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Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook (2010)

Chapter: Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Checklists (for Planning and Design)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A-1 A-1 Demand Data, A-2 A-2 Airside Planning Checklist, A-2 A-3 Terminal Planning Checklist, A-4 A-4 Landside Planning Checklist, A-6 A-5 Business Considerations, A-7 A-6 Concessions, A-8 A-7 Security, A-9 A-8 Baggage Handling Systems, A-14 A-9 Information Technology, A-18 A-10 Sustainability, A-19 A P P E N D I X A Checklists (for Planning and Design)

A-2 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design A-1 Demand Data Passenger and Aircraft Activity Levels ▫ Total Million Annual Passengers ▫ Annual Enplaning Passengers ▫ Domestic  % origin and destination  % connecting ▫ International  % origin and destination  % connecting  % in-transit ▫ Peak Month/Average Day ▫ Peak Hour Passengers (Rolling Clock Hour) ▫ Domestic  % origin and destination  % connecting  % load factor ▫ International  % origin and destination  % connecting  % load factor ▫ Ratio of Meeters/Greeters to Deplaning Passengers ▫ Ratio of Well-Wishers to Enplaning Passengers ▫ Average Traveling Party Size ▫ Ratio of Checked Bags for Enplaning Passengers  % of passengers checking bags ▫ Ratio of Carry-on Bags for Enplaning Passengers ▫ Annual Aircraft Operations  Domestic  International ▫ Peak Hour Aircraft Movements ▫ Air Carriers  Fleet mix Current Gated Aircraft Schedule A-2 Airside Planning Checklist Functional Planning ▫ Aircraft Maneuvering  Taxiway and taxilane separations  Dual vs. single apron taxilanes  Aircraft push-back zone  Power-in and power-out operation  Tug-in and tug-out operation

 Apron circulation  Jet blast impacts (blast fence) ▫ Apron Service Roads  Tail-of-stand  Head-of-stand  Between aircraft ▫ Air Traffic Control Tower Line-of-Sight ▫ Passenger Loading  Loading bridges (single and multiple)  Apron ground loading (bus and walk-out)  Mobile lounges  Mobile stairs ▫ Ground Service Equipment Storage ▫ Aircraft Servicing  Ground service equipment staging areas  Ground servicing points (fueling, water, etc.)  Hydrant fueling and truck fueling  Ground service equipment aircraft operating/clearance areas ▫ Apron Pavement Design ▫ Apron Slopes Pavement Gradients  Drainage  Fueling  Deicing ▫ Aircraft Parking  Capacity/fleet mix  Contact gates  Remote positions  Wingtip clearances  Safety clearances (taxi-in and push-out)  Safety clearances (power-in and power-out)  Safety clearances (passenger bus operation)  Flexibility in multiple aircraft type  Impact on terminal configuration ▫ Apron Marking  Ground service equipment parking and staging  Taxiway/taxilane centerline  Service roads  Pedestrian walkways  Aircraft maneuvering  Aircraft nose–wheel stop marks  Aircraft hold lines  Restricted areas ▫ Aircraft Guidance Systems  Docking systems  Lighting  Marking ▫ Emergency Equipment Access Roads ▫ Aircraft Apron/Gate Access Points ▫ Apron Lighting Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-3

▫ Aircraft Deicing  Decentralized (at gate)  Centralized ▫ Apron Snow Removal Operation  Snow haul route  Snow melter locations and operating area  Snow dump sites  Interaction with aircraft and ground service equipment ▫ Miscellaneous Planning Considerations  To be determined A-3 Terminal Planning Checklist Current Passenger Aircraft Parking Positions ▫ Contact Gates ▫ Maximum Aircraft Size (determined by wingspan) ▫ Minimum Aircraft Size (determined by door sill height) ▫ Passenger Loading Bridges ▫ Apron Loaded Gates at Terminal ▫ Maximum Aircraft Size Remote Overnight Design Aircraft (Current and Future) Airlines with Passenger Service Currently Serving Terminal(s) Airline Gate Assignments by Gate Number Existing As-Built Floor Plans (in Computer-Aided Design) Terminal Building Facilities Inventory ▫ Airline  Offices  Ticketing support  Operations and support  Clubs/VIP lounges  Departure lounges ▫ Passenger Ticketing/Passenger Check-in/Baggage Check-in System (square feet) ▪ Number of terminal, curbside, parking, and remote passenger check-in and baggage check-in positions  Staffed positions ▪ Number of positions ▪ Linear feet of frontage ▪ Area of function (square feet) ▪ Queue length (number of passengers) ▪ Average processing rate (by class of service in sec/passengers)  Self-service kiosks ▪ Number of positions and locations ▪ Linear feet of frontage (if in-line with regular counters) ▪ Area of function (square feet) ▪ Average processing rate (sec/passengers) ▪ Queue length capacity (number of passengers) A-4 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

 Security screening ▪ Priority screening lanes ▪ Regular screening lanes – Magnetometers – X-ray machines – Other devices – Area for inspection – Area for passenger queuing  Concessions (see A-6 Concessions Checklist) ▪ Secure concessions ▪ Non-secure concessions ▪ Concessions storage  Passenger amenities ▪ Paging systems and courtesy phones ▪ Wi-Fi ▪ Computer recharge ▪ Wheelchair storage  Baggage handling ▪ Outbound – Check-in – Outbound bag make-up area – Checked bag screening ▪ Explosives detection system – In-line devices ♦ Number of devices ♦ Type of devices ♦ Processing rates (rated and observed) ♦ Area of function (square feet) – Lobby devices ♦ Number of devices ♦ Type of devices ♦ Processing rates (rated and observed) ♦ Area of function (square feet) ▪ Inbound – Bag claim hall area (square feet) – Input belt area – Number & type of claim devices – Linear feet of each device – Baggage service offices  Public areas ▪ General circulation ▪ Ticket lobby circulation ▪ Secure circulation ▪ General circulation ▪ Restrooms – Secure – Non-secure ▪ Public seating ▪ Domestic meeter/greeter lobby ▪ Automated people mover/moving walk circulation area ▪ Non-public circulation Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-5

 Airport administration ▪ Offices/support ▪ Airport police ▪ Maintenance/janitorial/shops/storage  Building systems ▪ Structure/non-net/open-to-below ▪ Mechanical/electrical/telephone/plumbing  International arrivals processing (Customs and Border Protection) ▪ Primary inspection – Number of primary inspection booths – Primary inspection queue – Primary inspection support ▪ Baggage claim – Claim devices – Linear frontage – Baggage claim hall (square feet) ▪ Secondary inspection – Secondary inspection area – Secondary inspection counters – Agricultural inspection stations – Area agriculture inspection ▪ Support functions – Customs and Border Protection administration – Customs and Border Protection administrative support ▪ Other functions – Sterile circulation – In-transit/sterile holding areas – Public restrooms – General circulation – Greeter lobby ♦ Greeter waiting area ♦ Tour group assembly ▪ Baggage recheck – Number of recheck positions – Area of recheck positions – Recheck queue  Gross terminal(s) size (square feet) A-4 Landside Planning Checklist General Issues Regulations and Guidelines ▫ Highway Capacity Manual ▫ AASHTO ▫ Local Municipal Codes ▫ FAA Advisory Circulars Planning Considerations ▫ Growth Rate ▫ Current Level of Service A-6 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-7 ▫ Expansion Plans ▫ Airport Characteristics  Desired LOS  Airport size Elements ▫ Pedestrian Curbfronts and Sidewalks ▫ Vehicular Travel Lanes ▫ Parking ▫ Rail Transit ▫ Vehicle Staging Areas Airport-Operated Transit Systems A-5 Business Considerations Strategic Positioning ▫ Understanding of the customer and traffic trends ▫ Understanding of competitive environments ▫ Understanding of business stakeholders ▫ Understanding of service and business philosophy of airport ▫ Understanding of trends occurring in other airport terminal developments ▫ Strengths/weaknesses/opportunities/threats analysis ▫ Airport mission and goals confirmation ▫ Proceed to planning and programming Adaptability ▫ Identify relevant sources of future demands (e.g., types of passenger traffic and consumer demands) ▫ Evaluate stability of markets in relation to useful life of terminal improvements ▫ Consider uncertainty of technology, security, and environmental futures along with traffic and consumer uncertainty in evaluation of investments ▫ Evaluate alternative means of delivering services and identify facility requirements of preferred delivery means ▫ Consider business processes integration into building systems ▫ Evaluate options to increase adaptability of improvements to meet range of likely demands ▫ Review planning and programming decisions from perspective of adaptability Affordability ▫ Establish spending limits within financial goals of airport through financial planning ▫ Engage airline and other tenant property representatives in program consultations early and throughout process ▫ Assure business voice in program scope and budget change management ▫ Establish and monitor cost responsibilities between airport and tenants ▫ Analyze tradeoffs of costs between capital costs now and future operations and maintenance costs ▫ Establish monitoring systems to track program costs against key metrics

A-8 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design A-6 Concessions Availability of Key Commercial Data ▫ Financial and Other Commercial Data  Historic and current gross sales by shop unit, product category, operator, and location  Historic and current concession revenues (amounts paid by shop operator to airport operator) by shop unit, product category, operator, and location ▫ Commercial Terms  Business terms for key commercial tenants (start date, end date, description of monthly/ annual minimum sales guarantee fees, percent concession fees, base monthly space rental rates, product categories allowed, other) Terminal Facility Data ▫ Shop Spaces  Historic and current space amounts by shop unit, product category, and location  Site plans (shop layout plans, terminal plans, diagrams of major passenger flows, key processing facilities such as security, airline check-in counters, others) ▫ Storage Space  In-terminal  Off-site ▫ Waste Collection Points and Processing Aviation Statistics ▫ Current, Sample Day (24-hour period) Departing Flight Schedule (airline, flight time, departure time, gate, aircraft type, departing passenger) ▫ Detailed Passenger Activity (number of monthly passengers by airline, by destination) ▫ Airport Passenger Forecasts (arriving and departing passenger during peak planning hour, annual passenger) Commercial Studies ▫ Passenger Commercial Surveys (sales per passenger, passenger destination, landside and airside dwell times, gate location) ▫ Other Consumer Market Research (meeters/greeters, airport staff, others) Space Location Strategies ▫ Clustering or decentralization of shops ▫ Locations of commercial nodes  Landside and airside  Departures and arrivals (if segregated)  Domestic and international ▫ Co-location of commercial activities with other passenger facilities (such as Flight Information Display Systems, toilets, vertical and horizontal circulation) Facility Expansion ▫ Terminal Building Expansion Projects  Minimizing impact of construction on existing commercial activities ▫ Ability to Develop Commercial Clusters at New Locations  Locations and sizes ▫ Ability to Expand Individual Shops and/or Develop New Shops At Existing Locations

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-9 Shop Development Standards ▫ Tenant design criteria manual ▫ Airport management review process A-7 Security General Planning and Design Considerations ▫ Meet with airport sponsor, architect, law enforcement, Transportation Security Administration, Customs and Border Protection ▫ Meet with relevant airport users and stakeholders, including tenants and other local and federal government agencies ▫ Review master plans for flexibility to meet future expansion ▫ Review regulatory requirements ▫ Threat and vulnerability assessment ▫ Needs assessment of airport users and tenants ▫ Review information technology infrastructure to support security requirements ▫ Define physical boundaries between public and secure/sterile areas ▫ Deter public access to non-public areas—physical and visual barriers ▫ Minimize areas where objects or persons can be concealed  Columns, corners, potted plants, large art works, utility tunnels, closets, storage areas, enclosed stairways ▫ Personnel circulation includes vertical separation (elevators, escalators, stairwells) as well as horizontal; requires secure access and passageways. Prevent public access. ▫ Supporting utility infrastructure (power, data, communications) for any security areas Terminal Vulnerable Areas ▫ Connections from the terminal to utility services in power and communications ▫ Hotels, parking structures, or other internal or adjacent facilities and structures ▫ Loading docks and delivery areas ▫ Locations for person or object concealment ▫ People moving systems, if exposed, including underground and elevated rail ▫ Primary transformers and switching gear ▫ Secondary generating equipment and transmission facilities ▫ Utility tunnels or ducts entering a terminal below grade ▫ Walkway or bridge connections to other terminals Security System Infrastructure ▫ Separation from non-security infrastructure ▫ Controlled physical access; access for maintenance Blast Mitigation ▫ Curbside roadways  Check-in facilities—bag check/hold areas  Space and alternate routing for high-alert vehicle screening  Close-in or in/on terminal parking  Bollards ▫ Terminal façade—glass fragmentation

A-10 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Space and Movement/Access for ▫ Adequate queuing space—Airport Ticket Office, lobby, at security screening checkpoints ▫ Airport operational personnel ▫ Tenants/concessions—across/behind security boundary; deliveries ▫ Unimpeded security and emergency response routes New Construction vs. Alterations ▫ Both require the same attention to security ▫ Alterations at one location may affect security at downstream locations Sterile Areas ▫ Refers to the area between the security screening checkpoints and the aircraft loading bridge and/or holdroom door ▫ Primary objective; passenger containment, preventing access to weapons or contraband after the screening process has occurred ▫ Number of access portals limited to the minimum operational necessity, but not to preclude physical expansion or changes of increased airline/tenant operations ▫ Comply with local fire and life safety codes, Americans with Disabilities Act, and so forth ▫ Consider “hidden” potential access pathways in restrooms, airline lounges, kitchen facilities, plumbing chases, air vents, drains, trash chutes, utility tunnels or other channels ▫ Consider access needs of airport and airline personnel, operations offices, crew marshalling areas, maintenance and concession staff and supplies ▫ Tenant personnel and airport employees who require access into the sterile area from public occupancy areas (alternate paths away from security screening checkpoints) ▫ Emergency response routes and pathways—in and out for off-airport response, emergency medical services and fire personnel ▫ Concession delivery and storage requirements beyond security, including perishables ▫ Built-in security-friendly fixtures (i.e., railings, pillars, bollards, open lines of sight, etc.) Public Areas ▫ Curbside—points of congestion, baggage check handling and movement ▫ Public lobby areas (ticketing, bag claim, rental car) ▫ Carrier support areas requiring security considerations (lost luggage, package delivery, landside) with easy explosive ordinance disposal/law enforcement officer access ▫ Select furnishings and accessories—benches, ashtrays, trash cans—that avoid the concealment of explosives ▫ Minimal seating in ticketing lobbies will reduce congestion, push people outward ▫ Consider needs of international or high-risk aircraft operators with extended security measures during the passenger check-in process (i.e., El Al, Saudi). Additional queuing and processing space may be required ▫ Public emergency exits  Security doors vs. fire doors  Some exit requirements have specific widths and separation distances  Coordinate locations closely with the Fire Marshal and/or Code officials  Avoid moving persons from lower security areas to higher security areas  The number of emergency exits leading into secured areas should be minimized  Consider emergency doors with push-type panic bars with 15- to 30-second delays

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-11 ▫ Concession areas  Consider moving concessions during heightened security  Short delivery access routes that minimize crossing security boundaries  Locate concessions storage areas in public or non-secured/low-risk areas (with appropriate screening when moved) Non-Public Areas ▫ Service Corridors, Stairwells and Vertical Circulation—should not cross boundaries of secure areas ▫ Airport Personnel/Administrative Offices—connect via corridors and stairs to minimize the need to cross security boundaries; accommodate visitors and public access—potential for satellite police, ID or first aid offices ▫ Tenant Spaces  Some tenants may have their own security, and/or require tie-in to the airport access control and alarm system  Tenant money-handling, overnight operations, early morning concession deliveries Security-Related Space for ▫ Security/Emergency Operations Center (expanded below) ▫ Transportation Security Administration ▫ Department of Homeland Security ▫ Federal Agencies (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, etc.) ▫ Law Enforcement and Public Safety Areas  Public safety or police offices  Adequate space (in no particular order) for ▪ Briefing/work room ▪ Training classroom/offices ▪ Property/evidence room(s) ▪ Conference rooms—can be part of Airport Emergency Command Post/operations room(s) ▪ Holding cells ▪ Physical fitness area in conjunction with lockers, showers, and restrooms ▪ General storage areas ▪ Secured arms storage ▪ Kitchen/lunchroom facilities  Areas requiring access for public and tenants but protected with adequate controls ▪ Law enforcement officer administrative office ▪ Security ID badging office ▪ Lost and found ▪ Security Identification Display Area/tenant training rooms ▪ Medical services ▫ Law Enforcement Parking—direct landside/Security Identification Display Area access ▫ Dogs/K-9 Team Facilities ▫ If no on-site K-9, specify non-critical area for on-call K-9 use  Rule of thumb: a 4×8 indoor pen, attached to an outdoor fenced exercise run  Plumbing and drainage—epoxy coated for cleaning  Fresh air circulation, dry environment  Secured, and isolated from casual public contact  Areas for veterinarian services and training activities  Isolation from noise and odor sources, especially jet fuel fumes

A-12 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design  Secured storage for explosives test and training items; coordinated with ATF  Consider proximity to Explosive Ordinance Disposal personnel and to threat containment units Security Operations Center ▫ Consider multiple redundant communications options for police, fire, rescue, airport operations, crash/hijack alert, off-airport emergency assistance, and security of communications ▫ Locate close to the Airport Emergency Command Post, in a secure area ▫ Cabling interconnections, a central location for reasonable cable lengths ▫ Floor space; cabinets; power; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; fiber optics and cabling; and conduit paths ▫ Rear access to console for maintenance and update ▫ Fire alarm monitoring, Flight Information Display System, Baggage Information Display Systems ▫ Airport radio and personnel paging systems ▫ Plan for alternate secondary site capable of supporting the basic operation. ▫ Direct view of the airside and the isolated parking position is desirable. ▫ Space needs  Space for crisis management team’s operational group and negotiators  Advisory Circular 150/5200-31A regarding airport emergency planning can assist  Raised flooring is an option for installation of ducts and cable paths.  Electrical power must be uninterrupted Customs and Border Protection/Federal Inspections Services Federal Inspections Services agencies publish a separate document for security design requirements ▫ Airport Technical Design Standards—Facility Standards for Passenger Processing at Airports and Pre-Clearance Sites ▫ Also reference FAA AC 150/5360-13 Chemical & Biological ▫ Consider position of air vent intakes; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system capacity for airflow management ▫ Consider areas for quarantine, detox, chem-bio screening of people, packages, and vehicles ▫ Capacity to accommodate outside mutual medical aid ▫ See also, “Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism,” Sandia Report SAND2005-3237 ▫ Sources of additional bio-chem guidance: Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Energy, Center for Disease Control, and Office for Domestic Preparedness Support. Security Screening Checkpoints ▫ Transportation Security Administration has separate 71-page guidance document: “Security Checkpoint Layout Design/Reconfiguration Guide” (Nov. 2006) ▫ Elements of the security screening checkpoint  Prescreening preparation instruction zone  Queuing space  Walk-through metal detector  Non-metallic barriers  Non-metallic Americans with Disabilities Act gate/access  Carry-on baggage X-ray machine

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-13  Divest & composure areas, tables  Security screening checkpoint adjacent barriers  Holding stations  Wanding stations  Explosive Trace Detection machines  Egress seating area  Supplemental X-ray  Law enforcement officer station  Supervisor station  Private search area  Closed circuit television coverage  Data connections/cabinet  Security screening checkpoint lighting  Wireless access point  Exit travel lane  Exit lane station  Exit lane closed circuit television  Space for Transportation Security Administration staff  Remote screening/monitoring room Consider Allotting Utilities and Space Accommodations for ▫ Temporary security screening checkpoint during peak or emergency operations ▫ Space and infrastructure for expansion of existing and new security screening checkpoint locations Access Control Systems: Power Requirements ▫ Emergency power systems/battery backup for servers ▫ Emergency power systems/battery backup for control panels ▫ Emergency power systems/battery backup for operating stations ▫ Emergency power systems/battery backup for door hardware Access Control at Security Portals ▫ Minimize number of points of access for security and cost ▫ Reduces cost when screening becomes necessary ▫ Remain flexible for future expansion Potential Access Control Locations ▫ Terminal Area Access Points  Secure area access personnel doors  Air Operations Area access personnel doors  Sterile area access personnel doors  Concourse area entrances (drop-down grills)  Inbound/outbound baggage doors  Inbound/outbound baggage doors control  Loading dock doors to secure/sterile/Security Identification Display Area/Air Operations Area  Service corridor and stairwell doors  Administrative office doors  Telecommunication room doors  Maintenance area/equipment room doors  Tenant and concessions area doors

 Roof access points  Manhole/utility access points  Fire/emergency exit doors  Hazardous material storage areas  Terminal duress alarms  Passenger screening checkpoints  Baggage screening areas  Ticketing/rental car counters  Air Operations Area/Security Identification Display Area/secure vehicle gates Surveillance and Video Detection Systems ▫ Lighting ▫ Camera Installations—derived from operational analysis of surveillance required—potential for tracking with video analytics  Ticket counters  Kiosks  Terminal apron  Security checkpoint areas  Throughout sterile areas  Public lobby areas  Roadway/curbside baggage areas  Loading dock/police parking areas  Administrative and tenant areas  Airside access doors and gates  Baggage handling and claim areas  Federal Inspection Services areas  Access-controlled door access points  Public and employee parking areas  Adequate night-time lighting for all appropriate camera locations  Alternative technologies—Airport Surface Detection Equipment radar, infrared cameras A-8 Baggage Handling Systems Terminal/Airport Facilities and Operations Identify Design Team ▫ Baggage Handling System Designer ▫ Architect & Engineering Group ▫ Customer ▫ Airline Authority and/or Representatives ▫ Airport Authority and/or Representatives ▫ Transportation Security Administration Authority and/or Transportation Security Adminis- tration Representatives Facility Type ▫ Separated Airline Operations  Inbound baggage system  Outbound baggage systems ▫ Common Use Facility  Inbound baggage system  Outbound baggage system A-14 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-15 Carrier Type ▫ Legacy Carrier ▫ Low-Cost Air Carrier ▫ International Carriers ▫ Domestic Carriers ▫ Commuter/Regional Carriers ▫ Charter/Seasonal ▫ Hub Operations  Small  Medium  Large Identify Project Parameters ▫ Budget/Rough Order of Magnitude ▫ Space Requirements and Limitations for Baggage Handling System in Terminal ▫ Current and Future Projected/Forecasted Passenger Volume with Established Criteria Number of Bags per Passenger  Originating  Transfers Baggage Handling System Parameters Outbound Originating Baggage System ▫ Originating Passenger Check-in  Traditional staffed ticket counters ▪ Domestic ▪ International ▪ First Class  Self-service devices  Remote self-service devices with tag printing capabilities  Curbside check-in facilities  Remote/off-site check-in facilities  Bus/train/rental car check-in facilities  Odd sized/oversized  Non-conveyable/special handling items  Bagwell scales ▫ Sortation System  Centralized baggage system  Decentralized baggage system ▫ Sortation Components  Automated tag reader ▪ Laser scanner tag reader ▪ Radio frequency identification tag reader ▫ Sortation Device Types  Run-out belt  Sloped bed make-up device  Flat plate make-up device  Sort piers ▪ Drive-thru or manual manipulation ▪ Single or double stacked

A-16 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design  Tilt-tray  Destination coded vehicle—high-speed vehicle ▫ Sortation Operational Requirements  Flight Information Display System  Drive aisle/drive-thru rights-of-way ▪ Common tug-cart lanes  Baggage cart storage ▪ Single common use system ▫ Transfer Baggage ▫ Early Bag Storage System Inbound Domestic Operations—Baggage Claim ▫ Separated Facility from International ▫ Flat Plate Claim  Oval configuration  L-shaped configuration  T-shaped configuration  W-shaped configuration ▫ Sloped Bed Claim  Single feed belt configuration  Double feed belt configuration ▫ Odd-Sized/Oversized Baggage  Odd-sized/oversized belt system ▪ Single location or multiple locations  Odd-sized/oversized stainless steel slide ▪ Single location or multiple locations ▫ Non-Conveyable/Special Handling Items Baggage Handling System Support ▫ Baggage Handling System Command Center/Control Room ▫ Baggage Handling System Remote Monitoring Locations ▫ Baggage Handling System Spare Parts Room ▫ Baggage Handling System Maintenance Room ▫ Motor Control Panel Baggage Handling System Locations and/or Room Federal Inspection Services Baggage Handling System Inbound International Operations—International Baggage Claim/Baggage Re-Check ▫ Separated Facilities ▫ Odd-Sized/Oversized Baggage  Odd-sized/oversized belt system ▪ Straight belt system ▪ Belt system with oversized turns  Odd-sized/oversized stainless steel slide ▫ Flat Plate Claim—claim level and apron level at same elevation ▫ Sloped Bed Claim  Claim level and apron level at same elevation feed to sloped bed from overhead  Claim level at higher elevation than apron level and feed to sloped bed from underneath  Claim level at lower elevation than apron level and feed to sloped bed from overhead

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-17 ▫ Recheck Facilities  Odd-sized/oversized recheck baggage system  Recheck belt system Checked Baggage Inspection Screening System Outbound Baggage Screening Options ▫ Originating Passenger Baggage Screening  Manual Explosive Detection System Screening System  Automated In-Line Screening System ▪ Single common use system ▪ Multiple common use systems ▪ Separate domestic and international systems ▪ Explosive Trace Device machines ▪ Explosive detection system machines – Federal Inspection Services lobby based – Remote Secured Side System  Odd-sized/Oversized Screening System ▪ Odd-sized/oversized conveyable baggage screening system – Lobby based – In-line capabilities ▪ Non-conveyable/special items baggage screening system – Lobby-based system – Secured side system  Lobby Screening System ▪ Pre-check-in ▪ Post-check-in  Remote/Offsite Check-in  Curbside Check-in  Transportation Security Administration—Latest Revision of Checked Baggage Inspection System Design Guidelines Inbound Baggage Screening Options ▫ Transfer Passenger Baggage Screening  International Recheck  Canadian Transfer/Recheck  In-Line Screening System ▪ Single common use system ▪ Multiple common use systems ▪ Separate domestic and international systems  Odd-sized/Oversized Screening System ▪ Odd-sized/oversized conveyable baggage screening system – Explosive Trace Device machines – Explosive detection system machines ♦ Federal Inspection Services lobby based ♦ Remote secured side system ♦ In-line capabilities ▪ Non-conveyable baggage screening system – Federal Inspection Services lobby based system ♦ Explosive Trace Device machines – Remote secured side system  Federal Inspection Services Lobby Screening System

A-18 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design In-Line Explosive Detection System Support ▫ Explosive Detection System Room ▫ On-Screen Resolution Room ▫ Muxing Room ▫ Explosive Trace Device Room ▫ Explosive Detection System Spare Parts Room ▫ Baggage Handling System Command Center/Control Room ▫ Baggage Handling System Spare Parts Room ▫ Baggage Handling System Maintenance Room ▫ Motor Control Panel Locations and/or Room A-9 Information Technology Planning Considerations for Terminals ▫ Stakeholder Requirements  Airport Departments  Public Safety  Air Carriers  Cargo Carriers  Concessionaires  Other Tenants  Transportation Security Administration including International Arrivals ▫ Shared and Common Use Facilities  Multi-User Flight Information Display System/Flight Information Display System  Paging/Announcements  Common Use Terminal Equipment, Multi-User System Environment and Common Use Self-Service  Holdroom and Gate Services  Baggage Handling and Reconciliation  Physical Security including badges  Information Technology Cable Plant—fiber and copper  Information Technology Wireless Services  Geo-location including vehicle and personnel tracking ▫ Level and Quality of Service  Service Level Guarantees ▫ Expansion Plans Information Technology System Architecture and Design ▫ Network Framework and Capacity  Ethernet Standards  Distributed Model  Quantity and Location of Nodes  Network Services ▪ Data ▪ Voice ▪ Video—community antenna television, security closed circuit television  Bandwidth Management and Over-Subscription ▪ Optimization for quality of service

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-19  Video Management  Storage Management ▪ Storage policies ▪ Storage access ▪ Watermarking ▫ Network Functions and Design Requirements  Functional Requirements ▪ System redundancy and failover ▪ Data segmentation and virtual private networks ▪ Multicasting ▪ Internet access and IPv6 ▪ Configuration management ▪ Performance monitoring  Server Farms  Data Centers and Telecommunication Rooms ▪ Space, power, and cooling requirements ▪ Layouts and cabling ▪ Backup electrical power ▪ Physical security and access control  Cable Plant ▪ Cable Routing—public vs. secured areas ▪ Cable Management ▫ Network Security  Firewalls and De-Militarized Zones  Access Management and Permissions  Wireless Security  Remote Access Provisions IT System Support ▫ Operation ▫ Maintenance ▫ Training A-10 Sustainability Design Process ▫ Kick-off Charrette ▫ Integrated Process ▫ Project Preview and Coordination ▫ Construction Administration Site Development ▫ Implement an erosion and sedimentation control plan ▫ Avoid developing on  Prime farmland  Previously undeveloped land with an elevation of 5 feet below the 100-year flood plain  Land inhabited by endangered or threatened species  Areas within 100 feet of any wetlands  Previously undeveloped land within 50 feet of a water body  Land that is or has been defined as public parkland

A-20 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design ▫ Direct development to urban areas where infrastructure exists, greenfields are protected and habitats and natural resources are protected ▫ Remediate project areas where environmental contamination has occurred—reducing pressure on undeveloped land ▫ Provide access to public commuter rails, light rails, subways, or bus lines ▫ Provide preferred parking for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles ▫ Install alternative fuel refueling stations ▫ Size parking capacity to meet but not exceed minimum local zoning requirements ▫ Limit site disturbance beyond the immediate project site ▫ Restore damaged areas within the project site with native or adaptive vegetation ▫ Reduce the development footprint (defined as the total area of the building footprint, hardscape, access roads, parking) by providing a high ratio of open space to development footprint ▫ Implement a stormwater management plan to  Decrease the amount of stormwater runoff from the site by increasing perviousness on site (i.e., vegetated roofs, pervious pavement, rain garden, vegetated swales, etc.)  Reduce or eliminate water pollution from runoff by increasing pervious cover on site (i.e., vegetated roofs, pervious pavement, rain garden, vegetated swales, etc.) ▫ Reduce site heat island effect (thermal gradient differences between developed and undeveloped areas) by utilizing sustainable design strategies:  Provide shading for site hardscapes  Use paving and roofing materials with a high Solar Reflectance Index (at least 29)  Use an open grid paving system where applicable  Provide underground parking whenever possible ▫ Minimize light trespass from the building and site to reduce glare and improve night-time visibility  Decrease the amount of direct light emitting from the interior of the building to the exterior  Incorporate lighting controls into design  Use low-intensity, shielded fixtures on exterior lighting equipment Water Conservation ▫ Reduce or eliminate the need for potable water used for irrigation purposes  Incorporate native or adaptive species into landscape design eliminating the need for turf grasses  Capture rain water to use for on-site irrigation purposes  Recycle project site wastewater to use for irrigation purposes  Use public water specifically designed for non-potable uses for irrigation ▫ Minimize potable water demand and maximize water efficiency within the building  Install water-conserving fixtures (toilets, faucets, waterless urinals, etc.)  Use captured rain water, recycled greywater, or on-site/municipally treated wastewater for non-potable water uses  Treat wastewater to tertiary standards to be used on site Energy Conservation and Ozone Protection ▫ Employ a commissioning agent early on in the design process to verify all building related energy systems are sized, installed, calibrated, and perform in accordance with the owner’s project requirements

Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-21  Heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and refrigeration and associated controls  Lighting and daylighting controls  Domestic hot water systems  Renewable energy systems [photovoltaic (PV), wind, etc.] ▫ Specify that all refrigeration equipment is chlorofluorocarbon free  Choose refrigerant and HVAC&R with zero to low ozone depleting potential and direct global warming potential ▫ Demonstrate measurable increase of energy efficiency above baseline building performance using energy modeling ▫ Offset project site energy costs by designing and specifying renewable energy systems (solar, wind, biomass, etc.) ▫ Develop and implement a measurement and verification plan to evaluate project building performance ▫ Purchase grid-sourced, renewable energy technology power  Enter into a 2-year contract with utility to purchase Green power  Purchase Green-e certified Renewable Energy Certificates (www.green-e.org) Material Procurement ▫ Develop and implement a construction waste management plan  Divert a significant amount of construction, demolition, and land-clearing wastes from landfill  Recycle cardboard, metals, brick, acoustic tile, concrete, plastics, clean wood, glass, gypsum wallboard, carpet and insulation  Verify diverted material has been recycled or salvaged as intended ▫ Designate an easily accessible area that serves as a collection and storage site for non-hazardous materials to be recycled ▫ Reuse a significant portion of an existing building’s structure and envelope in order to reduce waste and reduce the impact that building a new building has on the environment ▫ Reuse non-structural elements to conserve resources, reduce wastes, and reduce the impact that building a new building has on the environment  Interior walls  Doors  Floor coverings  Ceiling systems ▫ Reuse building materials and products  Use salvaged, refurbished, or reused materials in the construction of the project for non-specialty items  Materials include but are not limited to posts and beams, flooring, paneling, frames and doors, cabinetry, furniture, brick, decorative items ▫ Specify materials with post-consumer/post-industrial recycled content  Steel, concrete, gypsum board, acoustical ceiling tile, carpet, ceramic tile ▫ Specify materials or products that have been extracted, harvested, recovered, or manufactured within 500 miles of project site ▫ Specify rapidly renewable building materials and products  Materials made from plants that are typically harvested within a 10-year cycle ▫ Specify wood-based material and products be certified in accordance with the Forest Steward- ship Council

A-22 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Indoor Environmental Quality ▫ Develop and implement a construction indoor air management plan  This section includes requirements for the development of a construction indoor air qual- ity management plan (alternately referred to as “the Plan”). Develop the Plan for approval by the owner and architect. The Plan shall be implemented throughout the duration of the project construction, and shall be documented as outlined in the Submittal Require- ments of Item 1.08 below. The Plan is included as part of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building requirements for the project. ▫ Prohibit smoking within the project buildings  Locate designated smoking areas at least 25 feet from entryways, outdoor air intakes, and operable windows ▫ Install monitoring equipment on ventilation systems to ensure that the system will maintain minimum ventilation requirements  Monitor CO2 concentrations within all densely populated areas  Monitor airflow in all project spaces ▫ Specify the use of low volatile organic compound materials to be used on the interior of the building (defined as inside the weatherproofing system and applied on-site): ARCHITECTURAL APPLICATIONS: GRAMS/LITER Shall not exceed the limits defined in Rule 1168 – “Adhesive and Sealant Applications” of the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), of the State of California. 05evisehdatepracroodnI 05evisehdadaptepraC 001evisehdagniroolFdooW 06evisehdaroolfrebbuR 05evisehdaroolfbuS 56evisehdaelitcimareC 05evisehdaelittlahpsadnaTCV 05evisehdalenapdnallawyrD 05evisehdaesabevoC Multipurpose construction adhesive 70 001evisehdagnizalglarutcurtS SPECIALTY APPLICATIONS: GRAMS/LITER 015gnidlewCVP 094gnidlewCVPC 523gnidlewSBA 052gnidlewtnemeccitsalP 052citsalprofremirpevisehdA 08evisehdAtcatnoC Special Purpose Contact Adhesive 250 Adhesive Primer for Traffic Marking Tape 150 Structural Wood Member Adhesive 140 Sheet Applied Rubber Lining Operations 850 052evisehdAmirTdnapoT SUBSTRATE SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS GRAMS/LITER 03latemotlateM 05smaofcitsalP 05)doowtpecxe(lairetamsuoroP 03dooW 08ssalgrebiF RETIL/SMARG:STIMILCOVTNALAES 052larutcetihcrA Single Ply Roof Material Installation/Repair 450 Non-membrane Roof Installation/Repair 300 024rehtO Sealant Primer: 052suoropnoN–larutcetihcrA 577suoroP–larutcetihcrA 057rehtO PAINTS, PRIMERS, AND COATINGS GRAMS/LITER Shall not exceed the limits below as defined in GreenSeal Standard 11 (GS-11), First Edition, May 20, 1993 05sehsiniFtalF Non-Flat Finishes (i.e. satin, gloss) 150 052sehsiniFtniaPevisorroC-itnA Shall not exceed the limits defined in GreenSeal Standard 03 (GS-03), Anti-Corrosive Paints, Second Edition, January 7, 1997 ARCHITECTURAL COATINGS: GRAMS/LITER Shall not exceed the limits defined in Rule 1113 – “Architectural Coatings”. Rule in effect January 1, 2004. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), State of California, www.aqmd.gov 053hsinraV:hsiniFdooWraelC 055reuqcaL:hsiniFdooWraelC 052sniatS 001sgnitaoCroolF 052srelaeSgnifoorPretaW 572srelaeSgnidnaS 002srelaeSrehtOllA 037raelC:callehS 055detnemgiP:callehS

▫ Carpet systems shall meet the testing and product requirements of the Carpet and Rug Institute Green Label Plus program ▫ Composite wood and agrifiber wood products (i.e., particle board, medium density fiberboard, plywood, wheatboard, strawboard, panel substrates, door cores, etc.) used on the interior of project building shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde substances ▫ Provide comfortable thermal environment for all building occupants using American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning 55-2005  “This standard specifies the combinations of indoor space environment and personal factors that will produce thermal environmental conditions acceptable to 80% or more of the occupants within a space. The environmental factors addressed are temperature, thermal radiation, humidity, and air speed; the personal factors are those of activity and clothing.” ▫ Specify implementing a thermal comfort survey of the project building’s full-time and part-time employees  Take corrective action if survey shows more than 20% of full-time and part-time employees are dissatisfied with thermal comfort levels ▫ Design and build project building to maximize interior daylighting Construction Practices ▫ Construction Waste Management Plan ▫ Construction Indoor Environmental Quality Plan ▫ Low-Emitting Equipment Checklists (for Planning and Design) A-23

Next: Appendix B - Other Pertinent ACRP Studies »
Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook Get This Book
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design comprises a guidebook, spreadsheet models, and a user’s guide in two volumes and a CD-ROM intended to provide guidance in planning and developing airport passenger terminals and to assist users in analyzing common issues related to airport terminal planning and design.

Volume 1 of ACRP Report 25 explores the passenger terminal planning process and provides, in a single reference document, the important criteria and requirements needed to help address emerging trends and develop potential solutions for airport passenger terminals. Volume 1 addresses the airside, terminal building, and landside components of the terminal complex.

Volume 2 of ACRP Report 25 consists of a CD-ROM containing 11 spreadsheet models, which include practical learning exercises and several airport-specific sample data sets to assist users in determining appropriate model inputs for their situations, and a user’s guide to assist the user in the correct use of each model. The models on the CD-ROM include such aspects of terminal planning as design hour determination, gate demand, check-in and passenger and baggage screening, which require complex analyses to support planning decisions. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image.

View information about the TRB webinar on ACRP Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, which was held on Monday, April 26, 2010.

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