98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. AI = Adequate Intake. If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to estab- lish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the group, but a lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level. The UL is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all indi- viduals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL repre- sents total intake from food, water, and supplements. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above the recommended intake. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predispos- ing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.