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Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary (2007)

Chapter: Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
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E
Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop

For the convenience of the reader, this appendix uses information provided by workshop presenters to indicate progress related to the DRI research agenda. The list, which is derived from slides used in the workshop presentations and organized by DRI report, identifies topics that have been studied since the release of the respective DRI report and includes some current investigations. Nutrients do not appear below if no presenter noted substantial progress for them. Items in the list represent the view of the presenter; they do not represent workshop conclusions.

Calcium and Related Nutrients

Calcium

  • Adults

    • Relationship of calcium intake with health outcomes— results from numerous randomized placebo-controlled trials

    • Dairy foods linked to reduced blood pressure

    • Small inverse effect of calcium on body weight—several studies

    • Effect of high calcium intake on first kidney stone and on recurrence

  • Children

    • Better definition of the link between calcium intake and absorption, especially in adolescents

    • Relationships of vitamin D polymorphisms and mineral metabolism

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
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  • Early milk consumption linked to reduced fracture risk in girls and in women

  • Effects of calcium supplementation—results from several intervention trials

  • Racial differences in bone turnover and calcium metabolism

Vitamin D

  • Responses of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and non-vertebral fracture to supplementation with vitamin D3—a number of studies

  • Vitamin D, and serum parathyroid hormone—one study

  • Vitamin D and bone in adolescents—one study

Magnesium

  • Magnesium depletion studies in rats

  • Positive associations between magnesium intake and bone mass and negative associations with diabetes and stroke—several epidemiologic studies

Fluoride

  • Relationship of elevated fluoride concentrations to bone mineral density and fractures—one study

B Vitamins and Choline

Riboflavin

  • Intake data from Ireland

  • Association of riboflavin intake with plasma homocysteine

  • Role of riboflavin supplementation in cataract prevention

Niacin

  • Intake data from Ireland

  • Molecular identification of high- and low-affinity receptors for nicotinic acid

  • Flushing mechanisms

  • Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and on glycemic control in persons with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease—randomized trial

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
  • Extended-release niacin and progression of atherosclerosis— double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Pantothenic Acid

  • Pantothenic acid content of foods and/or vitamins—two studies

Choline

  • Human data on male/female differences in endogenous synthesis

  • Human data on functional markers—two studies

  • Epidemiologic data on risk of birth defects—two studies

  • Choline-betaine relationship to plasma homocysteine in humans—three studies

  • Choline content of foods

Biotin

  • Histone modification by biotin—one study

  • Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency and its treatment with pharmacologic doses of biotin—one study

Vitamin B6

  • Associations of vitamin B6 and inflammation—four studies

Folate

  • Associations of folic acid fortification with neural tube defects, vascular disease, cancer, cognition, others

  • Association between homocysteine concentration and serum folate values

  • Interactions of folate with other B vitamins and choline related to methylation status

  • Mass spectrometry methods

  • Depletion–repletion study demonstrating adequacy of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for folate for young women of all three methyltetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes

  • Unmetabolized folic acid in serum or plasma—two studies

Vitamin B12

  • New methods for identifying status—in development

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
  • Plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid values consistent with B12 values required to maintain hematological status—one study

Antioxidants

Selenium

  • Twenty-five genes identified that code for selenoproteins—characterization is in progress

  • Selenoprotein P as a potential biomarker for selenium status

  • Effect of baseline selenium status on chemopreventive efficacy

  • Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT)— will provide clinical data on possible disease prevention

Vitamin E

  • Much basic science progress

  • Chronic disease prevention studies, especially coronary heart disease prevention in high-risk populations

  • SELECT (Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial, a second generation trial examining protective effect of vitamin E against prostate cancer)—Is benefit limited to smokers (the only subjects in ATBC Trial)?

  • Beta-carotene, carotenoids

  • Dermal carotenoid concentrations as a possible new status indicator

  • Chronic disease prevention trial information, with most progress in macular degeneration—Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AREDS) II will be the first large controlled trial of lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation

  • Macular pigment might serve as an intermediate end point—emerging work in measurement and determinants

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×

Micronutrients

Vitamin A

  • Effect of vitamin A status on the conversion of plant carotene—one study

  • The vitamin A activity of plant foods—three studies

Vitamin K

  • Content in foods

Iron

  • Classification of iron-loading syndromes involving hepcidin (down regulator of iron transporter)

Zinc

  • Stable isotope methods in children

  • Urine measurement of fractional absorption

  • Fecal monitoring with zinc isotope plus the rare earth element dysprosium

  • Isotope dilution method to determine endogenous fecal zinc excretion

  • Partial fecal and spot urine collections

  • Improved instrumentation—allows lower doses

  • Zinc homeostasis and requirements for children

    • factors that affect fractional absorption of zinc and absorbed zinc

    • absorption and the “saturation response model”

    • factors influencing zinc absorption (quantities of ingested zinc and phytate)

Macronutrients and Energy

Carbohydrate

  • Weight gain with added sugars from certain sources—four longitudinal studies

  • Glycemic effect of the overall diet with respect to diabetes

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×

Fatty acids

  • Relationships of n-3 fatty acids to health

  • Health effects of docosahexanenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Fiber

  • Relationship of high dietary fiber intake to serum C-reactive protein—two studies, one from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), one longitudinal

Protein

  • Linear regression of nitrogen balance data to estimate the adult requirement

Electrolytes and Water

Sodium and Potassium

  • Efficacy of increased potassium intake, alone and in combination with reduced sodium intake, on preventing stroke—investigator-initiated trial proposed

  • Main and interactive effects of potassium and sodium intake on bone mineral density—pilot studies underway

  • Reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease events associated with sodium reduction

  • Adverse effects of chronic, low-grade metabolic acidosis that results from an inadequate intake of potassium and its bicarbonate precursors—pilot studies underway

  • Effects of potassium citrate and potassium chloride on blood pressure

Dietary Assessment

  • Improvements in the DRIs themselves

    • Some anticipated progress on replacing Adequate Intakes (AIs) with Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
  • Some anticipated progress on better specifying factors that can alter the requirement or the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for specific individuals

  • Improvements in dietary assessment methods

    • Matching of units in food composition tables to those in DRIs is nearly complete

    • Automated Multiple Pass Method for obtaining diet recalls appears to reduce underreporting

    • The combination of diet recall and propensity questionnaire may improve estimates of usual intake

    • Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study has led to better understanding of errors

    • Some progress made in quantifying intakes from dietary supplements (2 days in NHANES 2007–2008)

    • National Cancer Institute method developed for estimating the usual intake of foods, should also work for nutrients

  • Better statistical methods

    • Iowa State University (ISU) method and software more available

    • Method for predicting individual usual intake in NHANES 2003–2004

  • Development of tools to help professionals use DRIs correctly

    • Some progress in developing and extending software to assist users with new methods

    • Agricultural Research Service tables report proportions of the population having intakes below EARs, as applicable

Dietary Planning

  • Determining usual intake distributions of specific population groups in the United States—(What We Eat in America)

  • Relationship between foods offered and nutrient intake

    • Some insight from food folate fortification

  • Food guide development and evaluation

    • New U.S. food guide

    • Canada’s food guide under development using a modeling approach

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
  • Application of DRIs for food and supplement labeling—Institute of Medicine report released in 2003, awaiting Food and Drug Administration rule

  • Communication and education of nutrition professionals regarding correct uses of DRIs

    • e-learning course available for a fee

    • various journal articles

    • DRI Summary Report nearing release

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 284
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 285
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 286
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 287
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E. Research Progress Identified by Individuals at the Workshop." Institute of Medicine. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/11767.
×
Page 288
Next: Appendix F. Listing of Possible Topics for Research Identified by Individuals During the Workshop »
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What information is available to inform the planning of a nutrition research agenda for the United States and Canada? This question provided the backdrop for the Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis project undertaken by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are quantitative reference values for recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels for a range of nutrients. They are used widely by dietitians in individual counseling, by federal nutrition officials in program and policy development, and by the nutrition research and education communities in government, academia, and industry.

Between 1997 and 2005, the IOM published a series of six DRI reports covering a total of 45 nutrients, energy, and other food components. The IOM also issued two reports describing ways to apply the DRIs in assessment and planning. Together, these eight reports contain more than 450 research recommendations and thus a wealth of information pertinent to a nutrition research agenda. To make the recommendations more accessible, the Food and Nutrition Board undertook a project with two major elements: (1) the development of a searchable database of all the DRI research recommendations, and (2) the Dietary Reference Intakes

Research Synthesis Workshop, held June 7-8, 2006, which was designed to provide a venue for hearing and discussing experts' perspectives on the research recommendations identified in the DRI reports.

Two members of the workshop planning group—Drs. John W. Suttie and Susan J. Whiting—moderated the DRI Research Synthesis Workshop. After an overview and demonstration of the DRI Research Synthesis Database, panels of experts addressed DRI research recommendations related to each of the six DRI nutrient reports, the two DRI applications reports, and three cross-cutting topics: (1) setting DRIs for children, (2) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, and (3) relevant new and underutilized research techniques. This report is a summary of the workshop presentations and discussions.

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