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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 25 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Planning and Forecasting • Terminals and Facilities Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Volume 1: Guidebook LANDRUM & BROWN Cincinnati, OH HIRSH ASSOCIATES, LTD. Ridgefield, CT KIMLEY-HORN AND ASSOCIATES, INC. Norcross, GA JACOBS CONSULTANCY Burlingame, CA THE S-A-P GROUP San Francisco, CA TRANSECURE, INC. Leesburg, VA STEVEN WINTER ASSOCIATES, INC. Norwalk, CT STAR SYSTEMS, LLC A SUBSIDIARY OF FIVE STAR AIRPORT ALLIANCE Carrollton, TX PRESENTATION & DESIGN, INC. Algonquin, IL

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 25, VOLUME 1 Project 07-05 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-11820-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2009943202 © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board’s judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 25, VOLUME 1 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-05 PANEL Field of Design Robin R. Sobotta, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ (Chair) Manuel Ayers, Applied Research Associates, Elkridge, MD Blair K. Hanuschak, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Washington, DC Lloyd A. McCoomb, Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Toronto, ON C. Allen McRee, Freese and Nichols, Inc., Ft. Worth, TX Rudolph R. Mueller, III, Hillsborough County Aviation Authority, Tampa, FL Stephen M. Quilty, SMQ Airport Services, Lutz, FL George P. Vittas, AECOM, Ft. Worth, TX Elisha Novak, FAA Liaison Krystal Ritchey, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S

ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design comprises a Guide- book, Spreadsheet Models, and a User’s Guide in two volumes and a CD-ROM to provide guidance in planning and developing airport passenger terminals and assist users in analyz- ing common issues related to airport terminal planning and design. Volume 1 describes the passenger terminal planning process and provides, in a single reference document, the important criteria and requirements needed to address emerging trends and create solu- tions for airport passenger terminals. This comprehensive Guidebook addresses the airside, terminal building, and landside components of the terminal complex. Volume 2 consists of (1) a CD containing 11 spreadsheet models, which include practical learning exercises and several airport-specific sample data sets to assist users in determining appropriate model inputs for their situations, and (2) a User’s Guide to assist the user in the correct use of each model. The models on the CD include such aspects of terminal planning as design hour determination, gate demand, check-in and passenger and baggage screening, which require complex analyses to support planning decisions. The Guidebook and Spreadsheet Models will be beneficial for airport operators, plan- ners, designers, and other stakeholders involved in planning functional and cost-effective airport passenger terminals by providing tools that can be used immediately. Planners and designers for all sizes of airports are struggling with how to design passenger terminals that provide good value and level-of-service efficiency that meet the criteria of many aspects of airport terminals, from security requirements and procedures to the needs of low- cost carriers and concessionaires. Practical information is needed not only to address current issues but also to provide the flexibility to accommodate emerging trends and issues. Airport passenger terminal planners and designers need up-to-date information on how to provide good value and efficiency to meet the needs of stakeholders and accommodate changing tech- nologies, materials, regulations, and operational factors for both large and small airports. ACRP Report 25 is the result of two separate research projects—ACRP 07-04, “Spread- sheet Models for Terminal Planning and Design,” and ACRP 07-05, “Airport Passenger Ter- minal Planning Guidebook.” Both projects were performed by Landrum & Brown as the prime contractor with the assistance of a variety of subcontractors: Hirsh Associates, Ltd.; Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.; Jacobs Consultancy; The S-A-P Group; TranSecure, Inc.; Steven Winter Associates, Inc.; Star Systems, LLC—A Subsidiary of Five Star Airport Alliance; Planning Technology, Inc.; and Presentation & Design, Inc. ACRP Report 25 provides a foundation for understanding and using the results of related ACRP research projects on airport terminal planning. For a list of related projects and published reports, see Appendix B of Volume 1. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported was performed under ACRP Project 07-05 by Landrum & Brown as the prime contractor with the assistance of subcontractors Hirsh Associates, Ltd.; Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.; Jacobs Consultancy; The S-A-P Group; TranSecure, Inc.; Steven Winter Associates, Inc.; Star Sys- tems, LLC—A Subsidiary of Five Star Airport Alliance; and Presentation & Design, Inc. Bruce Anderson, Vice President of Landrum & Brown, served as the Principal Investigator and Joel Hirsh, Principal of Hirsh Associates, was the Co-Principal Investigator. The other valuable contributors to this research project included, from Landrum & Brown, Edward (Gary) Blankenship, Elizabeth Bosher, Russell Blanck, Shane Wirth, Matthew H. Lee, Rob Adams, Radhika Mathur, Barb Castro, and Stella Harward; from Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., Foster de la Houssaye and Adam Novak; from Jacobs Consultancy, Spencer Ballard; from The S-A-P Group, Bill Matz; from Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Andrew Zumwalt-Hathaway and Kristy O’Hagan; from TranSecure, Inc., Art Kosatka and James I. McGuire; from Star Systems, LLC—A Subsidiary of Five Star Airport Alliance, Dan Stricklin and John Swillie; and from Presentation & Design, Inc., Patti Douglas. The authors are very grateful for the guidance and help provided by the project panels for ACRP 07- 05 and ACRP 07-04. The research team would also like to acknowledge the contribution of information provided by the FAA in the form of research White Papers prepared by various authors and provided in Appendix C of this volume. Additionally, the research team would like to acknowledge the contributions of ACRP Project 07-04 Co-Principal Investigators Matt Lee, for his overall vision in the development of the Spreadsheet Mod- els and their integration with the Guidebook, and Joel Hirsh, for his in-depth knowledge of terminal facil- ities programming and overall technical review of the Guidebook. Finally, the authors are grateful for the time and dedication of numerous Landrum & Brown staff in the final production of the Guidebook.

1 Chapter I Introduction 1 I.1 Purpose and Organization of the Guidebook 1 I.1.1 Purpose 2 I.1.2 Organization of the Guidebook 2 I.2 Previous Terminal Planning Guides 3 I.3 Current Need for Terminal Planning Guidance 5 I.4 Retrospective 8 I.5 Airline Deregulation 9 Chapter II Terminal Planning and Design Process 9 II.1 Defining the Terminal Complex 9 II.1.1 Airside Terminal Facilities 11 II.1.2 Terminal Building Facilities 12 II.1.3 Landside Terminal Facilities 13 II.2 Terminal Planning and Design Project Process 13 II.2.1 Types of Projects 15 II.2.2 Types of Services 16 II.2.3 Typical Project Approach 20 II.2.4 Goals and Objectives 21 II.2.5 Demand Forecasts 22 II.2.6 Facilities Programming 23 II.2.7 Conceptual Planning 30 II.2.8 Design Process 31 II.2.9 Value Engineering 31 II.2.10 Construction Process 33 II.2.11 Approval and Certification 34 Chapter III Planning Considerations 34 III.1 Airport Master Plan 34 III.1.1 Airport Demand Forecasts 35 III.1.2 Airfield Configuration 37 III.1.3 Other Land Use Considerations 39 III.2 Land Use Compatibility 39 III.2.1 Regional Land Use Plans 40 III.2.2 Community Land Use Plans 41 III.2.3 Other Land Use Compatibility Issues 42 III.3 Ground Access Transportation 43 III.3.1 Regional Airport System Plan 43 III.3.2 Regional Transportation Plan 43 III.3.3 Airport Ground Access System 45 III.3.4 Intermodal Connections C O N T E N T S

45 III.4 Terminal Site Planning 45 III.4.1 Airfield Considerations 46 III.4.2 Landside Considerations 47 III.4.3 Utilities Considerations 49 III.5 Airport Security 50 III.6 Information Technology and Communications 51 III.7 Environmental Protection 51 III.7.1 National Environmental Policy Act 53 III.7.2 Environmental Considerations in Passenger Terminal Planning— NEPA 57 III.7.3 Environmental Regulatory Considerations in Terminal Planning— Other than NEPA 58 III.7.4 Relationship of Environmental Sustainability to NEPA 59 III.8 Sustainability 60 III.8.1 LEED Certification for Airport Terminals 60 III.8.2 Sustainability in the Planning and Design Process 62 III.8.3 Major Elements of Sustainability for Terminal Planning and Design 68 III.9 Business Planning 68 III.9.1 Business Considerations 71 III.9.2 Funding Options 73 III.9.3 Concessions Planning 80 Chapter IV Forecasts 81 IV.1 Methodology 81 IV.1.1 Share Analysis 82 IV.1.2 Trend Analysis 82 IV.1.3 Regression Analysis and Econometric Modeling 83 IV.2 Data Sources 83 IV.2.1 Airport Records 84 IV.2.2 Socioeconomic Data 84 IV.2.3 Flight Activity Data 85 IV.2.4 Airline Surveys 85 IV.2.5 Passenger Surveys 86 IV.2.6 Other Sources 87 IV.3 Typically Forecasted Information and Forecast Validation Issues 87 IV.3.1 Passengers 87 IV.3.2 Belly Cargo and Mail 87 IV.3.3 Aircraft Operations 88 IV.3.4 Benchmarking and Stakeholder Buy-in 89 IV.3.5 Planning Activity Levels 89 IV.4 Peak Hour Demand Analysis 89 IV.4.1 Defining the Design Hour 90 IV.4.2 Estimating Design Hour Passenger Activity 94 IV.4.3 Determining Design Hour Aircraft Operations 94 IV.4.4 Developing Design Day Flight Schedules 96 Chapter V Terminal Airside Facilities 96 V.1 Airside Planning Requirements 96 V.1.1 FAR Part 77 and TERPS Requirements 101 V.1.2 Aircraft Maneuvering and Separations

101 V.1.3 Air Traffic Control Tower Line-of-Sight 102 V.1.4 Emergency Equipment Access Roads 103 V.1.5 Airside Security 108 V.1.6 Aircraft Apron/Gate Access Points 109 V.1.7 Aircraft Deicing 109 V.1.8 Electronic Interference 110 V.2 Terminal Apron Planning Criteria 110 V.2.1 Aircraft Gates and Parking Positions 112 V.2.2 Aircraft Gate Wingtip Clearances 112 V.2.3 Aircraft Parking Guidance Systems 113 V.2.4 Apron Pavement Design 113 V.2.5 Blast Fences 113 V.2.6 Apron Service Roads 117 V.2.7 Aircraft Servicing 120 V.2.8 Ground Service Equipment Storage 121 V.2.9 Apron Lighting 122 V.2.10 Apron Snow Removal 123 V.3 Aircraft Gate Requirements 123 V.3.1 Aircraft Gate Types 127 V.3.2 Aircraft Push-back Zones 128 V.3.3 Power-out and Power-back Operations 128 V.3.4 Taxi-in and Push-back Operations 129 V.3.5 Tug-in Operations 129 V.3.6 Apron Circulation 130 V.3.7 Jet Blast Effects and Mitigation 130 V.3.8 Forecasting Gate Demand Using Design Day Flight Schedules 131 V.3.9 Forecasting Gate Demand Without Using Design Day Flight Schedules 134 V.3.10 Gate Equivalents 138 Chapter VI Terminal Building Facilities 139 VI.1 Terminal Planning and Design Considerations 139 VI.1.1 Mission 145 VI.1.2 Balance 146 VI.1.3 Level of Service 151 VI.1.4 Passenger Convenience 153 VI.1.5 Flexibility 161 VI.1.6 Terminal Security 165 VI.1.7 Wayfinding and Terminal Signage 166 VI.1.8 Accessibility 167 VI.1.9 Maintenance 168 VI.2 Terminal Concept Development 171 VI.2.1 Terminal Concept Types 183 VI.2.2 Flow Sequences 191 VI.3 Terminal Facility Requirements 192 VI.3.1 Level of Service Related to Passenger Flow 194 VI.3.2 Ticket/Check-in Lobby 203 VI.3.3 Passenger Screening 207 VI.3.4 Holdrooms 210 VI.3.5 Concessions 211 VI.3.6 Passenger Amenities

212 VI.3.7 Domestic Baggage Claim 217 VI.3.8 International Arrivals Facilities—Federal Inspection Services 224 VI.3.9 Public Spaces 227 VI.3.10 Circulation 233 VI.3.11 Airline Areas 236 VI.3.12 Baggage Handling 238 VI.3.13 Checked Baggage Screening 240 VI.3.14 Support Areas 243 VI.3.15 Gross Terminal Area Planning Factors 244 VI.4 Other Facility Considerations 244 VI.4.1 Baggage Handling Systems 260 VI.4.2 Information Technology Systems 273 VI.5 Additional Considerations 273 VI.5.1 Building Systems 274 VI.5.2 Airport Terminals and the Arts 275 Chapter VII Terminal Landside Facilities 276 VII.1 Transportation/Traffic Planning 276 VII.1.1 Data Collection 278 VII.1.2 Analysis and Evaluation 279 VII.1.3 Ground Access Plan Development 280 VII.2 Intermodal Connections 280 VII.2.1 Rail/Transit 281 VII.2.2 Commercial Vehicles/Transit Staging Areas 282 VII.3 Airport Roadway Systems 282 VII.3.1 Entrance/Exit Roadways (Airport Access Road) 283 VII.3.2 Terminal Approach Roads 283 VII.3.3 Terminal Curbfront 284 VII.3.4 Recirculation Roads 284 VII.3.5 Service Roads 285 VII.3.6 General Guidelines for Airport Roadways 286 VII.4 Terminal Curb Requirements 286 VII.4.1 Curb Pedestrian Facilities 287 VII.4.2 Curb Vehicle Facilities 291 VII.5 Parking Facility Requirements 291 VII.5.1 Passenger Parking 293 VII.5.2 Employee/Tenant Parking 293 VII.5.3 Rental Car Parking 294 VII.6 Roadway Circulation and Wayfinding 294 VII.6.1 Circulation Flow and Analysis 294 VII.6.2 Decision Points 294 VII.6.3 Sign Locations 295 VII.7 Landside Security 295 VII.7.1 Access Roadway and Terminal Curbside 296 VII.7.2 Multi-modal Connections 297 VII.7.3 Parking Facilities 298 References A-1 Appendix A Checklists (for Planning and Design) B-1 Appendix B Other Pertinent ACRP Studies

C-1 Appendix C FAA White Papers D-1 Appendix D Aircraft Types and Key Dimensional Criteria E-1 Appendix E Dimensions of Airline Equipment (Bag Carts and Containers, etc.) F-1 Appendix F Regulations G-1 Appendix G Issues and Trends H-1 Appendix H Acronyms I-1 Appendix I Glossary

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design comprises a guidebook, spreadsheet models, and a user’s guide in two volumes and a CD-ROM intended to provide guidance in planning and developing airport passenger terminals and to assist users in analyzing common issues related to airport terminal planning and design.

Volume 1 of ACRP Report 25 explores the passenger terminal planning process and provides, in a single reference document, the important criteria and requirements needed to help address emerging trends and develop potential solutions for airport passenger terminals. Volume 1 addresses the airside, terminal building, and landside components of the terminal complex.

Volume 2 of ACRP Report 25 consists of a CD-ROM containing 11 spreadsheet models, which include practical learning exercises and several airport-specific sample data sets to assist users in determining appropriate model inputs for their situations, and a user’s guide to assist the user in the correct use of each model. The models on the CD-ROM include such aspects of terminal planning as design hour determination, gate demand, check-in and passenger and baggage screening, which require complex analyses to support planning decisions. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image.

View information about the TRB webinar on ACRP Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, which was held on Monday, April 26, 2010.

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