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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 170 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Safety and Human Factors â¢ Security and Emergencies Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports Lorena de Rodriguez Jack Plaxe Melana Tautkus SSi, inc. (Safety & Security inStruction) Tucson, Arizona John Sawyer JMS airfield Safety conSulting llc Goodyear, Arizona and Gloria Bender Stephen Lehocky Jessica Gafford tranSSolutionS Fort Worth, Texas
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 170 Project 10-25 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44624-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2017934267 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The coordination and development of ACRP Project 10-25 were performed by Lorena de Rodriguez, Principal for SSi, Inc. as Quality Assurance Manager and John Sawyer, Principal for JMS Airfield Safety Consulting LLC as Principal Investigator. Additional research team members and authors of all required reports and the final guidebook are Jack Plaxe, assistant researcher/subject matter expert (SME), SSi; Melana Tautkus, research manager/technical editor, SSi; Stephen Lehocky, program optimization auditor, TransSolutions; Gloria Bender, subject matter expert and principal, TransSolutions; and Jessica Gafford, co-author and information developer, TransSolutions. The authors wish to thank the following individuals for their support in providing airport, agency, and industry information: Adam Lunn, Lakeland Regional Airport; Aaron Deerey, Southwest Florida Inter national Airport; Amy Caudill, Blue Grass Airport; Bob Johnson, Kansas City International Airport; Bradley Madeira, Hancock County Bar Harbor Airport; Brent Cagle, Charlotte Douglas International Airport; Carl Miller, Monterey Regional Airport; Carl Newman, Jackson-Evers International Airport; Cathryn Stephens, Eugene Airport; Chad Makovsky, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport; Cheryl Hamilton, Houston Intercontinental Airport; Chris Martini, Jaguar Land Rover Special Operations; Chris Mullin, Willow Run Airport; Chris Rausch, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport; Clay Rodgers, North Little Rock Municipal Airport; Cody Bauman, Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport; Corinne Nystrom, Mesa Falcon Field Airport; Craig Pletenik, Phoenix Union High School District; Dale CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 170 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-25 PANEL Field of Operations Dominic A. Nessi, Burns EngineeringâAeroTech Partners, Las Vegas, NV (Chair) Roger D. Hamilton, W.A.M.D.I. Aviation Consultants, Covington, KY W. Casey Kinosz, Lexington Blue Grass Airport, Lexington, KY Chad R. Makovsky, City of Phoenix Aviation Department, Phoenix, AZ Maureen Pettitt, M Pettitt Consulting, Burlington, WA Taiya Carter, FAA Liaison Supriya Raman, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison (continued on page vi)
ACRP Research Report 170: Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports offers standards and practices to help airport industry practitioners develop and implement effective programs for delivering both routine notifications as well as incident and emergency- related notifications. The guidance allows readers to customize their programs to match their unique circumstances. The research results will be of particular interest to airport industry practitioners who wish to update or create and implement a customized program. Many organizations are using technology systems (e.g., AMBER Alertsâ¢, dynamic messaging, location-based SMS messaging) to communicate notifications to employees, tenants, mutual aid agencies, customers, and the general public. While other industries have experienced the value of these systems in reaching large audiences quickly, most airports are relatively new to the use of public notification programs, and their current public address systems are often inflexible and difficult to adapt for this use. In addition, public notification programs comprise more than just their technological components, and must be tailored to meet the unique needs of airports. Research was needed to provide guidance for airports to develop effective public notification programs that are based on procedures, practices, training, and policies. The research, led by SSi, Inc., began with a review of literature related to airport and similar industry emergency, non-emergency, incident, public information, and notification methods. This was followed by a comprehensive survey of more than 50 airports of various sizes and types across the United States to determine the status of public notification programs and their use. A parallel survey was also distributed to similar industries, such as universities and large school districts, utility companies, entertainment venues, and hospitals, to discover practices, tools, policies, and procedures that could be applicable and beneficial to public notification programs at airports. Next, detailed case studies of four airports and two similar industries were undertaken to understand their overall notification program as well as how notifications were handled during a specific event. The contractor then developed their guidance based on their expertise and their research findings. The guidebook provides a process for developing a stand-alone program to fit the unique needs of airports. Key topics include conducting a needs assessment, reviewing alternatives, and developing and implementing a program tailored to an airportâs size and activity level. The guidebook also offers valuable supplemental information in its appendices, including a review of tools and methods, a matrix comparing benefits with their associated level of effort for implementation, sample notification templates and scripts, and a National Incident Management System (NIMS)-formatted notification program template. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
Gustafson, IBM; Dan Agostino, Miami International Airport; Dan Sprinkle, Denver International Airport; Danny Arbuckle, Arizona Public Service; David Beaver, Owatonna Degner Regional Airport; David DiMaria, Detroit Wayne County Metropolitan Airport; David Kulinsky, Lambert-St. Louis International Airport; Deborah Potter, Marthaâs Vineyard Airport; Dominic Nassi, Los Angeles International Airport; Donald DeGraw, Key West International Airport; Duane Legan, Raleigh-Durham International Airport; Ed Faron, Deer Valley Airport; Ed Schmidtke, Thunder Bay International Airport; Edward Freni, Boston Logan International Airport; Erica Kuligowski, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Fil Meraz, Aspen-Pitkin County Airport; Frank Kusluch, Arizona Public Service; George Dechon, Lakeland Linder Regional Medical Center; Gladys Wiggins, Yuma International Airport; Glenn Pudlowski, Lambert- St. Louis International Airport; Greg Kelly, Savannah-Hilton Head International Airport; Gregory Haug, Bismarck International Airport; James Hinde, Albuquerque International Airport; Jason Davis, Blue Ridge Airport; Jason Wicks, Fort Gibson Public Schools; Jeff Fearn, Arizona Public Service; Jeff Lea, Lambert- St. Louis International Airport; Jim Smith, Austin Bergstrom International Airport; Joe Husband, Goodyear Airport; Joe Marana, Fort WayneâAllen County Authority; John F. Mitchell, Thermo Fisher Scientific; John Kinney, Aspen/Pitkin County Airport; John Nord, Devils Lake Regional Airport; John P. Chmiel, Wausau Downtown Airport; John Parrott, Ted Stevens Anchorage International; John Stewart, Baltimoreâ Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport; Jon Little, Platte Riverâs Rawhide Energy Station; Joseph Doucet, Lakeland Linder Regional Medical Center; Joseph Job, Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport; Joseph Lopano, Tampa International Airport; Kari Dabrowski, Roanoke-Blacksburg Regional Airport; Keith Holt, New River Valley Airport; Kevin Howell, Greenville-Spartanburg Airport; Kimberly Gibbs, Washington Dulles International Airport; Kyle Kornelis, Soldotna Airport; Lance Lyttle, Houston Intercontinental Airport; Lanita Magee, Dallas Love Field Airports; Larry Rolon, Los Angeles World Airports; Laura Coale, Denver International Airport; Lauren Stover, Miami International Airport; Lisa Carr, Kent County Airport; Lisa Jewett, Grove Regional Airport; Lisa LeBlanc-Hutchings, Southwest Florida Inter- national Airport; Margi Evanson, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport; Maria Sheridan, A.A.E., Morristown Municipal Airport; Mark VanLoh, Kansas City International Airport; Mary Jo Polidore, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport; Matthew Crosman, Washington Dulles International Airport; Matthew Johnson, Scottsdale Airport; Maureen Lackie, Lakeland Linder Regional Medical Center; Mayra Alvarado, Arizona Public Service; Meaghan Smalley, Jacksonville International Airport; Michael Brady, Embry Riddle Aero- nautical University; Michael Dacey, Chicago OâHare International Airport; Michael Nonnemacher, Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport; Michael W. Keegan, General Mitchell International Airport; Mike Scott, Reno-Tahoe International Airport; Monica Lombrana, El Paso International Airport; Nick Keller, Yeager Airport; Paul Martinez, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport; Phil Burke, Minneapolis- St. Paul International Airport; Randy Berg, Salt Lake City International Airport; Raul Aguallo, Western Nebraska Regional Airport; Reese McCranie, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport; Reginald Saunders, San Francisco International Airport; Rhonda M. Chambers, Fort Dodge Regional Airport; Richard Davis, Arizona Public Service; Rob Borden, Columbus International Airport; Rob Forester, San Francisco International Airport; Rob Wigington, Nashville Metro Airport; Robert Hom, Eagle River Union Airport; Robert Lockhart, San Jose International Airport; Ron Lucaro, Arizona Public Service; Ron Stella, Lambert-St. Louis International Airport; Rosemary Rizzo, Morristown Municipal Airport; Rosemary Vassiliadis, McCarren International Airport; Roy Weber, Pensacola International Airport; Sara Dudley, St Michaelâs Public Schools; Sarah Demory, Boise International Airport; Scott Evans, Tulsa Inter- national Airport; D. Scott Lanter, Blue Grass Airport; Scott Maxwell, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport; Shaun Germolus, Range Regional Airport; Shawn Dobberstein, Hector International Airport; Shawn Wagner, Arizona Public Service; Sherry Lawdermilt, University of North Dakota; Stephen Grubbs, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport; Steven Stockam, Joplin Regional Airport; Tanna Almond, Atlanta International Airport; Terry Craven, Salt Lake City International Airport; Thomas Jewsbury, St. Pete Clearwater Airport; Thomas W. Draper, Orlando International Airport; Thomas Wallace, Memphis Inter- national Airport; Tim OâKrongley, San Antonio International Airport; Todd Williams, Arizona Public Service; Victor J. Gill, Bob Hope Airport; Walter J. Krygowski, Louis Armstrong New Orleans Interna- tional Airport; Warren Askew, Toronto Airport; Wendy Reiter, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport; and Zenia M. Cornejo, Eloy Municipal Airport. AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)
1 Chapter 1 Guidebook Objective and Methodology 1 Background 2 Guidebook Objective 2 Intended Audience 3 Definition of Public Notification 3 Guidebook Development Methodology 3 Guidebook Overview 4 Guidebook Limitations 5 Chapter 2 Critical Decision-Making Areas for Program Development 7 Recommended Process for Development of a Stand-Alone Notification-Specific Program 12 Chapter 3 Conducting a Needs Assessment 12 Steps in Conducting a Needs Assessment 15 Airport Notification Needs 16 Notification Categories 17 Resource NA-1a 19 Resource NA-2a 22 Resource NA-3a 25 Resource NA-4/Part 1a 26 Resource NA-4/Part 2a 27 Resource NA-4/Part 3a 28 Resource NA-5a 30 Resource NA-6a 31 Resource NA-7a 33 Resource NA-8a 34 Chapter 4 Exploring Options 34 Steps in Exploring Options 36 How Will Notifications Be Made? 36 Notification Program Funding 37 Impact of Internet and Social Media 38 Multiple, Back-up, and Redundant Capabilities 39 Resource EO-7 40 Chapter 5 Developing the Program 40 Steps in Developing the Program 42 Notifications for Diverse Audiences 44 Resource DP-1&2a 46 Resource DP-6a 49 Resource DP-9 C O N T E N T S
50 Chapter 6 Formalizing the Program 50 Writing a Stand-Alone Notification-Specific Program 52 Considering Additions to an Existing AEP 56 Government Resources 57 Resource FP-1a 58 Resource FP-2a 60 Resource FP-4a 61 Resource FP-7 62 Chapter 7 Implementing the Program and Managing via Continuous Improvement Cycles 62 Developing a Program Rollout Strategy and Plan 63 Managing via Continuous Improvement Cycles 67 Essentials of Notification Program Training 71 Resource IM-8 72 Appendix A Notification Tools and Methods 93 Appendix B Benefit/Effort Matrix 95 Appendix C Notification Templates and Scripts 98 Appendix D Sample Notification Program Template (NIMS Format) 116 Appendix E Overall Program Decision Guide Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.