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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Appendix B

Glossary

Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) Range of macronutrient intake that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease, while providing recommended intakes of other essential nutrients
Added sugars Sugars that are added to foods or beverages when they are processed or prepared, not naturally occurring in foods
Adequate Intake (AI) The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake of groups of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate; used when an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cannot be determined
Administrative burden Includes adding unreasonably to staff time and effort, requiring additional systems that are not already in place, or requiring any program modifications that would be disproportionate to the benefit of the change
Anemia Condition that occurs when the body does not have enough red blood cells or when the red blood cells do not function properly
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Global program launched by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund in 1991 to encourage and recognize hospitals and birthing centers that offer an optimal level of care for infant feeding and mother/baby bonding
Bioavailability Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in unspecified metabolic and/or physiologic processes
Buckwheat A proposed WIC whole grain alternative, technically not a grain or related to wheat, derived from the seed of the buckwheat plant
Calories for other uses (COU) The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defines “calories for other uses” as calories from added sugars and saturated fat, along with calories from added refined starch, as well as additional calories from the recommended food groups, and alcohol
Cash value voucher (CVV) A monthly voucher in the WIC food package (currently $11 for women and $8 for children) that allows for the purchase of a variety of vegetables and fruits
Celiac disease An autoimmune disorder that can occur in genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine
Competent Professional Authority (WIC Program) An individual authorized to determine nutritional risks and prescribe supplemental foods. Physicians, registered dietitians, registered nurses and nutritionists are all examples of Competent Professional Authorities
Complementary foods Foods other than breast milk or infant formula introduced to an infant to provide nutrients
Corn masa flour A very soft flour made from finely ground hominy or dried corn kernels that have been cooked and soaked in limewater
Cornmeal Dried corn kernels ground less finely than those in corn masa flour
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Cost-neutrality Refers to the condition that the weighted average per-participant cost of the revised set of food packages falls within 10 cents of the weighted average per-participant cost of the current set of food packages. Under this constraint, the effects of each food package on cost depend on the number of participants represented by that package
Culturally suitable Foods should align with food preferences and feeding practices based on an individual’s ethnic identity and religion
DASH eating plan The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is a dietary pattern shown to prevent and control hypertension emphasizing vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and lean meats, while limiting sodium and sugar
Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) A report published every 5 years by the U.S. Department of Agriculture containing nutritional and dietary information and guidelines for the general public, required by P.L. 101-445, 7 U.S.C. 5341 to be based on the preponderance of current scientific and medical knowledge
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) An omega-3 fatty acid found in cold-water, fatty fish
Dyad Mother–infant pair in WIC program
Electronic benefit transfer (EBT) An electronic system that allows a recipient to authorize transfer of their government benefits from a federal account to a retailer account to pay for products received
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) A nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a population
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) The average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Federal poverty guidelines Guidelines used by the U.S. government to determine financial eligibility for certain federal programs, issued each year in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Final Rule 7 C.F.R. § 246 in the Federal Register updated on March 4, 2014, to reflect revisions to the WIC food packages proposed in the 2006 Institute of Medicine report WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change
Food allergy An adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food
Food composition data Calorie and nutrient content of foods
Food insecurity Limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways
Food package A specific set of foods prescribed to each WIC participant on a monthly basis. There are currently seven food packages (eight in the revised set), assigned by age and physiological state (pregnant; breastfeeding; or postpartum, nonbreastfeeding)
Food security The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”
Full-redemption All foods prescribed in WIC package were purchased in the quantities available using monthly benefits
Fully breastfed “Exclusive breastfeeding” is defined by the World Health Organization as giving no other food or drink—not even water—except breast milk. It does, however, allow the infant to receive oral rehydration salts (ORSs), drops, and syrups (vitamins, minerals, and medicines)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Functional ingredient Nutrient or non-nutrient component added to foods that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition and is considered safe at estimated national levels of consumption
Gestational diabetes Type of diabetes that is first seen in a pregnant woman who did not have diabetes before she was pregnant
Gestational weight gain Amount of weight gained during pregnancy
Gluten Proteins found in wheat, rye, barley, and triticale
Halal When used in relation to food products, halal refers to any foods that are allowed to be eaten according to Islamic Sharia law. Foods that are not considered halal include pork and its byproducts, alcohol, and animals not slaughtered properly according to Islamic law
Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010) A measure of diet quality that assesses conformance to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Healthy People 2020 A set of goals and objectives released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services with 10-year targets designed to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health of all people in the United States
Heme iron Easily absorbed form of dietary iron that comes primarily from meat
Hydrolyzed protein Protein that has been broken down into its component amino acids
Hypoglycemia A condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar (glucose)
Income-to-poverty ratio Measurement of the depth of poverty as determined by how close a family’s or individual’s income is to their poverty threshold. Families and individuals with an income-to-poverty ratio of less than 100 percent are identified as being in poverty. An income-to-poverty ratio of 50 percent indicates a family or person is living with in deep poverty
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Indian Tribal Organization Any tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village, regional corporation, or village corporation that is recognized by the Secretary of the Interior as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians
ISU method Method developed at Iowa State University (ISU) to estimate the distributions of usual intake of nutrients, foods consumed almost daily, and other dietary components
Jarred infant food meat Any variety of commercial infant food meat or poultry meeting WIC specifications. Texture may range from pureed through diced
Kosher When used in relation to food products, kosher means that the item in question meets the dietary requirements of Jewish law. Restrictions include those pertaining to types of animals that can be eaten, the process by which they are slaughtered, and the separation of meat and milk
Lactose intolerance An inability to digest lactose, which causes symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and gas after eating or drinking milk or milk products
Legumes Any type of mature dry beans, peas, or lentils in dry-packaged or canned forms
Loving Support© The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) national breastfeeding promotion and support campaign (Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work©) that provides education, training and outreach materials for staff of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Resources are also available for women and their families and friends and health care providers and community partners
Macronutrient Dietary components that constitute the bulk of the diet and supply energy and many essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins (including essential amino acids), and fats (including essential fatty acids)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Management Information System (MIS) A computerized database of information organized and programmed in such a way that it produces regular reports on operations for management in an organization
Maximum monthly allowance (MMA) The maximum amount of a specific food a participant is allowed in WIC food packages
Micronutrient Dietary component required by the body in small amounts that are vital to development, disease prevention, and well-being. Micronutrients are not produced in the body and must be derived from the diet
Micropolitan area Urban areas in the United States that are centered on an urban cluster with a population at least 10,000 but less than 50,000
Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) A form of gluten intolerance that neither meets the diagnostic criteria for celiac disease nor those for wheat allergy
Nonredemption No foods prescribed in WIC package were purchased using monthly benefits
Nutrient-Based Diet Quality (NBDQ) Index An index developed for this report to measure of the adequacy of nutrient intake and diet quality in the WIC population based on the mean probability of adequacy for the nine shortfall nutrients, calculated for each individual, as compared to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values
Nutrients of public health concern According to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, within the larger category of shortfall nutrients (nutrients inadequately consumed by the U.S. population), nutrients of public health concern are of particular importance because their underconsumption has been linked to adverse health outcomes
Omega-3 fatty acid An unsaturated fatty acid occurring chiefly in fish oils, reported to benefit cardiovascular health
Partial-redemption Some amount of foods prescribed in WIC package was purchased with some benefit remaining at the end of the month
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Partially breastfed The World Health Organization’s definition of partial breastfeeding is “giving a baby some breastfeeds, and some artificial feeds, either milk or cereal, or other food”
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Comprehensive health insurance reforms enacted to improve access, affordability, and quality of health care for Americans
PC Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE) Software for intake distribution estimation developed at Iowa State University
Phased-in cost estimates Cost estimates for food packages for the 5-year period fiscal year (FY) 2018–FY2022 calculated to account for states implementing the revised food packages at different times
Postpartum women Women up to 6 months after giving birth, as defined by the Federal Register
Preeclampsia Pregnancy-induced hypertension that occurs after the 20th week (late second or third trimester) of pregnancy
Pregnancy-induced hypertension A pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure, swelling due to fluid retention, and protein in the urine
Rebate The amount of money refunded under cost containment procedures to any state agency from the manufacturer of the particular food product as the result of the purchase of the supplemental food with a voucher or other purchase instrument by a participant in each state agency’s program
Redeemed foods Foods actually purchased by WIC participants, compared to foods prescribed to WIC participants
Redemption rates Percentage of prescribed foods issued that are obtained by the participant at the WIC vendor. Rates used in this report were derived through various methods, including consideration of three types of redemption practices: full redemption, partial redemption, and nonredemption
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Regression discontinuity A study design that compares people who are just below an eligibility threshold with those who are just above it, which provides internally valid estimates of eligibility on outcomes—provided that these individuals cannot manipulate their presence below or above the threshold. This design requires using the measure of income that is used by the program rather than survey data
Regulatory impact analysis A systemic approach to critically assessing the positive and negative effects of proposed and existing regulations and nonregulatory alternatives, from a cost perspective
Revised food packages Proposed revisions to WIC food packages
Selection bias A distortion of the measured effect resulting from procedures used to select subjects such that the relation between exposure and disease is different for those who participate and those who would be eligible but do not participate
Sensitivity analysis Study of how the uncertainty in the output of a model can be attributed to different sources of uncertainty in the model inputs
Shortfall nutrients Nutrients identified by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee as underconsumed by the U.S. population relative to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations
Split tender Participants may pay the difference out of pocket if their fruit and vegetable purchase exceeds the amount on the cash value voucher
State agency State agencies administering the WIC program
Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment (SPADE) Statistical method for estimating usual dietary intake distributions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Substitutions Foods that may be selected in place of the prescribed WIC foods in a food category of the WIC food packages. Substitutions for a food in the WIC food categories “must be nutritionally equivalent or superior to the food it is intended to replace”
Supplemental (the concept of) A committee-developed concept that was used as a target for the food package revisions. It refers to the amounts of nutrients and food groups that the WIC packages that would provide a moderate proportion of an individual’s requirement for a particular nutrient or food group. The supplementation target (i.e., proportion of requirement or recommended amount) may differ depending on the nutrient requirement or recommended amount of a food group, the degree to which foods appropriate for the food package and available in the marketplace499 can supply these recommended amounts, and the degree to which cultural food patterns or food preferences can be met
Supplemental food “Those foods containing nutrients determined by nutritional research to be lacking in the diets of pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants, and children, and foods that promote the health of the population served by the WIC Program as indicated by relevant nutrition science, public health concerns, and cultural eating patterns, as prescribed by the Secretary” (P.L. 95-627 § 17)
Teff A fine, whole grain—about the size of a poppy seed—that comes in a variety of colors, from white and red to dark brown. Grown predominantly in Ethiopia and Eritrea
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Federal program that provides grant funds to states and territories to provide financial assistance and related support services to pregnant women and families with one or more dependent children. State-administered programs may include childcare assistance, job preparation, and work assistance
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population
Type 2 diabetes Chronic condition that affects the metabolism of glucose caused by the body’s ineffective use of insulin
Unadjusted estimates Cost estimates for food packages for the 5-year period FY2018–FY2022 based on the assumption that all WIC agencies implement all changes on April 1, 2018
Universal Product Code (UPC) A unique 12-digit number assigned to retail goods that identifies both the product and the vendor that sells the product
USDA or DGA food pattern Food patterns grouped by kilocalorie levels developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to help individuals carry out Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations
Vegan diet A diet that excludes all animal foods and products
Vegetarian diet A diet that does not include animal flesh foods (i.e., meat, seafood), but does include other animal products (e.g., eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt)
Vendor (or WIC vendor) Authorized WIC retailer where participants may redeem WIC foods that are obtained using WIC benefits
Whole grain-rich Foods that contain at least 50 percent whole grains with the remaining grains enriched, or foods that contain 100 percent whole grains
Whole grains Whole grains or foods made from them contain all the essential parts and naturally-occurring nutrients of the entire grain seed (bran, germ, and endosperm) in their original proportions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this third report, the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale.

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