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I.1 Purpose and Organization of the Guidebook I.1.1 Purpose The purpose of this Guidebook is to provide an updated and focused overview regarding the planning and design of airport terminal buildings in the United States. This Guidebookâs intended audience includes airport managers and their staff, airport planners, architects, and the aviation industry-at-large. This Guidebook is intended to supplement the guidebooks provided by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with updated information and a fresh outlook for terminal planners and designers. This Guidebook represents a snapshot in time within a continuously evolving set of industry planning principles and regu- lations. As such, the reader must remain vigilant to possible updates and changes to the contents of this document. This Guidebook attempts to provide a thorough understanding of all the issues to consider when undertaking the planning and design of terminal facilities in an ever-evolving commercial aviation market. To plan and/or design an airport passenger terminal appropriately, it is important that any future terminal facility is based on a sound quantitative program of functional requirements that are based on future forecasts of air passenger and aircraft activity. For this reason this Guide- book also includes the results of Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Project 07-04, âSpreadsheet Models for Terminal Planning and Design.â Additionally, this Guidebook makes reference to other ACRP projects that have relevance to the planning and design of airport passenger terminals. Passenger terminal projects typically arise out of a particular purpose or need at a specific airport location. A new terminal can be part of a totally new airport or an addition to an existing airportâs infrastructure. There are also projects that involve the expansion or replacement of an existing terminal while other projects look to simply renovate a current facility. More often than not, the primary purpose of the majority of these terminal projects is to add capacity or improve level of service through the addition of gates and the expansion of passenger processing capacity. There are numerous ways in which these terminal projects can be undertaken. The conceptual definition of a terminal project can be formulated under an FAA Airport Master Plan that will determine the demand forecasts, facility requirements, and a general site plan configuration of the terminal complex, which then becomes a part of the Airport Layout Plan. Other airport-sponsored studies can focus just on the development of the terminal and are sometimes labeled a âTerminal Area Master Plan,â which can vary in detail from a simple conceptual vision of the future terminal to a Program Criteria Document that sets out a detailed facilities requirement program tailored to a particular concept, depicts the terminal complex site plan, and diagrammatically depicts the 1 C H A P T E R I Introduction
terminal building floor plans. Individual terminal projects also can be initiated by an air carrierâs strategic business plan as related to a particular airport or can be sponsored by a government entity associated with an airport looking to implement a new terminal through the non-traditional source of a third-party developer. Once a terminal project is sufficiently defined relative to its mission, facility requirements, and planning configuration, it can move forward toward its design and implementation. Regardless of the terminalâs mission or the way the project is to be implemented, it is the intent of this Guidebook to set forth guidelines for undertaking the terminal planning process and to provide insights on potential issues and future trends that may affect and influence the ultimate airport terminal facility solution. I.1.2 Organization of the Guidebook This Guidebook is organized to reflect the fundamental sequence of events that are under- taken during a typical terminal project, including organizing the project approach; gaining an understanding of the project as a whole by gathering existing information and interacting with stakeholders; forecasting demand activity; preparing facility requirements; and iteratively developing conceptual terminal planning options that collectively address the airside, terminal, and landside components resulting in the selection of a preferred alternative. More specifically the Guidebook includes the following: â¢ Chapter I, Introductionâprovides the reader with an overview of previous industry-recognized terminal planning guides and the underlying need for new guidance in the planning of airport passenger terminals. This overview is followed by a brief retrospective of air passenger terminals. â¢ Chapter II, Terminal Planning and Design Processâprovides a general overview of the terminal planning and design process. The terminal complex is divided into three distinct componentsâ airside, terminal, and landsideâwhich then serve as the framework for discussion in the subsequent terminal facilities sections of the Guidebook. â¢ Chapter III, Planning Considerationsâdescribes a multiplicity of macro-level factors that should be considered during the planning and design processes. â¢ Chapter IV, Forecastsâprovides an overview of the forecasting techniques for future aircraft and passenger demands with emphasis on how this relates to the terminal planning process. â¢ Chapter V, Terminal Airside Facilities; Chapter VI, Terminal Building Facilities; and Chapter VII, Terminal Landside Facilitiesâdescribe the technical planning aspects of the three primary components of the terminal complex: airside, terminal, and landside facilities. â¢ Appendices A through Iâprovide the reader with checklists; information on other pertinent ACRP studies; aircraft types and key dimensional criteria; dimensions of airline equipment; regulations; issues and trends; and a comprehensive glossary of key terms. Throughout the Guidebook, other ACRP references are identified. Volume 2 of this report comprises (1) a CD-ROM containing the Terminal Planning Spreadsheet Models for the calcu- lation of gates and critical passenger processing functions of the terminal building and terminal curbfront and (2) the Userâs Guide for the Spreadsheet Models. I.2 Previous Terminal Planning Guides In the early 1970s, two terminal planning guides were sponsored by the FAA. Participation in the creation of these was orchestrated by a leading architecture and engineering contractorâ The Ralph M. Parsons Company (now called Parsons) of Pasadena, California. Participants or stakeholders in the guides included the Air Transport Association and its representative airlines (United Airlines, American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines, Piedmont Airlines, 2 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
Delta Air Lines, Trans World Airlines, Allegheny Airlines, Frontier Airlines, National Airlines, and Pan American Airways); the Airport Operators Council International and representative airports (Miami International Airport, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, OâHare International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, Cincinnati/North Kentucky International Airport, and Ottawa International Airport); as well as all major divisions within the FAA. The first FAA terminal planning guides were titled: â¢ The Apron-Terminal Complex, 1973 (1) â¢ The Apron & Terminal Building Planning Manual, 1975 (2) These planning guides served the U.S. aviation industry for many years. Figure I-1 depicts the first FAA terminal planning guides. In addition to the FAA guidelines, the IATA began to publish comprehensive airport planning guides entitled the Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) (3) that have proved to be a significant and valuable terminal planning resource. The IATA ADRM (depicted in Figure I-2) is based on guidelines that in some cases are not indicative of U.S. practices. Where applicable, information from these FAA and IATA sources has been included in this Guidebook for the userâs convenience, but because these guidelines frequently change, please check for the latest version for potential revisions. Participants in the development of the latest version of the ADRM (9th Edition published in 2004) included IATA and representative airlines, as well as other airport industry contributors. The IATA ADRM is available online at http://www.iata.org/ps/publications/ADRM.htm. I.3 Current Need for Terminal Planning Guidance The FAA guidelines were published in 1988 as Planning and Design Guidelines for Airport Terminal Facilities, Advisory Circular 150/5360-13 (4). The basis for this document was the 1973 and 1975 planning guides produced by the FAA. Since then there have been only minor changes (made in 1994), principally to sections dealing with Federal Inspection Services (FIS) facilities. Introduction 3 The Apron Terminal Complex, 1973 The Apron & Terminal Building Planning Manual, 1975 Figure I-1. First terminal planning guides.
Since the last update, significant changes in technology, industry structure, and airline oper- ations have occurred, which have shifted the balance of importance of certain planning factors for airport terminal buildings. These shifts in balance have occurred in areas that include, but are not limited to, the following: â¢ Passenger security screening â Carry-on baggage restrictions â Trusted/registered traveler programs â Additional screening requirements â¢ Baggage security screening â In-line/explosives detection system screening â Lobby screening â¢ Electronic check-in â Onâairport â Offâairport â Airline goals for electronic check-ins â¢ Low-cost airlines â Gate utilization â Space requirements â Level of service standards â Design criteria â¢ Concessions â Secure/non-secure â Demand increases â¢ Cost effectiveness â Revenue generation â Cost per enplanement â Capital cost factors (fuel, steel, long-lead items) â¢ Consolidation of FIS agencies and procedural changes 4 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Courtesy of: International Air Transport Association Figure I-2. IATA Airport Development Reference Manual.
While each of the foregoing factors have had a profound effect on airport operations, they are part of an evolution that began at the threshold of the commercial jet age around 1960 and will, in all likelihood, continue to evolve and change as long as air travel is the preeminent means of transport for millions of people worldwide. It is the intent and purpose of this Guidebook to achieve a balance in the terminal planning and design process by addressing recent changes that have occurred, as well as future potential issues, trends, anticipated effects, and solutions that may need to be considered in the future. I.4 Retrospective From a historical perspective, airport terminals are a relatively new building concept that has evolved in step with the requirements of the commercial aviation industry, which is today still less than 100 years old. In spite of their relative ânewness,â airport terminals have acquired a significant place in the lives of U.S. citizens, many of whom travel regularly by air domestically and, to a lesser extent, to international destinations. In recent years expectations of the scale and grandeur of airport terminals have grown as cities increasingly regard their major airports as iconic symbols of their status and economic success, fulfilling a position much like the great railway stations of the 19th Century and the great European cathedrals of the Middle Ages. Figure I-3 depicts Saint Peterâs Basilica, Grand Central Station, and the terminal interior at John Wayne Airport (JWA). The earliest terminals in the United States date from the late 1920s, when commercial aviation was in its infancy. Figure I-4 depicts one of the earliest terminals built at an airport. Given the limited capacity and range of passenger aircraft, most people still traveled by train throughout the 1930s and 1940s. The relatively high cost and limited availability meant that air travel was essentially restricted to a wealthy elite and most commercial flights offered exclusively what we would now consider âFirst Classâ service well into the 1950s. At the same time, airport terminals evolved as important civic or national symbols and with designs often tailored to meet the needs Introduction 5 (i) St. Peterâs Basilica (iii) Interior JWA Terminal (ii) Grand Central Station Courtesy of: (i) Landrum & Brown; (ii) Bettmann Archive; (iii) Gensler Figure I-3. European cathedrals, 19th Century railway stations, and modern airports are iconic symbols of city status.
of a particular airline. Aesthetic considerations typically predominated over functionality and flexibility, a trend that would be significantly reversed after 1960. The advent of jet-engined aircraft in the 1960s transformed civil aviation. Between 1960 and 1970, most airline fleets converted to jets, which were larger, faster, and more comfortable than their piston-engined counterparts. Coach travel was introduced making it more economical for people to fly. Between 1960 and 1970, air passengers in the United States increased approximately 173%âthe largest percentage increase ever recorded in a decade in U.S. aviation history. This same decade saw jet aircraft evolve from the B707/DC-8/CV880-990 in the early 1960s (typical capacity of 125 to 150 passengers) to the B747-100 in 1969 to 1970 (typical capacity of 350 to 450 passengers). Figure I-5 depicts the 300% growth in aircraft capacity. Travel by air began to replace rail and ocean liner as the favored modes of transport for long-distance travel. With the larger capacity jet aircraft came increased demands on terminal buildings. Greater efficiency and flexibility were needed to accommodate higher numbers of passengers and baggage. Terminal buildings had to move beyond niche designs, catering to a few wealthy patrons, to become vast âprocessorsâ capable of accommodating thousands of passengers and the associated baggage during peak periods. Airport terminal planners of the 1960s had no guidelines to work from. Experimentation was the rule. Today we have the good fortune to be able to look back and see which terminal designs have worked and which have not, which have proved flexible enough to grow with demand, and which were inflexible to change. Perhaps the most dramatic examples of flexibility and inflexibility in airport terminal design in the 1960s were created by the same architect, Eero Saarinen, in 1961 and 1962. Saarinenâs 6 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Courtesy of: Los Angeles World Airports Figure I-4. LAX 1927 Flying Service Club. B747 A380 B777 B767 B707 B757 B727 B737 B717 CRJ Aircraft grew from B707 to B747 â 300% Capacity Increase Source: Landrum & Brown Figure I-5. Aircraft capacity growth.
TWA Terminal at New York Cityâs John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) opened to rave reviews for its innovative beauty and creative design in 1961. As a work of art, the TWA Terminal, called âBird in Flight,â was an unparalleled success, but as a terminal building, it proved over time to be functionally deficient due to its spatial complexity and structural rigidity. Figure I-6 depicts JFKâs TWA Terminal, created in the 1960s. Saarinenâs second terminal design at Dulles International Airport (IAD) was a significant planning departure from the JFK terminal and visualized a bold new direction in operational flexibilityâthe mobile lounge concept. Completed in 1962, Saarinenâs main terminal at IAD has been able to successfully adapt and change, primarily as a result of its modular design and the visionary planning that situated the airport on almost 12,000 acres of land in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, DC. While brilliant in concept, the operation and maintenance costs of the mobile lounge vehicles combined with the added complexity of closing out flights early to allow for the delivery of passengers to the aircraft precipitated the abandonment of the mobile lounges. Expanded several times in its modular framework, IAD has been converted to a satellite configuration with an underground automated people mover system. Figure I-7 depicts the IAD terminal. While the IAD terminal continues to serve as a major international hub, the TWA Terminal has been preserved, but is unused for passenger processing, and has been consigned to the National Register of Historic Places since 2001. Introduction 7 Courtesy of: The Airport, Edward G. Blankenship: Ezra Stoller Associates, Rye, NY, and Trans World Airlines, Inc., New York, NY Figure I-6. Art form of TWA Terminal at JFK Airport. Source: The Airport, Edward G. Blankenship: FAA, DOT, Washington, DC Figure I-7. Functional aesthetics of Dulles International Airport.
Saarinenâs terminals, like many others built in the 1960s, were planned and designed without benefit of any guidelines, and without having had the experience provided by precedent. By the end of the decade, it was clear that more systematic terminal planning and design guidance was needed. I.5 Airline Deregulation The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 (5) has had the greatest impact on the commercial aviation industry and ultimately on the planning and design of terminal facilities. The Act removed restrictions on entry, pricing, and routes. Between 1978 and 1985, the number of non-commuter airlines increased from 43 to 87; the number of revenue passenger miles (RPMs) almost doubled; and the share of total traffic of incumbent trunk airlines declined from 94% to 77%. Commuter/ regional airlines (operating aircraft with fewer than 60 seats) increased their RPMs by a factor of seven by 1989. As competition increased, however, the number of new entrants declined and many failed. By 1990, only 44 of 148 new entrants reporting to FAA remained. During the early 1990s, higher fuel costs combined with a global recession and increased industry capacity caused the financial failure of a number of both new and long-established airlines. While new airlines continued to be attempted, most eventually failed and airlines also continued to consolidate after 2000 as costs increased and fare pricing power decreased. However, deregulation also saw the emergence of two significant trends that have directly affected terminal planning. The most obvious is the development of airline hubs. While hubbing did exist prior to deregulation, the ability to build routes through hubs was a slow process. After deregulation, hub routing could be established quickly. The impact on terminals was dramatic. Hubs had to accommodate much higher peak volumes of passengers than originally planned, and most of these passengers would need to connect. The development of âbanksâ of flights had significant impacts on aircraft maneuvering in the terminal area as well as runway capacity impacts. Passenger security screening, already required prior to deregulation, needed to be re-worked to avoid having connecting passengers go through screening again at a hub. An example of this was Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW). As American Airlines built its hub, the terminals, which were originally conceived as an origin and destination (O&D) âdrive to gateâ concept, required a major internal reconfiguration to provide a continuous secure corridor along its linear gate configuration (6). Deregulation also saw the development of the low-cost carrier (LCC) model as typified by Southwest Airlines. This model focused on short-haul, high-frequency services that bypass hubs and use a single aircraft type. Although both Southwest and other LCCs have developed âfocus cities,â which allow passengers to build connections, the scheduling of flights is not based on concentrated banks of flights. The impact on terminals is a more continuous use of facilities through the day, but LCCsâ emphasis on the bottom line resulted in some airport operators re-thinking how they designed and operated terminals. Many LCC operating concepts (such as no food served during a flight) have been adopted by so-called legacy carriers and have required airports to increase concessions to both serve the passengers and provide additional income (7). It is likely that the industry landscape will continue to shift as airlines change their operating procedures and markets. This likelihood emphasizes the need for consideration of alternative futures in terminal planning, and flexibility in terminal design. Terminal planning and design guidelines by their nature will always have a limited life and need to be re-evaluated periodically to consider developing trends. However, history shows that not all trends will survive, and terminal planners need to look at the latest ânext big thingâ very carefully before making it the basis of a terminal concept. 8 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design