National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements (2006)

Chapter: H Standard Deviation of Requirements for Nutrients with an EAR

« Previous: G Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,
Suggested Citation:"H Standard Deviation of Requirements for Nutrients with an EAR." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 485
Suggested Citation:"H Standard Deviation of Requirements for Nutrients with an EAR." Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11537.
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Page 486

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PART IV: APPENDIX H 485 H STANDARD DEVIATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR NUTRIENTS WITH AN EAR Standard Deviation (SD) of requirements is calculated from the Coefficient of Variation (CV) and the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) as: SD = CV ¥ EAR Basis if not 10 percenta Nutrient with an EAR CV (percent) MACRONUTRIENTS Dietary Carbohydrate 15 Variation in brain glucose utilization Protein 12 Skewed distribution; calculated as half distance from 16th to 84th percentile of protein requirement distributionb VITAMINS Vitamin A 20 Half-life for liver vitamin A in adults Vitamin B6 10 Vitamin B12 10 Vitamin C 10 Vitamin E 10 Folate 10

DRIs: THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 486 Basis if not 10 percenta Nutrient with an EAR CV (percent) Niacin 15 Limited studies suggest greater variation than 10 percent, partly from wide variation in conversion efficiency of tryptophan to niacin Riboflavin 10 Thiamin 10 MINERALS Copper 15 Limited data to set EAR Iodine 20 Calculation that subtracts out variation due to experimental design Iron Skewed distribution; calculated by modeling components of requirement distribution, estimating the requirement for absorbed iron at the 97.5 percentile, and with use of an upper limit of 18 percent iron absorption, and rounding Magnesium 10 Molybdenum 15 Limited data to set EAR (few Mo levels in depletion/repletion study and small number of subjects) Phosphorus 10 Selenium 10 Zinc 10 a The assumption of 10 percent is based on extensive data on the variation in basal metabolic rate and on a similar CV of 12 percent for protein requirements in adults. b Rand and colleagues demonstrated that the natural logarithm of requirements in mg nitrogen/kg/day has a normal distribution with a mean of 4.65 and a standard devia- tion of 0.12. From this and because the skewness is not extreme, an approximate stan- dard deviation can be calculated.

Next: I Estimates of Within-Subject Variation in Intake »
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Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 1998, the Institute of Medicine has issued eight exhaustive volumes of DRIs that offer quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. Now, for the first time, all eight volumes are summarized in one easy-to-use reference volume, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment. Organized by nutrient for ready use, this popular reference volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, food sources, usual dietary intakes, and effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes. For each nutrient of food component, information includes:

  • Estimated average requirement and its standard deviation by age and gender.
  • Recommended dietary allowance, based on the estimated average requirement and deviation.
  • Adequate intake level, where a recommended dietary allowance cannot be based on an estimated average requirement.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels above which risk of toxicity would increase. Along with dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients by Americans and Canadians, this book presents recommendations for health maintenance and the reduction of chronic disease risk. Also included is a “Summary Table of Dietary Reference Intakes,” an updated practical summary of the recommendations. In addition, Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment provides information about:
  • Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification
  • Applications in dietary planning
  • Proposed definition of dietary fiber
  • A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients
  • Proposed definition and plan for review of dietary antioxidants and related compounds

Dietitians, community nutritionists, nutrition educators, nutritionists working in government agencies, and nutrition students at the postsecondary level, as well as other health professionals, will find Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Reference for Dietary Planning and Assessment an invaluable resource.

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