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Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements (2006)

Chapter: PART III--VITAMINS AND MINERALS

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Suggested Citation:"PART III--VITAMINS AND MINERALS." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 167
Suggested Citation:"PART III--VITAMINS AND MINERALS." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 168
Suggested Citation:"PART III--VITAMINS AND MINERALS." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 169

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PART III: VITAMINS AND MINERALS 167 PART III VITAMINS MINERALS AND P art Three of this publication summarizes information from the DRI re- ports titled Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, So- dium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phos- phorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Bi- otin, and Choline (1998); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). This section is divided into chapters that are organized by nutrient for 35 individual vitamins and minerals. Each chapter provides a table of known nutrient reference values; reviews the function of a given nutrient in the human body; summarizes the known effects of deficien- cies and excessive intakes; describes how a nutrient may be related to chronic disease or developmental abnormalities, where data were available; and pro- vides the indicator of adequacy for determining the nutrient requirements. Vitamins covered in Part Three include vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin, vitamin C, carotenoids, choline, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, vitamin K, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin. Minerals covered in Part Three include calcium, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, magnesium, man- ganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium chloride, sul- fate, and zinc; there is also a chapter on other substances including arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium.

PART III: VITAMINS AND MINERALS 169 DEFINITIONS USED IN TABLES IN PART III EAR = Estimated Average Requirement. An EAR is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individu- als in a group. RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. AI = Adequate Intake. If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to estab- lish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the group, but a lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevents being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level. The UL is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all indi- viduals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL repre- sents total intake from food, water, and supplements. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above the recommended intake. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predispos- ing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

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Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 1998, the Institute of Medicine has issued eight exhaustive volumes of DRIs that offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. Now, for the first time, all eight volumes are summarized in one easy-to-use reference volume, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment. Organized by nutrient for ready use, this popular reference volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes. For each nutrient of food component, information includes:

  • Estimated average requirement and its standard deviation by age and gender.
  • Recommended dietary allowance, based on the estimated average requirement and deviation.
  • Adequate intake level, where a recommended dietary allowance cannot be based on an estimated average requirement.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity would increase. Along with dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, this book presents recommendations for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Also included is a “Summary Table of Dietary Reference Intakes,” an updated practical summary of the recommendations. In addition, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment provides information about:
  • Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification
  • Applications in dietary planning
  • Proposed definition of dietary fiber
  • A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients
  • Proposed definition and plan for review of dietary antioxidants and related compounds

Dietitians, community nutritionists, nutrition educators, nutritionists working in government agencies, and nutrition students at the postsecondary level, as well as other health professionals, will find Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment an invaluable resource.

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