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Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook (2010)

Chapter: Appendix C - FAA White Papers

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - FAA White Papers." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Management and Financial Considerations in Terminal Planning and Design, C-2 Operational and Maintenance (O&M) Considerations in Terminal Planning and Design, C-10 Airport Terminal Fire/Life Safety & Emergency Evacuation, C-17 FAA White Papers consulted in the development of the Guidebook, C-28 C-1 A P P E N D I X C FAA White Papers

Topic Paper Management and Financial Considerations in Terminal Planning and Design Prepared for U.S. DOT/Volpe National Transportation Systems Center By Mark W. Nagle March 2004 Introduction Today more than ever, management and financial considerations are essential to the planning and design of airport passenger terminals. While most commercial-service airports and passenger terminals in the United States are publicly owned and operated, management practices increasingly resemble private sector enterprise. In formulating terminal development programs today, management’s objectives often emphasize revenue maximization, efficiency, and flexibility. Meeting these objectives requires coordination between terminal planners and designers, financial planners, concession planners, and other practitioners involved in the process. Clearly, a basic understanding of management and financial considerations will enhance the terminal planner’s ability to make informed planning decisions that capture the desired pro- gram’s purpose, need, and scope. Moreover, the terminal planner’s appreciation of the needs and perspectives of management and financial planners will further enable all participants to work together in achieving expedited program acceptance, approvals and implementation. Airport management and airport finance are topics of considerable scope involving specialized fields of training and practice. More often than not, the terminal planner’s/designer’s training and background is not in either of these fields, but in a technical discipline such as engineering or architecture. This paper provides an overview discussion intended to help the terminal planner/ designer gain a basic understanding of some of the fundamental management and financial considerations that will facilitate informed and fruitful participation in collaborative terminal development efforts. Airport Management Overview Airport management is a uniquely challenging undertaking. Airports provide important public benefits as integral parts of the national transportation network, and as vital elements of local and regional economies. Most airports that serve airline passenger traffic in the United States are publicly owned and operated by local or state governments, or by quasi-public authorities created by local or state jurisdictions. Airports are subject to numerous local, state and federal regulations designed to address environmental issues, safety issues, and other concerns of vital public interest. At the same time, airports typically are expected to be self-financed with revenues obtained from airlines, concessionaires, passengers, and other airport users and tenants. In addition, airports must constantly adapt to an ever-changing operating environment driven by various, and often unpredictable, forces and events beyond management’s control. Airport Stakeholders Airport management typically deals with a diverse range of stakeholder groups with various direct and indirect interests in the airport. The range and mix of stakeholders varies from airport to airport; however, the same four basic categories of stakeholder constituencies are typically common to all. C-2 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Internal business stakeholders. This group is comprised of both commercial and non- commercial enterprises, including their employees, that have interests directly tied to the airport. Most prominent within this group are the airlines. Also included are commercial enterprises such as terminal concessionaires whose customer base is made up of airport users. Non-commercial enterprises such as FAA, Customs, Immigration & Naturalization, the TSA [and] their employ- ees are also included. External business stakeholders. This group includes the flying public and all other cus- tomers for services offered on the airport. Internal employee stakeholders. This group includes all employees of the airport and its parent organization. External general stakeholders. This group includes local citizens, taxpayers, nearby resi- dents, community members, and others who may or may not actually use the airport but may vote on airport issues or elect representatives who can influence airport policy and decisions. Types of Management Objectives Management’s objectives for undertaking a terminal development program can encompass a broad range reflecting the unique mix of stakeholders and characteristics of the air travel market it serves. Among the types of objectives that may be included are the following: • Enhancing or expanding capacity in response to changes in air service and levels of demand; • Enhancing passenger amenities and levels of service; • Maintaining or attracting air service; • Maximizing non-airline revenues; • Promoting competition among airline tenants; • Enhancing aviation security; • Enhancing the image and attractiveness of the local community as a travel destination; • Upgrading or modernizing obsolete facilities; • Maximizing or preserving operational flexibility; Pricing of Airport Facilities and Services Two basic approaches are used in the pricing of an airport’s facilities and services reflecting the airport’s dual role with respect to its internal business stakeholders. With respect to non-airline or non-aeronautical users, the airport operates like a private landlord and can set prices on a market basis. With respect to airlines and other aeronautical users, the airport must charge on a cost-recovery basis. Under a cost-recovery approach, airlines’ rates and charges are based on their allocated share of costs associated with running the airport. These costs typically include 1) costs for maintenance operations, and administration; 2) debt service, or capital cost recovery; and 3) debt service coverage. Airport Use and Lease Agreements The financial and operational arrangements between an airport and its internal business stakeholders are usually formalized in legally binding use and lease agreements. These agree- ments define both the airport’s and stakeholders’ rights and obligations and specific terms and conditions governing the stakeholders’ use of facilities owned by the airport. An airport may cover all of its facilities and services in a single use and lease agreement, or negotiate separate agreements covering use of the airfield, the terminal area, and other separate airport cost centers. FAA White Papers C-3

An airport can operate without a use and lease agreement. In such cases, rates and charges are usually set by ordinance. Among the key issues addressed in lease and use agreements are: (1) Rate Setting Method. The method used to determine the rents and fees paid by airlines and other tenants. (2) Airline Rights to Review/Approve. The degree of influence and control that the signatory airlines may have regarding capital investments and other policies that may affect their rates. (3) Length of Term of Use. The length of time that an airline or other tenant is granted use of a facility. Terms of use can be as high as 30 years or can run on a month-to-month basis. Use and lease agreements can be classified into three categories based on the approach taken in setting airline rates. These categories include residual, compensatory, and hybrid agreements. Residual agreements. Under a residual agreement, the signatory airlines collectively assume most of the financial risk of operating the airport. The basis for calculating airline rates is the difference, or residual, between the costs identified for all airport users and revenues from non- airline sources. In signing a residual agreement the airlines essentially provide the airport operator with a guarantee of financial solvency. However, the airport forgoes the opportunity to accumulate income from non-airline sources since these revenues are, in effect, credited to the airlines in setting their rates. In return for assuming greater risk, airlines are granted a considerable degree of influence over investment and other policy decisions at the airport. The majority of residual agreements include so-called majority-in-interest (MII) provisions. MII provisions give signatory airlines representing a majority of the airport’s traffic rights to review and, possibly, approve or veto capital projects that may significantly increase their rates. In addition, residual-cost airports typically provide airlines with longer terms of use for the facilities they use and occupy, with leases that can run 20 years or more. Compensatory agreements. Under a compensatory agreement, most of the financial risk of operating the airport is assumed by the airport itself. Airlines pay only for the facilities and services they actually use based on their allocated share of costs. Any deficit, or surplus, between total airport costs and revenues is assumed by the airport. By assuming less risk airlines are granted less influence on capital investments and other policy decisions, than is typically granted in a residual agreement. This allows the airport significantly more latitude in the uses and sources of funds. The airport is also allowed to accumulate potential surpluses from non-aeronautical revenue sources such as concessions or parking. Most often, there are no MII provisions included in a compensatory agreement. Also, the length of term of use provided in a compensatory agreement is also typically less than under a residual agreement. Hybrid agreements. A hybrid agreement combines aspects of both residual and compensa- tory agreements. For example, a hybrid agreement may involve the use of a residual approach for recovering airfield costs while a compensatory approach is used for the terminal area. This form of agreement usually imposes greater limits on an airport’s control of its sources and uses of funds than a pure compensatory agreement. However it can significantly reduce the financial risk an airport faces since recovery of its airfield costs is guaranteed. Financial Management Trends Deregulation of the airline industry in 1978 significantly changed the business environment for both airlines and airports. Before deregulation airlines were considered to be relatively stable business enterprises involving less financial risk than the airports they used. Since deregulation, that perception has undergone a reversal, particularly for airports in large urban markets. It is now widely recognized that an airport’s financial stability and revenue generating capacity is C-4 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

determined by the strength of the local air travel market, not by long term airline contracts. Several trends in airport financial management which first began to appear in the post-deregulation period continue today. These include (1) shorter terms for use agreements and more frequent adjustments to rates and charges, (2) greater use of compensatory or hybrid agreements includ- ing modification or weakening of MII provisions, and (3) increased focus on maximizing and diversifying revenues. Airline Use and Lease of Terminal Facilities Airport management is usually responsible for operating and managing passenger terminals which may accommodate a number of different airlines with individual leaseholds. Less fre- quently, but not uncommonly, a terminal may be leased to a single airline or a third party which also assumes primary responsibility for management of day-to-day terminal operations. In other cases, an airline, or third party may negotiate a long-term ground lease of terminal area property, and assume more comprehensive responsibility for the facility including its planning, design, construction, financing, maintenance and day-to-day operations. The types of terminal facilities typically used and/or leased by airlines include: • Ticket counters • Ticket offices • Aircraft gates and holdrooms • Airline club rooms • Baggage handling space • Baggage claim devices • Baggage offices • Operations and maintenance space Use of certain terminal facilities such as gates, for example, can be granted to airlines on an exclusive-use, preferential-use, or common-use basis. Gates leased on an exclusive-use basis cannot be used by another airline without the leaseholder’s permission. For gates leased on a preferential-use basis, the leaseholder is given priority but other airlines are allowed access during periods when the gates are not needed by the leaseholder. Gates assigned on a common-use or joint-use basis can be used by any airline as needed. By committing more gates than are actually needed to an airline under a long-term lease on an exclusive-use basis, an airport risks underutilization of its gate capacity. At airports where the supply of gates is constrained this practice can have a chilling effect on airline competition. For these reasons, airports are increasingly negotiating agreements with preferential rather than exclusive-use provisions. In addition, so-called “use-or-lose” provisions are becoming more common. With “use-or-lose” provisions, an airline that does not maintain a certain number of daily flights from its leased gates can have its right to use any underutilized gates revoked by the airport. Ticket counters are usually leased on an exclusive-use basis, particularly if the airline schedules departures with sufficient frequency to justify dedicated counter frontage. Ticket counters can also be leased on a common-use basis. Managing and operating common-use facilities often involves supporting IT infrastructure known as a Common Use Terminal Environment (CUTE). CUTE systems allow gates or ticket counters to be easily reallocated to different airlines as needed. In this context, the word terminal refers to a computer terminal that can be shared by gate agents or ticket agents of different airlines. At airports in the United States, CUTE systems are most commonly found in terminals that accommodate international carriers or charter carriers. FAA White Papers C-5

Planning for Management Flexibility CUTE systems can provide flexibility needed to efficiently accommodate day-to-day opera- tions in a terminal. Providing management with the flexibility to accommodate different future scenarios is also an important consideration. While planning always involves a certain degree of uncertainty, the effects of airline deregulation, and other industry trends, have only increased the uncertainty involved in anticipating future terminal facility requirements. Airlines may initiate or terminate service, change routes, or modify hubbing activity with little or no advance notice. A low-cost carrier may enter a new market temporarily stimulating rapid growth in air travel demand. Established carriers with a significant presence at an airport can struggle and go out of business. Aircraft fleet mixes can change significantly. Airports with multiple unit ter- minals may need to reallocate airlines among terminals to balance demand and capacity. For these and other reasons, the mix of airlines, types of aircraft, and passenger characteristics anticipated at the beginning of a terminal planning effort may prove to be obsolete soon after opening day. A scenario-based planning approach can help ensure a sufficient degree of flexibility. Instead of relying on narrowly defined planning assumptions based on relatively simple extrapolations of current trends and patterns, a scenario-based approach explores alternative “what-if” scenarios. These alternative scenarios can help establish a range of possible future requirements that may be reasonably anticipated for a terminal. For example, by defining alternative fleet mix scenarios, an aircraft parking and apron layout can be developed which accommodates any of the alternative scenarios. The resulting envelope may provide a “loose-fit” for any one scenario, or for the fleet mix that is eventually realized over the planning horizon. The desired flexibility may therefore involve additional costs. The terminal planner will need to assist management in (1) establishing the degree of flexibility that should be reasonably anticipated, and (2) evaluating the financial and operational trade-offs involved. Terminal Concessions Concessions include all of the various non-airline commercial enterprises that operate in the terminal. Starting in the late 1980’s, the industry’s approach to terminal concessions underwent significant rethinking as airports, and others, recognized a largely untapped potential for generat- ing revenue while enhancing passengers’ quality of experience at the airport. As a result, terminal concessions now typically receive considerably more attention as a terminal planning and design issue, and from a financial perspective, as a significant source of non-airline revenue. Types of terminal concessions include: • Food and beverage • Merchandise • Passenger services • Amusements • Display advertising Airport and terminal operators today frequently rely on concession planning specialists in de- veloping, implementing, and managing terminal concession programs. The concession planner typically provides a detailed program identifying the mix and types of concession space, floor area requirements, support spaces, and other design requirements. In developing the concession program, passenger surveys are used to determine the unique market characteristics of the airport, thus ensuring higher revenue productivity, and satisfaction of passenger preferences and demands. Terminal concession contracts are usually awarded on the basis of competitive bids and are structured to provide the airport with a minimum annual guaranteed payment, or a specified percentage of gross revenues. C-6 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Coordination and collaboration between the terminal planner/designer and the concession planner is required to ensure that the concession program is well integrated into the terminal’s layout and design. Generally, concessions should be located to provide maximal visibility and accessibility along key passenger flow corridors. Recent changes in security requirements have significantly altered pedestrian circulation patterns in terminals thereby impacting terminal concessions. Restricting post-security access to ticketed passengers and employees only has reduced the potential customer base of some concession in post-security locations. Other pre-security locations now receive greater traffic. These changes in circulation patterns will likely be permanent and will need to be factored into any new terminal concession planning programs. Management and Financial Implications of New Security Requirements The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) signed into law in November 2001 has had a major impact on all aspects of terminal operations, planning, and development. The full implications of ATSA, particularly with respect to terminal management and financial practices, are still evolving. The following provides a general discussion, based on the current (October 2003) situation. ATSA’s creation of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), charged with respon- sibility for overseeing all aspects of airport security, has introduced a major new stakeholder into the mix of participants involved in terminal management and operations. The TSA must not only approve individual airport security programs, it must also assist in their development and implementation through a federal airport security manager stationed at all major commercial- service airports. Airports, the airlines, and the TSA, all share a common interest, and a common challenge, in balancing the need for security with the need for acceptable passenger levels of service. Cur- rently, with the exception of five pilot program airports, the TSA manages passenger and bag- gage security screening capacity at all of the nation’s commercial-service airports. TSA control and direction covers the screening procedures involved, and the deployment of staff and equip- ment resources. Deficiencies in screening capacity, even for short periods, can rapidly increase delay and congestion in the terminals, creating significant problems for the airports and airlines. Recently, under budget pressure, the TSA has been forced to reduce the total number of screen- ers that were originally deployed nationwide. ATSA included a provision allowing airports to “opt out” of federalized screening, and manage their own force of private screeners. Beginning in November 2004 airports can apply to opt out of the federalized program. Airports electing to exercise this option will assume a significant new management responsibility. However, they may be attracted by the opportunity to gain more direct control over the deployment of screening staff, and with it, the possibility of maintaining more acceptable levels of service for their flying public. ATSA-mandated security enhancements have raised significant financial issues for airports. Resolution of these issues is still evolving and probably will continue to do so for some time. Generally speaking, the capital costs of Explosive Detection System (EDS) equipment and the operating costs of TSA screeners are funded as part of the TSA’s operating budget. Other costs including the capital costs to modify terminal baggage systems to incorporate EDS equipment will also require funding. The TSA has established a letter-of-intent program that allows airport operators to borrow funds now for eligible security projects and repay bonds or loans or reimburse themselves with TSA funds later. However, LOI’s do not obligate the TSA to make future payments unless adequate funding is approved by Congress. FAA White Papers C-7

Economic and Financial Considerations Assessment of the economic and financial aspects of a proposed terminal program is a critical part of the planning process. Key tasks involved in making these assessments include determining the program’s funding requirement, identifying the uses and sources of funds, and evaluating the program’s economic and/or financial feasibility. Funding Requirement The funding requirement is the total estimated capital costs needed to implement the program. Capital cost estimates are typically developed and updated at key stages in the program’s defini- tion from conceptual through final design. Program capital costs include construction costs and associated “soft costs” such as architectural and engineering fees, overhead for construction administration, allowance for contingencies, and allowance for interest expenses during con- struction. If the project will be implemented in stages, the capital cost estimate will identify anticipated expenditures for each incremental stage of development. If the airport does not already own the land on which the terminal will be located, land acquisition costs will also need to be included. Capital Funding Sources Airport capital projects can draw on a variety of funding sources including the bond market, private lenders, federal and state grants, charges to passengers, and airport revenue. Three sources most often relied on are the bond market, federal grants issued under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP), and passenger facility charges (PFC’s). Revenue bonds are the most commonly used type of bond financing for airport improvements. With revenue bonds, funds are borrowed to develop specific capital improvements. Principal and interest is repaid from revenues generated from operating facilities developed with the bond proceeds. For terminal projects the borrower, or bond issuer, is typically the airport. Individual airlines may also issue bonds to finance the development of dedicated terminal or other facilities at an airport. The interest cost for a particular bond issue is determined in a competitive bidding process. Potential bond buyers will require lower interest costs for issues involving less financial risk. In evaluating a particular bond issue’s potential merits and risks, buyers will rely on reports prepared by feasibility consultants hired by the issuer, and on appraisals from independent rating agencies. Under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) federal grants are issued for airport develop- ment projects. AIP funds are allocated among five different categories of airports by the FAA based on a variety of criteria. AIP-funded projects must meet eligibility requirements. Terminal develop- ment eligible for AIP funding is essentially limited to public or non-revenue generating areas. Legislation enacted in 1990 authorized operators of commercial service airports to impose a Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) on enplaning passengers to fund certain airport planning and development costs. Operators seeking to impose PFC’s must prepare a capital plan and financing strategy which are presented to the airlines serving the airport, and to the FAA as part of a formal application. The operator may propose a $1, $2, or $3 charge per enplaned passenger. If approved, PFC collections can be used to fund airport projects on a “pay-as-you-go” basis or can be leveraged as debt service payments for bond issues. Projects funded with PFC’s are subject to similar eligibility requirements as AIP-funded projects. PFC eligible terminal development is limited to non-revenue generating areas and development to provide gates and related passenger handling areas. C-8 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Economic Feasibility An assessment of economic feasibility is often required for projects funded with federal grants. Economic feasibility is based on an analysis of the quantifiable benefits and costs associated with the project. Economic feasibility may consider measures such as the cumulative value of passenger time saved by the project’s reduction of delays. A project is considered economically feasible, or economically justified, if the benefits provided exceed the total project costs. Various methods exist for comparing benefits and costs. These methods involve developing annual projections of both benefits and costs over a certain number of years. Economic costs include capital costs, costs of maintenance operation and administration, and any other quantifiable costs, including social costs. Benefits may include reductions in aircraft or passenger delays, improved oper- ational efficiency, and other desirable results. The present value of costs and the present value of benefits expected during the planning period are each calculated based on an appropriate discount rate and other economic measures such as the value of passengers’ time, for example. Economic feasibility is demonstrated if the ratio of present value of benefits to present value of costs is greater than one. The more this ratio exceeds one, the greater the economic feasibility. Financial Feasibility An assessment of financial feasibility is essentially an analysis to determine if the project can generate enough net revenue to make it attractive as an investment. Feasibility assessments are a standard feature of the bond financing process and are typically performed by persons or firms with specialized expertise in airport finance. Financial feasibility assessments involve detailed analyses of annual traffic forecasts, and projections of capital costs, operating costs, and rev- enues. A project is considered feasible if projected revenues cover projected capital and operat- ing costs by a sufficient margin. In assessing feasibility, revenue projections are developed based on forecasts of demand, and the rates and charges established for different revenue categories. These categories include airline charges, lease rents, and concession revenues. Once the project’s revenue and cost projections are developed, financial feasibility can be assessed based on net revenues, or gross revenues minus costs. One generally accepted measure of financial feasibility is the coverage ratio, the ratio of net revenues to debt service requirements. For an investment to be attractive to bond holders, a coverage ratio of 1.25 or more is usually required. If the feasibility assessment indicates that projected revenues will provide insufficient coverage, elements of the program may need to be revised, or adjustments made to rates and charges paid by the terminals users. FAA White Papers C-9

White Paper Operational and Maintenance (O&M) Considerations in Terminal Planning and Design (A background paper in consideration of updating FAA AC 150/5360-13, Planning and Design Guidelines for Airport Terminal Facilities) By Norman D. Witteveen, PE, AAE October 2003 Introduction Airport passenger terminal planning and design encompasses a very broad range of guide- lines, best practices and considerations that should be approached with the objective of meeting the airport operator’s stakeholders’ needs related to functionality, capacity, operational effi- ciency, customer level of service, cost effectiveness, and design creativity. Although there are nu- merous major inter-related planning and design considerations for a new or expanded terminal complex, this white paper focuses only on operational and maintenance (O&M) consideration. It is assumed that white papers prepared by others will address those other inter-related planning and design considerations and best practices. It has been the author’s observation over the last three decades that, too often, O&M considera- tions have been deferred to the latter stages of the terminal design process resulting in late design scope and cost increases or changes during construction, or worse yet, changes by the owner’s O&M staff after project acceptance and commissioning to satisfy their O&M needs not originally addressed by the designer. O&M needs and requirements deserve an early assessment and understanding of the multitude of activities required by the airport owner/operator, its tenants and user stakeholders. This assessment will result in dedicated O&M spaces and systems requirements to be incorporated into the design and construction process and the project budget that meets the owners and stake- holders O&M needs. It should also enhance the owner’s satisfaction of the completed project. Background Airport passenger terminals are very complex facilities that include many stakeholders, such as the airport owner/operator and its several internal organizational units; government agencies such as TSA, INS, Customs, FAA; airlines; a whole family of concessionaires (retail, food/beverage, specialty); rental car agencies; commercial ground transportation providers; and more. They all have unique O&M needs to operate and manage their respective facilities and systems efficiently and effectively, thus creating the need for O&M considerations early in the planning and design process. Terminal designers normally set up a project management framework early in the project to research, analyze and receive input regarding the needs and requirements of all stakeholders. This can be in the form of various workshops, working groups, brainstorming sessions, technical committees, or individual interviews. An important element of this process, and what is often excluded, is the staff, or owner’s maintenance contractors, who will be responsible for the terminal’s physical plant operation and maintenance after the project is delivered to the owner. The possible consequences of not engaging the O&M staff early in the design phase could be delivery of a physical plant that the owner’s O&M staff is not qualified or trained adequately to manage, does not conform to existing facilities and systems they are used to, requires new staff or contractual expertise and experience to operate and maintain, or they simply don’t like. All of these possible consequences risk systems reliability, efficiency, maintainability, compatibility, O&M and life cycle cost, and stakeholder customer service. C-10 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Terminal Operations and Maintenance Organization Each airport has its own unique internal management organization and business model with various roles, responsibilities, authorities, and relationships. Additionally, it has contractual arrangements with many terminal tenants who lease space to conduct business and provide goods and services to airport users. This business environment, coupled with the fundamental role of moving passengers, baggage, vehicles (including rail or transit in some airports) and airplanes in a safe, secure, efficient, cost effective and friendly manner, creates the need for a complex terminal physical plant and infrastructure to operate and maintain. (These systems are identified below under the O&M Checklists.) Based on these contractual lease arrangements with tenants, it is typical for some exclusive leased terminal spaces and systems to be furnished, operated and maintained by the leasee, and in other cases the O&M is provided by the airport owner/operator. Additionally, utility agencies may be an O&M provider for their dedicated systems such as water, sanitary sewer, primary power and gas, telecommunications and elec- tronic data networks. The point is, that each airport is different in its approach to terminal infrastructure O&M, which requires the terminal design team to conduct its “due diligence” early in the design process. Customer Service One of the airport owner/operator’s key objectives is to provide [a] safe, secure, convenient and friendly level of service to its customers. This includes both leasee tenants and the traveling public. Some O&M considerations to improve or enhance customer service include: • Lighting illumination levels in all public and non-public work areas to enhance safe, secure and comfortable environments. • High, but not excessive, level of wayfinding (both static and dynamic signage and graphics). • Strategically and conveniently located vertical circulation systems that enhance passenger functional flow. • Optimal use of ambient lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation. (However, glare mitigation should be addressed if considered an issue.) • Adequate HVAC in non-public work areas. • High level dedicated ventilation system in designated smoking areas. • High level smoke detection and fire suppression system in all kitchen areas, including conven- ient grease trap cleaning provisions. • Architectural treatments and/or plantings that absorb noise and create “warm” spaces. • An Intelligent Telecommunication (IT) system to be made available to all tenants and airport operations and one in which modifications and changes can be made expeditiously. • Adequate space in non-public work areas for storage of maintenance equipment, supplies, restrooms for employees, and electric carts and their battery chargers. • Spare radio channels and frequencies to be available and dedicated for emergency and crisis management. • Backup provisions to implement the airport’s operational contingency plans, such as tempo- rary signage, barricades and stantions with conveniently located storage facilities; staging areas; press room with electronic news media access; etc. Terminal Planning and Design O&M Checklist This comprehensive checklist, which should not be considered all-inclusive, serves as a guide to the terminal planner/designer in addressing many of the O&M planning and design consid- erations. It is arranged by functional operational area and is intended to assist the designer in FAA White Papers C-11

addressing most O&M issues. Based on the specific functional area, the designer should address the typical questions of: (1) Who is responsible for O&M of this area or system? (2) How is it expected to be operated and maintained? (3) Who are the customers to be served? (4) What level of service is expected? (5) Is there an opportunity for systems standardization? (6) Is the technology current and proven, with convenient spare parts inventory? (7) Are spare parts or materials off-the-shelf and easily available? (8) Are systems and equipment user friendly to the operators? (9) Has the highest level of safety and security provisions been provided? (10) Are the facilities and systems easily expandable and do they lend themselves to convenient modifications and changes? (11) Are adequate provisions made for the O&M staff (work areas, break and restrooms, envi- ronmental conditions)? (12) Are customer service issues, described previously, addressed adequately? (13) How will these areas and systems be accessed for emergency response staff, vehicles and equipment? (14) Are all work areas screened and transparent to the public? (15) Is life-cycle performance and cost incorporated into the design? 1. Curbside • No. of traffic lanes: loading, unloading, bypass, vehicle checkpoint • Medians/islands: loading, unloading, shelters, obstructions to users • Pedestrian crosswalks: types and marking • Passenger check-in stations: skycap shelters, systems and amenities • Outbound baggage system, appurtenances, and system operation/security • Passenger seating • FIDS and BIDS • Signage and graphics • Ventilation (if covered above) • Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • “Smartecartes” 2. Parking Garage • Ingress/egress strategically located for traffic efficiency • Ramp types • Parking stall configuration and size • ADA provisions • User friendly ticket dispensers • Revenue control system • Manager/staff facilities, systems and amenities • Skycap check-in facilities (if desired in garage) • Vertical circulation • Signage and graphics (consistent with roadways) • Lighting for safety, security and public comfort • Provisions for heightened security levels • “Smartecartes” 3. Ticketing Area • Type of counters and baggage wells • Ticketing system: airline exclusive, preferential, or CUTE • ADA provisions C-12 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

• Outbound baggage system: type, scales, checked bag security screening system, oper- ation, weather screens, oversized/oddsized bag provisions, access for maintenance • Non-glare lighting for agents • Telecommunications, public address, and electronic systems • Automated E-ticketing provisions • Interior architectural and building finishes • “Smartecartes” 4. Airline Ticket Offices (ATO) • Interior architectural building finishes • Telecommunications and electronic systems • Convenient access to ticketing areas • Pneumatic cash tube system (if desired by airlines) 5. Outbound Baggage Make-up Area • Vertical and horizontal clearances: baggage equipment, tugs, carts, dolleys, emer- gency response vehicles and equipment, utilities, expandability • Storage areas: tugs, carts, dolleys, equipment, maintenance staff • Floor finish: non-slip in work areas • Baggage handling system type and control system • Checked bag security screening system and support infrastructure • System maintenance provisions: catwalks, platforms, equipment and materials storage, system access, staff amenities • Protective bollards and guard rails • Floor drains that do not conflict with work areas • Telecommunications and electronic systems • High level lighting illumination in work areas • Ventilation appropriate for vehicle operations: diesel, gas, CNG, electric • Battery charges and storage for electric tugs and carts • HVAC appropriate to site and functional operations 6. Baggage Claim Area • Claim device type and system operation/safety provisions/numbering system • BIDS • Secured access to non-public areas • High level lighting illumination over claim devices • Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • Type of hotel/ground transportation/information kiosks • Rental car provisions • ADA provisions • Baggage service offices and systems • Baggage storage provisions • Interior architectural building finishes • “Smartecartes” 7. Passenger Security Screening Checkpoint • Layout, configuration and functional flow space and arrangements per TSA require- ments/approval • ADA provisions • Infrastructure to support screening devices • Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • TSA office support, search areas and rooms, and employee break amenities 8. Departure Lounges • Interior architectural building finishes • Seating furnishings • Type of check-in counters and inserts, back-screening inserts FAA White Papers C-13

• Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • Passenger check-in system: airline exclusive, preferential, or CUTE • Passenger boarding pass readers and power/IT connecting interface • Passenger carry-on bag security search provisions • Baggage conveyance to ramp: stairs, conveyor, slide, dumbwaiter • Non-glare lighting for agents • FIDS • Cable TV • Passenger loading bridges and alternate ramp access • Advertising 9. Airline Clubs and Special Group Waiting Room • Interior architectural building finishes • Restrooms • Kitchen, bar, lounge, conference rooms, furnishings • Cable TV • FIDS • Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • ADA provisions 10. Public Areas and Passenger Amenities • Interior architectural building finishes • Convenient vertical circulation and standardization • Seating furnishings • ADA provisions • Restrooms, nursery • Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • FIDS/BIDS • Cable TV • Information counters, travelers aid • Children’s play area • Medical emergency access • Museum and art display areas • Military lounge • Smoking lounge(s) • Advertising spaces and displays 11. Concessions • Food and beverage • News and gifts • Retail and specialty shops • Concessions warehousing and access: off-site bulk deliveries and on-site supplies deliveries • Business center and conference rooms • ADA provisions • Hotel/tourism reservation center • Bank ATMs and currency exchange • Flight insurance, travel agency • Post office and express mail • Barbershop and shoeshine • Video game arcade • Newspaper kiosks • Baggage storage (in secured areas) • Vending machines C-14 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

• Advertising • “Smartecartes” 12. Ground Transportation • Taxi • Buses: public, employee, private, charter • Shuttles: on-site and off-site parking, transfer, hotels, rental cars • Limousine • Transit: on-airport, off-airport • Valet parking • Holding lots with driver amenities • Support offices for above 13. Operations Areas • Offices and control/command centers, and their furnishings • Special equipment and systems: O&M control/command centers, O&M radio system, emergency response and management systems, maintenance equipment • Telecommunications, public address and electronic systems • Interior architectural building finishes • Hazardous materials use, storage and disposal facilities • Clearances and overhead doors for O&M and emergency response vehicles • Protective bollards and guard rails • Electrical system capacity and provision for electric cart battery charging and block heaters • Utilities expandability, modifications and changes • Conveniently located restrooms and breakrooms • FIDS/BIDS • Convenient and secure O&M vehicle parking areas with assigned signage 14. Signage and Graphics • Directional, wayfinding, informational, regulatory • Static, dynamic, changeable messages, electronic • Convenient modifications and changes • ADA provisions 15. Electrical • Emergency power for essential and contingency uses • Uninterrupted power supply • Backup (second source) • Extra capacity and redundancy for all essential specialty systems: security, baggage, aircraft support, emergency management • Support for all Operations Contingency Plans 16. Telecommunications and Electronic Systems • Data and telephone to all functional spaces • Public address (multi-zoned) • Airport radio systems: Operations, maintenance, police, fire, and emergency management • Airline operations • Cable TV • News media broadcast equipment access • Point-of-use concessions financial mgmt. system • Equipment, switch rooms, buildings, and related offices for above • Airport vs. commercial systems 17. Mechanical and Fire Protection • HVAC/Ventilation in all work areas and equipment rooms • Smoke detection/evacuation and deluge sprinkler systems (per fire code) FAA White Papers C-15

• Equipment/systems standardization • Central Plant: boilers, chillers, cooling towers, piping expansion joints, control/ monitoring systems, work areas, shops, staff amenities 18. Special Facilities • Vehicle checkpoints and amenities for heightened security levels • Police and fire • Drug enforcement agency • Federal Inspection, Customs, Immigration, Naturalization Services and TSA • Emergency and crisis management control/command center • News media room with broadcast equipment access • Hardened facilities for high-threat terrorist mitigation • Isolation/protection of essential critical infrastructure and systems for terrorist mitigation 19. Solid Waste Management and Building Services • Loading docks • Solid waste holding, removal, recycling facilities • Vehicle and service access • Delivery access, staging and storage 20. Aircraft Support Systems • Passenger loading bridges and types (if furnished by airport rather than airlines): apron drive, fixed, foundations, power, building interface, hurricane tie-down anchors • 400 Hz power and pre-conditioned air: centralized or point-of-use • Potable water system • Triturators • Incinerators • Electrical power with convenient access • Telecommunications and electronic systems • Building doors with panic hardware • Task lighting for ramp operations, safety and security • Aircraft docking system • GSE staging and storage • Service/emergency roads and access • Gate numbering system 21. Utility Systems • Verify specific limits of O&M responsibility between the airport and the respective utility provider • Coordinate design standards for each system with provider and building/fire codes Summary This white paper attempts to highlight the O&M considerations to be addressed by the airport passenger terminal planner/designer based on observations and experiences by the author as both an airport consultant and an airport owner/operator manager. If [O&M is] not considered in the planning and early design phases some adverse consequences are at risk to the designer, all airport stakeholders and users. A comprehensive checklist of facilities and systems is provided to assist the terminal planner/designer in identifying the many functional operational areas that require O&M considerations in the design process to enhance a successful project for the airport owner/operator, its tenants and public users. The underlying objective is enhanced functional- ity, capacity, efficiency, cost effectiveness, level of service, flexibility and customer service to all airport stakeholders. C-16 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Airport Terminal Fire/Life Safety & Emergency Evacuation Prepared for US DOT/Volpe Center/DTS-49 By Stephen Rondinelli, AIA, and Andrew Grenier, P.E. Rolf Jensen & Associates, Inc. January 30, 2004 Revised April 28, 2004 Abstract Emergency evacuation for airport terminals, or concourses, must consider the special conditions associated with the operation of an airport. The modern day airport terminal and concourse has a combination of airside and landside operations, security, and unique building features. Tradi- tionally the model building, fire codes and nationally recognized standards used for regulating most buildings do not specifically address the unique conditions of airport terminals, especially as related to the emergency evacuation of the occupants. Fire protection and life safety considerations must be a part of any terminal design project from the initial planning and concept design through the development, implementation, and construction of the facility. Flexibility in terminal func- tionality and security operations must also be considered for both the present and future needs of the airport terminal facility. This paper addresses concerns associated with an effective terminal design while providing for the life safety of the occupants with a focus on emergency evacuation. It provides guidance for use in terminal planning and design, components of life safety and fire protection systems, and effective emergency evacuations, as well as the protect-in-place concept for maintaining the safety of the occupants. Ideally an approach would be to develop an engineered life safety program while meeting mandated security requirements that protects the life safety of the occupants yet maintains the architectural program requirements of the airport facility. Features to be addressed in this document include describing the components of the modern airport terminal and what is best described as a system approach to the fire protection, life safety and security needs of the users and occupants of these facilities. The systems approach to safe terminal design must consider the structural fire protection com- ponents, automatic sprinkler systems, exiting systems and means of egress, fire alarm and voice communication systems, smoke management or smoke control systems, and other fire protection systems as well as the response capability of the local fire department. Modern Airport Terminal Designs For the past several decades, air travelers have become accustomed to sharing a unique architectural experience in airport terminals. This unique experience is the result of collab- oration between the design team, municipality, and the airlines, and provides a balance between function, security, safety, and the landmark qualities expected of a regional gateway. Such facil- ities typically will attempt to make a statement to the uniqueness of the culture and environ- ment of the local region or market that the terminal facility serves. One example of this is the Denver International Airport terminal, which invokes the appearance of a mountain range. This is accomplished by a very large open air volume of space with glazing to the exterior and openness, interconnection between terminal and concourse and communicating floor levels or atrium spaces. FAA White Papers C-17

An airport terminal operationally has some very complex and unique functions that the average traveler may never see. In a terminal there are numerous occupancies including large assembly spaces with waiting and queuing areas, mall or retail spaces, restaurants and food courts, auto- mated train or people mover systems, automobile parking structures, vehicle access, baggage handling and storage of combustible and hazardous materials. All these occupancies and func- tions occur literally within feet of aircraft fueling and support operations. This combination of unique architecture and multiple uses results in one of the most complicated building types that is not regulated through the availability of a single document supported by a nationally recognized code or standard making body. This results in a challenging building type that requires signifi- cant involvement by the design team, as coordinated by the architect. Building Codes for Fire Protection & Life Safety The building design and construction of any building is typically regulated by the local munic- ipality or governmental body. That regulatory agency, or Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), is known in most communities as the building department or fire department. These agencies are empowered by the adoption of local or state building and fire codes for enforcing the require- ments of those codes on the design and construction of an airport terminal. These codes and standards are usually based upon a “model code” or industry standard, which is developed by a consensus process. The consensus process involves various representatives of the industry: building officials, fire officials, architects, engineers, manufacturers, designers, and owners. Examples of model codes and standards that would regulate an airport terminal include: • 2003 edition of the International Building Code (IBC)—The first draft of the IBC was prepared by committees representing the Uniform Building Code (ICBO), the Standard Building Code (SBCCI) and the National Building Code (BOCA). The IBC is a consolidated building code incorporating various sections and provisions from each of these previously recognized model codes. Since this is a new document the majority of existing terminal facilities have been designed and built based on a building code other than the IBC. Additionally the other codes referenced by the International Code Council are referred to as the “I Codes” and include current editions of the International Fire Code (IFC), International Mechanical Code (IMC) and International Plumbing Code (IPC). • 2003 edition of the Building Construction and Safety Code (NFPA 5000)—This document is a building code developed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and also has a companion set of documents known as “C3” or the Comprehensive Consensus Codes and includes current editions of the Uniform Fire Code (UFC), Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC) and Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC). • Other codes and standards produced by NFPA that are used to regulate an airport terminal include the current editions of NFPA 70 the National Electrical Code (NEC), NFPA 415, Stan- dard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage and Loading Walkways and NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems. • Local municipalities, airport authorities or special jurisdictions can also adopt local amended versions of these codes and standards or create a local building and fire code specific to the airport in that jurisdiction. • There are also numerous codes and standards that will regulate an airport terminal with respect to accessibility, environmental quality and other special equipment such as elevator or con- veyance equipment. • The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) also have requirements contained in fed- eral regulations, advisories, and policy guidelines for the design and operation of an airport terminal. C-18 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Building codes and standards contain provisions related to the building including occupancy classification (e.g., assembly, business, mercantile, storage, factory), construction type (e.g., non-combustible, combustible or fire resistive structural elements), area and height limitations, fire protection and life safety systems, means of egress, structural fire resistance, and other rele- vant requirements to the building. These basic provisions are very similar throughout the vari- ous model codes, although specific provisions may differ. Building codes are enforced by the local or state building department. Fire codes address building issues that are related to fire prevention and response, and include fire department access, fire flow or water supplies for manual fire fighting, fire protection systems, hazardous materials, fuel storage and dispensing and specific use provisions for storage and industrial processes. Fire codes are enforced by the local fire department or state fire marshal’s office. Design Process The design process for an airport terminal is not much different than for other buildings, with the exception that many airport terminal projects are actually additions or modifications to existing facilities. Regardless of whether or not the project is an expansion of an existing facility or a new building, the design process and terminology follows the description of design phases as identified and defined by the American Institute of Architects. These definitions break the project into the Conceptual Design or Planning Phase, Schematic Design, Design Development, and ultimately the Construction Documents phase. There also is a design process that has become popular in the design and construction industry known as Design-Build. This process is an efficient method of combining the design process through the architect with a contractor that assists in pricing and value engineering of the design concepts prior to the actual completion of the design and construction documents. This method permits the evaluation of systems and com- ponents as well as actually ordering some special equipment with long lead times prior to actual start of construction. This expedites the construction schedule by allowing the project to maintain a fast track schedule. Upon completion of the design process, the project is bid to qualified contractors, contracted, submitted to the jurisdiction for review, approved, permitted and then constructed. Application of Building and Fire Codes to Airport Terminal Design The model codes do not include airport terminals as a specific occupancy group or classification. Airport terminals may contain several different uses, and are best categorized as a mixed-use occupancy, including assembly, business, mercantile, and storage uses, often arranged similarly to a covered mall. Because the codes do not include special provisions for airport terminals, the architect, design team, and AHJ are often left to determine the best application of the various code provisions to meet the airport terminal design. Some of the model codes have recognized the unique areas or occupancies of an airport terminal and provided guidance by assigning occupancy definitions and occupant load factors for areas such as baggage claim, baggage handling, and waiting areas (such as at airport terminal gates). There is also some cursory mention of transportation terminals or facilities for applying some code provisions to airport terminals. One of the most important aspects of an airport terminal that must be understood in the design process is the unique characteristics of airside, landside, secure, non-secure and sterile or FAA White Papers C-19

non-sterile areas of the terminal. For purposes of clarification, this document provides a common definition of each of these unique terms. • Landside—That portion of the building accessible to the public and employees that has not been screened through a security check process. Airport terminal landside includes the airline ticketing lobby, baggage claim, services areas, retail/mall, and restaurant areas. These areas are usually open to the airside, sharing the same volume, but are separated by Security Screening Check Points (SSCP), which serve as the border between airside and landside. • Airside—That portion of the building accessible only to the public or authorized employees that have been screened through security (SSCP) and authorized to proceed to an aircraft or other authorized areas of the terminal. These areas include airline service areas, gates, waiting or holding areas, retail/mall, and restaurant areas. • Secure versus Non-secure—That portion of the building that relates to the delineation of the space that has been secured or cleared by airport operations and security and all persons entering that area have successfully passed through a security screen checkpoint. • Sterile versus Non-sterile Area—The sterile portion of the airport or terminal building is the most restrictive portion of the building that permits only “badged” personnel and no public access. The sterile area of an airport terminal has been screened to higher level of security by special inspectors and equipment. This area is under continuous supervision and employees in this area must maintain their badged identification and special security regulations at all times. These terms become especially important when discussing the emergency evacuation of an airport terminal, a potential breaching of any of these delineations. With respect to exiting an airport terminal’s occupants, the emergency evacuation of occupants on the landside, non-secure or non-sterile portion of the building are not regulated by any special requirements or regulations. Conversely, occupants evacuating on the airside, secured or sterile portion of an airport terminal will have a significant impact on the security of the airport facility and require the re-screening and re-sterilization of the portion of the facility prior to the airport resuming normal operations. Additionally, occupants evacuating onto the airside portion the terminal where aircraft are operating will be subject to the danger of aircraft servicing, fueling operations and support operations. This concern for evacuating occupants onto the airside of the terminal from a safety as well as a security standpoint helps justify the “protect in place philosophy” utilized in most airport terminals. Another unique aspect of airport terminals taken into consideration is the desire to provide an open environment in the airside or secure portion of the concourse or terminal. Many modern airport terminals resemble a covered mall building, with a multiple level central concourse bounded by retail, dining, and entertainment tenants. The difference between a typical mall building and an airport terminal having these features is the presence of large assembly areas at gate holding areas. Most building codes limit the area provided for assembly uses in covered mall buildings. This presents a dilemma for designers and AHJs, with regard to applying the covered mall pro- visions to airport terminals. Although the covered mall provisions may provide useful guidance for design of exiting systems, fire protection systems, and smoke control systems, they cannot be applied in their entirety without addressing the shortfalls associated with the operations and layout of an effective terminal. A portion of the airport terminal also can typically accommodate an Automated People Mover (APM). The APM is a motorized train system on a fixed rail guided remotely by train operators. The APM might connect the terminal and concourse above or below grade and can be located on the interior or exterior of the airport terminal. The concourse is very similar to an airport terminal and is typically seen as the building that passengers move directly through to an enclosed walk-way, which leads to an aircraft. These concourses have similar occupancies C-20 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

to that of an airport terminal and also have multiple floor levels designed to be open to each other with support functions and baggage handling directly below the occupants, all within a few hundred feet of aircraft that are being serviced and fueled. Special Fire Protection and Life Safety Provisions It is critical that airport terminal designers utilize a systems approach to fire protection and life safety, with a goal of implementing a “protect in place concept” for the occupants. This [is] important for balancing the operational requirements, security requirements, and to address the unique arrangement of large volume communicating spaces with large occupant loads, surging passenger volumes, and adjacent hazardous occupancies and processes. Those special provisions identified in the model building and fire codes, which are utilized in this systems approach, typically include the following: Structural Fire Protection Requirements Due to the area and height of an airport terminal, building construction is typically of non- combustible, fire resistive construction throughout. Structural frames, exterior walls, floor/ceilings, and roof/ceilings will be fire rated according [to] the construction type. For example, the ratings associated with Type I construction are typically three-hour fire re- sistive structural frame, with two-hour fire resistive floors. Exterior wall ratings and opening protection depends on the distance to adjacent structures, property lines, and/or airfield opera- tions such as refueling. Automatic Sprinkler Systems Due to the mixing of occupancies, desired openness of the airport terminal, associated fire loads and the philosophy of protecting the occupants in place, most airport terminals will be protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association’s Standard for the Installation of Automatic Sprinklers (NFPA 13). Standpipe Systems Buildings are required to have a standpipe system for fire department or occupant use in buildings that are more than 30 feet or 3–4 stories in height. These systems can be combined with the building sprinkler system or they can be an independent system available for fire department use only. These standpipe connections are located at the stair enclosures, and may have hoses provided at the connection if required by the fire department. A fire pump may be required to be installed to augment the operation of both the automatic sprinkler system and the standpipe system, and depending on local water supplies. Fire Detection and Alarm Systems A fire alarm system to notify occupants of any emergency condition should be provided. The fire alarm system should either be a stand-alone fire alarm system or work in conjunction with the airport public address system to notify occupants and direct them during an emergency and emergency evacuation. Assembly-use areas should be provided with a voice communication system, designed to initiate a pre-recorded announcement for emergency evacuation. The voice communication system is usually integrated into a public address system for use by the fire department or other emergency responders for making announcements to direct an evacuation event. The fire alarm system should also be monitored by an off-site central monitoring station that in turn report directly to the municipal fire department. If the airport terminal is protected FAA White Papers C-21

by an automatic sprinkler system, the building will have a limited amount of system smoke detection devices. If such system smoke detection is provided, it should be strategically placed for early fire alarm system activation or activation of special systems such as access/egress control (releasing of egress control doors), closing of fire doors or activation of a smoke management or smoke control system. Fire alarm systems should be designed and installed in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association’s National Fire Alarm Code (NFPA 72). Flexibility is a key issue when approaching fire alarm design. Smoke Management Systems Smoke management or smoke control is not normally required for an airport terminal or concourse building. However, with the desire for openness of an airport terminal or concourse, the result is usually an atrium space or arrangement similar to a covered mall building, as defined and regulated by the building code. It is for this reason that a smoke management sys- tem (also known as smoke control systems) is usually required. A smoke control system in an airport terminal helps ensure an added life safety benefit for the occupants during the emer- gency evacuation of the building and helps support the use of protect in place philosophy. This approach provides a safe haven or refuge area for occupants of the building, maintaining tenable conditions in the exiting systems and concourses, and permitting the occupants to move safely in the building without evacuating it. Successful smoke control is typically accomplished through the use of smoke control zones, usually corresponding with the fire sprinkler and alarm zones, in which the mechanical exhaust ventilation of a zone is accomplished via fans for exhaust and supply. Depending on the smoke management methodology selected, the system may also pressurize zones of the building to prevent smoke spread from the area of fire origin. Activation of a smoke control zone occurs automatically upon smoke detection, sprinkler waterflow, or manually at the control panel. The design of smoke management systems must be carefully considered early in the design process, and depends on successful coordination between archi- tectural design, mechanical systems (HVAC), electrical, and life safety systems. Smoke management systems are intended to be used during a fire emergency to evacuate smoke and control smoke migration. These systems are provided with automatic activation as well [as] a manual control system for use by the fire department. The use of the manual control for the smoke management system is available for non-fire emergency conditions and could be used for removal of smoke or odors not related to a fire condition. It is important to note that the smoke management systems are designed to be utilized for smoke and hot fire gases. The use of such mechanical equipment could be used as part of a strategy for removal of toxics or poisonous gases or chemical emergencies. However, the equipment would not be rated for such use and significant damage to the equipment may result from the use of this equipment for non-fire emergencies. The use of the smoke management system for non-fire emergencies should only be considered and implemented by qualified emergency per- sonnel after evaluation of the situation or based on an emergency operations plan. Fire Command Room—Monitoring/Control of Life Safety Systems The complexity of an airport and the related life safety systems lends support to the use of a fire command room at a location approved by the fire department. The fire command room would be located in each airport terminal or concourse at a fire department response point and could be interconnected to other concourses or airport facilities via a fiber optics backbone. Such a system would connect the fire command rooms in each concourse, terminal and airport operations/security center and other strategic locations. The fire command room should include monitoring and control of the fire protection and life safety systems for that particular area of the airport terminal. C-22 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

The fire alarm control panel, smoke control panel, voice communication system controls, public address system controls, and building drawings should be provided in the fire command room. Emergency Communications Systems Airport terminals and concourses are typically large area buildings that, when constructed of steel and concrete, pose significant communication problems for the use of fire department radios in the building. Emergency communications for fire department personnel can be accomplished through the use of an emergency phone communications system as part of the fire alarm system. In some large jurisdictions the fire department has required by local amendment the installation of a radio repeater or amplification system throughout the airport terminal. This type of system permits the fire department as well as other emergency agencies and airport operations and security to also utilize this type of emergency communication system. Closed Circuit Cameras and Monitoring With the increased security needs found in an airport and the use of numerous monitored closed circuit cameras from a security control area, information used for security purposes could be very useful to the fire ground commander when evaluating an evacuation emergency. Access to these closed circuit cameras/monitors could be accomplished by providing monitors in the fire command rooms. Means of Egress and Special Requirements for Exits Means of egress for the airport terminal must be designed to comply with the applicable building code, and must address occupant loads, exit capacity, egress component dimensions, and travel distances. Code requirements for exit capacity are based upon the design occupant load for the building. Occupant loads are calculated based upon floor area served and the appropriate occupant load factor for the type of use. For example, the occupant load factors for airport termi- nals recommended in NFPA 5000 are 100 ft2/occupant for concourses, 15 ft2/occupant for waiting areas, and 20 ft2/occupant for baggage claim areas (NFPA 5000, Section A.11.3.1.2). Maximum travel distances to exits will vary depending on the building code utilized, but are generally on the order of 250 feet for buildings protected with automatic sprinkler systems. A means of egress analysis must be conducted during the design process to evaluate the archi- tectural layout of the building for compliance with the building code. This means of egress analysis will usually result in a graphical egress plan, or “Life Safety Plan,” for inclusion in the construction documents, and is a requirement for permit in most jurisdictions. In some cases, an alternative method of egress analysis may be necessary to support an alter- native design concept utilizing horizontal exits with associated areas of refuge, extended travel distances to exits, the use of open exit-access balconies in the concourse, or alternative basis of design for smoke control systems. Alternative methods to the traditional means of egress analysis include timed egress analysis, which may utilize computer-based dynamic evacuation modeling tools. A timed egress analysis is usually a necessary component of a hazard analysis conducted to support an alternative design. A timed egress analysis may also be a useful tool for evaluating different evacuation scenarios based on a life safety or security evacuation. Emergency Exits—If emergency exits discharge airside or directly onto an airport ramp or service area, the doors should be clearly marked “Emergency Exit Only” and numbered on both sides, as approved by the Building and Fire Department. This permits the fire department to identify the emergency exits from the exterior, but also permits the security operators to identify the emergency exits while viewing the area from the closed circuit cameras. FAA White Papers C-23

Special Egress Control—Building codes have special provisions for exiting occupants from a controlled area. Controlled egress would typically occur at emergency exits from an airport ter- minal building that discharges airside onto an airport ramp, service area or secured area and would be equipped with delay panic hardware. The locking device should release when activated by fire alarm initiating devices, by a loss of power to the locking mechanism or upon activation by authorized security or fire department personnel. The systems put in place to allow a delay of egress from a building must be approved by the building department and fire department. Areas of Refuge or Rescue Assistance—Such areas have a very limited use as guided by the cur- rent building and fire codes. Refuge areas are used in conjunction with the use of horizontal exits in the egress system. The intent of such refuge areas is to protect occupants in place while wait- ing to egress, or while waiting for specific direction or assistance from the fire department. These areas typically require large areas for occupants to wait in. The use of areas of refuge or rescue assistance may also serve as an area for disabled occupants to go into and wait for specific direc- tion or assistance in being evacuated from the building in a fire emergency. There has been some limited use of what could be considered a refuge area for people to be directed from a concourse or terminal area on the airside portion of the building. The intent of such an area is to maintain people in a controlled area outside of the building. However, there are no requirements or guide- lines in current building or fire codes requiring such an area. Fire Department Access All fire codes require that the building be provided with access for fire department apparatus and fire fighters. This requirement is difficult to implement on most airport terminals due to the airside and landside delineation dividing the building. This delineation results in portions of the building not being accessible for normal fire department operations. This results in the need for duplicate access points to the buildings and duplicate fire hydrants or fire department connections. With the use of such a systems approach to the fire protection and life safety of the occupants at an airport terminal the occupants are provided the highest security available, as required by FAA regulations, while interfacing with the life safety components of the building. This approach also provides choices based on the conditions encountered: the occupants can safely exit the building or move to adjacent refuge areas to await instruction during an evacuation emergency. Evacuation and Life Safety Issues in Airport Terminal Buildings As discussed above, airport terminals present unique challenges to effective design for life safety while maintaining emergency evacuation. These challenges include occupancy and evacuation issues. One occupancy issue is designing for peak loads and surge operations at certain times of the day. The use of the adopted building and fire codes will mandate the anticipated occupant loads. These are determined by utilizing the recognized occupant load factors to determine occupant loads and required egress capacity. The occupant loads are conservative in nature and take into account how the space will actually be loaded with occupants. In some limited cases, the building or fire department official may consider the use of actual occupant loads based on peak occupant loading in lieu of the nationally recognized occupant load factors contained in the codes. Typically, these peak occupancy loading figures are permitted to be used only when the figures provide a realistic occupant load that is significantly less than that required in the building code. The use of this approach is very limited and typically requires significant discussions between the airport, the design team, and the local building and fire department. C-24 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Effective operational use must be balanced with design for life safety, means of egress, and site limitations, such as area available for development. Compounding these problems are the potential that over the life of the terminal, operational requirements will likely change. The most effective designs will consider such potential changes in use and operations over the life of the terminal, which may be difficult to predict. In the post 9/11/2001 elevated security environment, it became apparent that many airport terminals were designed with insufficient area landside to process travelers and guests, especially at peak travel times, and with additional security screening measures being retrofitted into the ticketing lobbies. For example, many airports saw the relocation of retail and dining venues to the ticketing and baggage claim lobbies to capitalize on the additional non-ticketed occupants waiting for arriving or departing travelers, who otherwise could not get through security. In a terminal evacuation, either for a security-related issue or a life safety issue, consideration must also be given to providing adequate means of egress from the airside (secure) and landside (non-secure) locations. For ticketing and baggage-claim lobbies, the obvious choice is to provide direct egress to the public way via the terminal building front. For occupants in the secure portions of the terminal, means of egress must be provided towards the front of the terminal, as well as to airside. The landside facing portion of the terminal building is usually designed to allow free-flow of occupants into and out of the terminal. These areas are usually not secured, and are often constrained in terms of available space due to the proximity of roadways and operations such as curbside check-in, taxi stands, and other ground transportation. These are often the same areas likely to be occupied by responding emergency vehicles. Travel distance limitations of the build- ing code often preclude an evacuation plan solely reliant on exiting to the front of the building. For these reasons, it is impractical and often impossible to achieve code compliance without evacuating to the terminal apron. This introduces the obvious concern of discharging large numbers of occupants to a potentially dangerous environment where aircraft, fuel trucks and operating jet engines or propellers abound. The demands on apron space are many, including locations for baggage handling, fueling, clearance for aircraft (including safety zones for engines), and maintenance and safety vehicles. Weighing Emergency Evacuation Requirements with Security A terminal evacuation must be carefully considered in the context of providing security for the terminal, aircraft, occupants, and the airport as a whole. Whereas life safety systems are designed to allow safe egress from the building, security systems are designed to restrict movement from some portions of the building to others, and from the terminal to airside. Thus, life safety systems and security systems must be designed with integration in mind, at the very least, from the standpoint of design philosophy and system response. Egress doors from the terminal to airside must be monitored to provide adequate security for airside operations. Likewise, doors separating public areas of the terminal from back-of-house and airport operations, such as baggage handling areas, must restrict free flow from one to the other. Systems integration between fire alarm, access control and monitoring, and building automation systems is a must for most modern terminals. Design must also consider interaction with smoke control systems and provisions for disabled access. In recent times, the frequency of terminal evacuations due to a security screening failure has increased. This fact results in a need to design terminals to be safety evacuated in the event of a security related incident. Whereas the essence of evacuation time in these scenarios is not as important from a fire/life safety perspective, time is still of the essence to effect an orderly evacua- tion while security screening is resumed. FAA White Papers C-25

Conclusion—Designing for Fire Protection/Life Safety and Evacuation In conclusion, the special requirements for fire protection and life safety for airport terminals must be considered in the design for any new terminal, renovation, modernization, or expansion. It is recommended to include consideration of these issues beginning in the planning phases of the project, and continuing through design and construction phases. The systems approach to design should be a central component of this process. The main issues to be considered during planning are: • Local conditions and requirements of the AHJ • Establishing the applicable building and fire codes for the project • Fire Department Access • Building construction type • Design concepts for egress systems, based on building size, associated travel distances, and operational requirements • Determination of the need for smoke management systems, based on the layout of the terminal building (i.e., multiple levels open to a central concourse) • Integration of life safety systems with security systems • Consider if the project is a candidate for performance-based design, especially for design alterna- tives not fitting within the building code • Costs associated with the issues listed above During the design and construction phases of the project, the following main issues should be considered: • Building construction type, based on area, height, and use • Occupancy and uses for various areas in the terminal • Specific provisions for fire protection systems such as automatic sprinkler, standpipe, fire detection and alarm systems, and smoke control systems • Means of egress, evacuation planning, and safe refuge areas utilizing the “protect in place” concept • Alternative designs for means of egress, smoke management, or unique building features, including requirements for engineering analyses to support alternate design concepts, and submittal requirements of the local AHJ • Requirements for special inspection during construction, such as for smoke control systems, special fire protection and life safety systems, and unique designs • Construction management issues, such as construction phasing, provisions for fire/life safety during construction, systems integration, systems installation, and acceptance testing Planning and design phases should also consider the potential for changes in operations and uses for the terminal over the life of the building. Careful planning and design will contribute to the overall goal of providing a careful balance of safety and security for travelers, staff, and emer- gency responders now and in the future. Resources The International Building Code, 2003 Edition, International Code Council (ICC), Falls Church, VA, http://www.iccsafe.org/. The ICC also publishes other model codes such as the International Fire Code, the International Performance Code, and the International Urban-Wildland Interface Code. The Building Construction and Safety Code, NFPA 5000, 2003 Edition, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, http://www.nfpa.org/. The NFPA publishes many other codes and C-26 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

standards, including the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70), Life Safety Code (NFPA 101), Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1), Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems (NFPA 13), National Fire Alarm Code (NFPA 72), Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems (NFPA 130), and Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways (NFPA 415). The Transportation Security Administration (TSA), http://www.tsa.gov/ The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), regulations and policy guidance, http://www1.faa. gov/regulations/index.cfm The Authors: Stephen Rondinelli, AIA, is the Vice President, Engineering Manager for the Denver office of Rolf Jensen and Associates, Inc. (RJA). He is employed by RJA with over twenty-five years [of] experience in fire protection and building and fire code enforcement. Prior to opening the RJA office in Denver Mr. Rondinelli was the Denver Regional Manager for the National Fire Protection Association, providing training and technical support to a nine-state region. He was also the Chief Fire Protection Engineer for the Denver Fire Department, administrating all fire prevention and code enforcement activities for the Denver International Airport and Fire Prevention Bureau. These responsibilities also included a significant amount of “performance based” code application and approval of numerous unique and complex large-scale mix-use projects such as Denver International Airport. Andrew Grenier, P.E., is the Engineering Manager for the Los Angeles and San Diego offices of Rolf Jensen and Associates, Inc. (RJA). He has over thirteen years of experience in Marine Engineering and Fire Protection Engineering, including active duty service in the U.S. Coast Guard. His project experience includes airport terminals, large mixed-use retail and assembly developments, themed entertainment, and high rise residential and office buildings. His unique expertise includes materials flammability, smoke control system design, evacuation analysis, hazard analysis and performance-based design methodologies. FAA White Papers C-27

FAA White Papers consulted in the development of the Guidebook 1. Gloria G. Bender (TransSolutions) “Programming Domestic Air Terminal Passenger Processing Areas Using Computer Simulation” 2. Peter Bianconi (PDK Airport Planning) “Recent Experience in the Sizing of Airport Terminals and Some Suggestions for Future Considerations” 3. Edward G. Blankenship (Landrum & Brown) “The Process of Terminal Planning” 4. Thomas H. Brown (Ricondo & Associates) “Accommodating Changing Airline Requirements in Terminal Design” 5. Thomas H. Brown (Ricondo & Associates) “Airline Terminal Performance Perspectives” 6. Greg Casto (AvAir Pros) “Developing a Space Program for Airport Passenger Terminals” 7. David A. Daileda (Gensler) “Considerations for Selecting a Terminal Configuration” 8. Richard de Neufville (MIT) “Dealing with Uncertainty in Planning and Design of Airport Passenger Buildings” 9. Richard de Neufville (MIT) “Valuing Flexibility Measures in the Planning, Design, and Management of Airport Passenger Buildings” 10. Paul Dorsey (Southwest Airlines) “Airport Terminal Performance: The ‘Low-Cost’ Carrier Perspective” 11. Paul Dorsey (Southwest Airlines) “The Air Carrier Perspective on Airport Security” 12. Daniel J. Feil (Metropolitan Washington Airport Authority) “Conceptual Guide to Airport Terminal Public Concourse Planning and Design” 13. Andrew Grenier and Steve Rondinelli (Rolf Jensen & Associates) “Airport Terminal Fire/Life Safety and Emergency Evacuation” 14. Joel B. Hirsh (Hirsh Associates) “Developing a Space Program for Airport Passenger Terminals” 15. Joel Hirsh (Hirsh Associates) “The Federal Inspection Services (FIS) Planning Process” 16. Robert Hornblower and Michael O’Brien (IATA) “IATA Space Standards” C-28 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

17. Robert Jones (Architectural Alliance) “Developing a Building Concept for Airport Passenger Terminals: Non-Public Areas” 18. Art Kosatka (TranSecure) “Security Considerations in Airport Terminal Planning” 19. David Lind (Corgan Associates) “Developing a Building Concept for Airport Passenger Terminals: Considerations for Hub Operations” 20. Peter B. Mandle (Leigh Fisher Associates) “Planning Landside Facilities at Major Airports” 21. Douglas M. Mansel (Oakland International Airport) “Airport Terminal Performance: The Airport Operator Perspective” 22. Ted McCagg (Gresham Smith Partners) “Human Factors Considerations in Terminal Design” 23. Francis X. McKelvey (Michigan State University) “Forecasting for Airport Terminal Building Planning” 24. Phil Mein and Ralph Bauer (Corgan Associates) “Developing a Space Program for Airport Passenger Terminals” 25. Eric E. Miller (TransSolutions) “Developing a Building Concept for Airport Passenger Terminals: A Simulation- Based Perspective” 26. Mark W. Nagle (Leigh Fisher Associates) “Management and Financial Considerations in Terminal Planning and Design” 27. Michael O’Brien (IATA) “Passenger Flows at Airports—The Human Element” 28. Colleen E. Quinn (Ricondo & Associates) and Frederick R. Busch (Orlando Int. Airport) “Airport Terminal Apron and Gate Areas” 29. James M. Robinson (Leigh Fisher Associates) “Implementation and Phasing Considerations in Terminal Planning” 30. James M. Robinson and Derrick Choi (Leigh Fisher Associates) “Terminal Planning Implications of Emerging Passenger Processing Technologies” 31. LaVern D. Rollet (Leo A. Daly) “Boarding Gate and Holdroom Facilities for Airport Passenger Terminal” 32. Joseph F. Romano (Gensler) “Developing a Building Concept for Airport Passenger Terminals” 33. Fred Silverman (PB Aviation) “Terminal Groundside Access Systems” FAA White Papers C-29

34. Ron Steinert (Gensler) “Developing a Building Concept for Airport Passenger Terminals: Terminal Configuration” 35. Marilyn Taylor (Skidmore Owings Merrill) “The Air Terminal: Program to Concept Design” 36. Keith Thompson (Gensler) “Developing a Space Program for Airport Passenger Terminals” 37. Keith Thompson (Gensler) “Interdependence of Security and Terminal Design: An Overview” 38. Tony Vacchione (Skidmore Owings Merrill) “Flexibility in Airport Terminal Design” 39. Regine Weston (Weston-Wong Aviation Consultants) “Developing a Space Program for Airport Passenger Terminals” 40. Regine Weston (Weston-Wong Aviation Consultants) “Passenger Flow Dynamics and Level of Service in Airport Terminal Buildings” 41. Norman D. Witteveen (HNTB) “Operational and Maintenance (O&M) Considerations in Terminal Planning and Design” 42. Harry P. Wolfe (Maricopa Association of Governments) “Accommodating Aging Population Needs in Airport Terminals” C-30 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design

Next: Appendix D - Aircraft Types and Key Dimensional Criteria »
Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook Get This Book
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design comprises a guidebook, spreadsheet models, and a user’s guide in two volumes and a CD-ROM intended to provide guidance in planning and developing airport passenger terminals and to assist users in analyzing common issues related to airport terminal planning and design.

Volume 1 of ACRP Report 25 explores the passenger terminal planning process and provides, in a single reference document, the important criteria and requirements needed to help address emerging trends and develop potential solutions for airport passenger terminals. Volume 1 addresses the airside, terminal building, and landside components of the terminal complex.

Volume 2 of ACRP Report 25 consists of a CD-ROM containing 11 spreadsheet models, which include practical learning exercises and several airport-specific sample data sets to assist users in determining appropriate model inputs for their situations, and a user’s guide to assist the user in the correct use of each model. The models on the CD-ROM include such aspects of terminal planning as design hour determination, gate demand, check-in and passenger and baggage screening, which require complex analyses to support planning decisions. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image.

View information about the TRB webinar on ACRP Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, which was held on Monday, April 26, 2010.

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