National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports (2017)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Conducting a Needs Assessment." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

12 Understanding the notification needs of the airport is fundamental to developing the right program or evaluating the existing program. Taking steps to answer the five questions posed in Figure 3-1 will help airports identify critical gaps between the current situation and both cur- rent and future needs. How an airport answers the questions who, what, when/why, where, and how helps the team determine if the current notifications are sufficient or if updates are needed. Resources NA-1a through NA-8a pertain to the steps discussed in this chapter and are provided at the end of the chapter. These resources can be customized and used by airports as their teams go through the needs assessment process. Additional resources, labeled Resource NA-1b through Resource NA-8b, appear in Appendix E in the section labeled “OPDG for Needs Assessment.” Steps in Conducting a Needs Assessment Step 1: Assess who the internal and external notification recipient groups will be. Airports cater to various audiences and diverse groups. Airports are expected to make neces- sary notifications to appropriate audiences about various events that could have an impact on them. It is the airport’s responsibility to identify their internal and external notification recipient groups. Airports are advised to involve stakeholders to help identify and define recipient groups. Step 2: Assess airport risks that need notification planning. Notifications may be needed for any number of events/situations. All possible situations should be considered when planning for the airport’s notification needs. A thorough assess- ment of all possible conditions will help an airport identify and prioritize the specific risks/ situations that need to be addressed within their program. Specific needs will vary depending on the airports’ geographical location, the complexity of its operations, and its organizational structure. However, a comprehensive “all-hazards” approach is the most effective method to use to determine what notifications need to be included in the airport’s notification program. Step 3: Assess what situation(s)/event(s) require notifications to be sent to various recipient groups. This assessment helps recipient groups prioritize their notification needs, which then gives the airport clarification about stakeholder expectations. Stakeholder expectations usually rank high in an airport’s decision-making process. Therefore, understanding recipient expectations for notifications may help airports determine which systems, methods, and/or tools are needed to create or improve the notifications program. See Resource NA-1a See Resource NA-2a See Resource NA-3a C h a p t e r 3 Conducting a Needs Assessment

Conducting a Needs assessment 13 Step 4: Assess what types of notifications the airport will be responsible for initiating to their internal and external stakeholder groups and determine which department/section/person at the airport will be responsible for sending each type of notification. Notifications are classified as emergency, incident, or non-emergency, with subcategories that include initial, follow-up, and all-clear. These categories are described in more detail later in this chapter. A thorough assessment of an airport’s notifications needs will have at least three parts. Part 1. Airport Public Notification Responsibilities The PMT begins by identifying the various recipient groups and the types of notifications each group needs. Identifying these groups will help the airport assess its overall notification responsibilities. Part 2. Airport Responsibilities—Emergency, Incident, and Non-Emergency Notifications The PMT also needs to decide who (i.e., which person, department, or section at the airport) will have the responsibility for emergency, incident, and non-emergency notifications. In assign- ing these responsibilities, the PMT is advised to take a strategic approach that considers who is best suited to identify and respond to each notification category. Each person, department, or section assigned a notification responsibility needs to address, develop, and document the specific procedure needed to meet their notification responsibilities. Each procedure should be NIMS/AC 31C compliant and written as a functional section that is included in the airport’s notification program documentation. Part 3. Airport Responsibilities—Initial, Follow-Up, and All-Clear Notifications The PMT also needs to decide who (i.e., which person, department, or section at the airport) will have the responsibility for issuing initial, follow-up, and all-clear notifications covering a specific non-emergency incident (event or hazard). Each person, department, or section assigned a notification responsibility needs to address, develop, and document the specific procedure needed to meet their notification responsibilities. See Resource NA-4 Parts 1a, 2a, and 3a Figure 3-1. Needs assessment considerations.

14 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports Each procedure should be NIMS/AC 31C compliant and written as an event/hazard-specific subsection to be included in the airport’s notification program documentation. Step 5: Assess the physical location(s) in which notifications need to be received. This step can be achieved by asking stakeholders and work groups (a) how communications in their areas are currently received and (b) how effective the stakeholders and work groups feel the communications are. It is important to provide a way to assess areas of concern such as dead zones, ambient noise levels, and signal blockage. It is also very important to assess ADA-related needs. Step 6: Assess current policies and procedures for sending notifications. Airports must determine which of their current notification policies and procedures are effec- tive and which need to be updated or changed. If the airport is considering developing its first stand-alone notification program, the PMT will need to consider which of the airport’s existing notification policies and procedures can be integrated into the new program. Step 7: Assess current notification capabilities. It also is important that airports thoroughly assess their notification capabilities to determine whether they have the ability to deliver needed notifications in an effective and efficient manner. By addressing specifics such as who is responsible for event notifications, identifying all areas needing notifications, looking at the effectiveness of certain systems, methods, and tools and by addressing areas needing improvement, an airport can determine if its notification capabilities are strong or weak. Step 8: Assess current systems/methods/tools used for sending notifications. Airports must determine which current notification systems, methods, and tools are being used or not used, and which are effective, need an update, or need to be replaced. The PMT must also decide which systems, methods, and tools can best be used for each notifica- tion category and subcategory (emergency, incident, non-emergency, initial, follow-up, and all-clear). Step 9: Determine next action(s) regarding systems/methods/tools. Based on the information gathered and assessed in the prior steps, airports—through the PMT—determine what actions need to be taken next. For each system, method, and tool, the airport determines which: • Requires no changes, • Should be continued and carried forward into a new program, • Needs upgrades or improvements (along with what upgrades or improvements are needed), and • Should be replaced or discontinued. The PMT also determines what additional resources, if any, need to be procured. See Resource NA-5a See Resource NA-6a See Resource NA-7a See Resource NA-8a See Resource NA-8a

Conducting a Needs assessment 15 Step 10: Determine next action(s) regarding the notification program. Similarly, regarding the notification program, the airport may determine that: • No changes are needed, • Updates or changes are required, • The program may proceed with Notification Program Option 1, or • The program may proceed with Notification Program Option 2. See Resource NA-8a Additional needs assessment resources (labeled Resource NA-1b through Resource NA-8b) are provided in Appendix E in the section labeled “OPDG for Needs Assessment.” Airport Notification Needs Airports may have a need to send notifications to many different individuals or groups depending on a number of factors. Some categories of individuals or groups that could be recipi- ents of airport notifications include (but are not limited to): • Airport employees; • Airline employees; • General aviation; • FBOs; • Concessionaires; • Ground transportation providers; • First responders (e.g., police, fire, EMS); • TSA and other federal agencies; • State government agencies; • Local government agencies; • Emergency management; • Passengers (the traveling public); • Media/Press (TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, etc.); and • Neighboring communities. The list of notification recipients may include more or fewer categories, depending on the specific needs and populations served by the airport. Airports may need to send public notifications for many reasons. Some of these reasons may include (but are not limited to): • Emergencies; • Facility closures; • Special events; • Planned maintenance or construction; • AMBER, Silver, or similar alerts; • Security alerts; • Weather alerts; • System outages; • Service disruptions or stoppages; • Irregular operations (IROPS);

16 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports • Security checkpoint delays; • Failures of essential equipment (e.g., elevators, escalators, etc.); • Failures of essential systems (e.g., flight information display systems [FIDS], baggage infor- mation display systems [BIDS], explosive detection systems [EDS], etc.) • Flight delays or cancellations; • Vehicle traffic delays; and • National airspace system (NAS) impacts. Notification Categories For the purposes of this guidebook, public notifications have been grouped into three categories: emergency notifications, incident notifications, and non-emergency notifications. All situations requiring notifications to airport and airline personnel, passengers, first respond- ers, tenants, and the general public will fall into one of these categories. These categories are defined as follows: • Emergency Notifications. In situations that require immediate “life safety” actions to be taken, emergency notifications may be sent (e.g., in case of aircraft emergencies, fires, earth- quakes, active shooters, bomb threats, etc.). Life safety actions may include deploying first responders, evacuating an area, sheltering in place, or relocating to a safe area. • Incident Notifications. Often notifications for “non-life threatening” situations still require immediate response and resolution, such as water leaks, power failures, and so forth. Incident notifications might also be issued for failures of essential equipment, such as EDS, conveyor systems, or heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. • Non-emergency Notifications. In situations that, in most cases, do not require immediate action, non-emergency notifications may make the recipients aware of some information or condition that relates to preparation or planning on the part of the recipient. Generally, non-emergency notifications can be developed ahead of time as part of a program, project, or scheduled event (e.g., weather watches, construction updates and planned maintenance, or planned airport events). Notifications can be further broken down into subcategories, which often are based on the timeline of the incident or emergency. These subcategories include initial, follow-up, and all- clear notifications. For example, emergencies often begin with an initial notification to warn recipients of the situation and provide recommendations, often referred to as “protective actions for life safety.” These recommendations could include instructions to recipients to evacuate a building in case of fire; instructions to shelter in place in the event of severe weather, such as tornadoes; or instruc- tions to avoid exposure to an exterior airborne hazard such as a chemical release. In the event of an active shooter or other act of violence, a lockdown is a common protective action that is a form of shelter in place. During an incident or event, follow-up notifications may be needed to provide the most current information to notification recipients. For example, during an emergency, a follow-up notification can be sent to inform recipients of the progress being made to eliminate the hazards that led to the situation. Follow-up notifications also can be sent if different protective actions are required based on changing conditions, such as a shift in wind direction during a hazardous chemical release. The final subcategory of notification is the all-clear notification, a wrap-up message providing news that the incident or emergency has ended. For example, in an emergency, this notification often advises that the hazardous conditions no longer exist.

Conducting a Needs assessment 17 (Customize table/add rows as necessary) INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDER GROUPS TO CONSIDER AS RECIPIENTS OF NOTIFICATIONS Internal Applies Does Not Apply Not Sure Airport employees Airline employees Airport concessionaires Federal work groups, TSA, FAA, CBP employees Airport tenants Airport service providers, fuelers, ground handlers, cargo handlers, etc. Partnering relationships The traveling public Fixed-base operators (FBOs) Airport ground transportation providers Military groups On-airport first responders Executive management Other Other Other External Applies Does Not Apply Not Sure Emergency management agencies Press/media Surrounding community The public off airport Off-airport first responders Federal government officials State government officials (continued on next page) Resource NA-1a

18 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports Resource NA-1a (Continued). INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDER GROUPS TO CONSIDER AS RECIPIENTS OF NOTIFICATIONS External Applies Does Not Apply Not Sure Neighboring businesses County government officials Military officials Elected officials Mutual aid agencies Other Other Other Other

Conducting a Needs assessment 19 (Customize table/add rows as necessary) AIRPORT ASSESSMENT OF RISKS NEEDING NOTIFICATIONS—CHECKLIST Emergency Notifications Event Notification Applies Here Notification Does Not Apply Here Comments Ice storm Fuel fire Structural fire Wildfire Flood Hurricane Earthquake Blizzard Landslide Sandstorm/dust storm Tidal wave/tsunami Lightning activity Tornado Volcanic eruption Wind-driven water (storm surge) Windstorm Active shooter Bomb threat Bomb event Violent crime Security event Aircraft accident on airport Aircraft accident off airport Vehicle accident Evacuation event AMBER or Silver alert Fuel-farm fire (continued on next page) Resource NA-2a

20 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports AIRPORT ASSESSMENT OF RISKS NEEDING NOTIFICATIONS—CHECKLIST Emergency Notifications (Continued) Event Notification Applies Here Notification Does Not Apply Here Comments HAZMAT spill Hijacking Biological agent event Chemical agent event Civil unrest (riot) War Cyber attack Aircraft diversion (on- board incident) Hostage/barricade Sabotage Security breach Suspicious bag/package Pandemic/quarantine Other Other Incident Notifications Event Notification Applies Here Notification Does Not Apply Here Comments Water leak Power failure FIDS, BIDS, EDS failure Baggage system failure HVAC failure Equipment failure Water supply failure Airfield lighting failure Flood control system failure Fuel system failure FAA system failure IROPS (continued on next page) Resource NA-2a (Continued).

Conducting a Needs assessment 21 AIRPORT ASSESSMENT OF RISKS NEEDING NOTIFICATIONS—CHECKLIST Incident Notifications (Continued) Event Notification Applies Here Notification Does Not Apply Here Comments Fuel spill Conveyor system failure IT system failure Safety equipment failure Sewer system failure Suspicious odor Traffic congestion Transit system failure Labor action/strike/picketing Other Other Non-Emergency Notifications Event Notification Applies Here Notification Does Not Apply Here Comments Construction update Road closure Scheduled event Scheduled meeting (safety, tenant, board, etc.) Planned maintenance Facility closure (parking lots full, traffic lane closure, etc.) Vehicle traffic delay Media event notice Other Resource NA-2a (Continued).

22 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports Stakeholder Name: (Customize table/add rows as necessary) STAKEHOLDER EMERGENCY, INCIDENT, AND NON-EMERGENCY EVENTS REQUIRING NOTIFICATIONS Emergency Notifications Needed Not Needed (Follow-up Requested) Ice storm Fuel fire Structural fire Wildfire Flood Hurricane Earthquake Blizzard Landslide Sandstorm/dust storm Tidal wave/tsunami Lightning activity Tornado Volcanic eruption Wind-driven water (storm surge) Windstorm Active shooter Bomb threat Bomb event Violent crime Security event Aircraft accident on airport Aircraft accident off airport Vehicle accident Evacuation event AMBER or Silver alert Fuel-farm fire HAZMAT spill Hijacking (continued on next page) Resource NA-3a

Conducting a Needs assessment 23 STAKEHOLDER EMERGENCY, INCIDENT, AND NON-EMERGENCY EVENTS REQUIRING NOTIFICATIONS Emergency Notifications (Continued) Needed Not Needed (Follow-up Requested) Biological agent event Chemical agent event Civil unrest (riot) War Cyber attack Aircraft diversion (on-board incident) Hostage/barricade event Sabotage Security breach Suspicious bag/package Pandemic/quarantine Other Other Incident Notifications Needed Not Needed (Follow-up Requested) Water leak Power failure FIDS, BIDS, EDS failure Baggage system failure HVAC failure Equipment failure Water supply failure Airfield lighting failure Flood control system failure Fuel system failure FAA system failure IROPS event Fuel spill Conveyor system failure IT system failure Safety equipment failure (continued on next page) Resource NA-3a (Continued).

24 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports STAKEHOLDER EMERGENCY, INCIDENT, AND NON-EMERGENCY EVENTS REQUIRING NOTIFICATIONS Incident Notifications (Continued) Needed Not Needed (Follow-up Requested) Sewer system failure Suspicious odor Traffic congestion Transit system failure Labor action/strike/picketing Other Other Non-Emergency Notifications Needed Not Needed (Follow-up Requested) Construction update Road closure Scheduled event Scheduled meeting (safety, tenant, board, etc.) Planned maintenance Facility closure (parking lot full, traffic lane closure, etc.) Vehicle traffic delay Media event notice Other Other Resource NA-3a (Continued).

Conducting a Needs assessment 25 (Types of notifications the airport determines as their responsibility to initiate to stakeholder groups) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) AIRPORT PUBLIC NOTIFICATION RESPONSIBILITIES—CHECKLIST Internal Emergency Incident Non- Emergency Initial Follow- up All- Clear Airport employees Airline employees Airport concessionaires Federal work groups, TSA, FAA, CBP employees Airport tenants The public (on airport) Airport service providers (fuelers, ground/cargo handlers) Fixed-base operators (FBOs) Airport vendors Airport ground transportation providers Military groups On-airport first responders Executive management External Emergency Incident Non- Emergency Initial Follow- up All- Clear Emergency management agencies Press/media Surrounding community The public (off airport) Federal government officials State government officials County government officials Military officials Local community leaders Mutual aid agencies Neighboring businesses Off-airport first responders Resource NA-4/Part 1a

26 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (Determining who at the airport should be responsible for sending notifications) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) AIRPORT DEPARTMENT/SECTION/PERSON—RESPONSIBILITIES Department/Section/Person Emergency Incident Non- Emergency Airport operations Police Fire Public relations/public information officer Human relations/personnel Facility/maintenance Planning Engineering Technology Security Directors Chief executive officer(s) Administration Administrative staff Other Resource NA-4/Part 2a

Conducting a Needs assessment 27 (Determining responsibilities for specific event/hazard) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) AIRPORT DEPARTMENT/SECTION/PERSON—RESPONSIBILITIES (CONTINUED) Specific Event Needing Notifications Responsibility Assigned to: Notification Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear (Example) Resource NA-4/Part 3a

28 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (Assessment of physical locations and how notifications in certain areas are currently received. Are the notifications effective, or is there an area of concern? Do notifications in these locations address ADA needs?) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) ASSESSING PHYSICAL LOCATIONS—CHECKLIST Terminal Area Locations Adequate Not Adequate Area of Concern Addresses ADA Needs Does Not Address ADA Needs Public areas non-secure Public areas secure Basements Street curbs Other Other Airfield Locations Adequate Not Adequate Area of Concern Addresses ADA Needs Does Not Address ADA Needs Ramps Aprons Hold-bays Baggage make-up areas Equipment storage areas Aircraft movement areas Ground service equipment storage areas Vehicle parking areas Fuel farms Other Other (continued on next page) Resource NA-5a

Conducting a Needs assessment 29 ASSESSING PHYSICAL LOCATIONS—CHECKLIST Facility Outbuildings Adequate Not Adequate Area of Concern Addresses ADA Needs Does Not Address ADA Needs Parking garages FBO buildings FBO hangars Aircraft maintenance facilities Airport maintenance facilities Hangars Military facilities Cargo facilities Manufacturing facilities Ground service provider facilities Avionic facilities FAA outbuildings Government agency buildings Other Resource NA-5a (Continued).

30 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (Customize table/add rows in each section as necessary) POLICY AND PROCEDURE EVALUATION—CHECKLIST Policy Evaluation (Which current policies are appropriate, need updates/changes, or need to be discarded?) Policy Appropriate Needs Update or Change Discard 1. 2. 3. Procedure Evaluation (Which current procedures are appropriate, need updates/changes, or need to be discarded?) Procedure Appropriate Needs Update or Change Discard 1. 2. 3. Resource NA-6a

Conducting a Needs assessment 31 (This worksheet may help narrow down areas of concern and address important program issues.) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) CURRENT NOTIFICATION CAPABILITIES—WORKSHEET Q1 Do notifications currently reach all areas where employees work or congregate? If not, what areas need to be addressed? Q2 Do notifications currently reach all areas frequented by the public? If not, what areas need to be addressed? Q3 Are current notification methods adequate in the following areas? If not, what improvements can be made? • Considering ambient noise levels • Reaching employees in vehicles • Sufficient transition range • Frequency limitations • Transmission blocking conditions Q4 Does the airport currently use any of the following methods or tools? If yes, are they used effectively? If not, what changes might need to be made? • Horns • Sirens • Strobes • Public address systems (PASs) • Direct phone circuits • Telephone land lines • Fire alarm systems (FASs) (continued on next page) Resource NA-7a

32 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports Resource NA-7a (Continued). CURRENT NOTIFICATION CAPABILITIES—WORKSHEET Q4 (cont.) Does the airport currently use any of the following methods or tools? If yes, are they used effectively? If not, what changes might need to be made? • Flight information display systems (FIDS) • Variable message signs • Mass communications platforms Q5 How are recipients currently receiving notifications? Include a comment about the effectiveness of the notifications. Example: Airline employees mostly receive notifications via radio; this works well unless they don't have a radio nearby.

Conducting a Needs assessment 33 (Assessment of the airport's systems/methods/tools—worksheet) (Customize table/add rows in each section as necessary) Notification Systems (List airport-specific systems/methods/tools) Used Not Used Effective Needs Update Needs to Be Replaced 1. 2. 3. Which of the airport's systems, methods, or tools can be used for each notification category? (List all airport systems, methods, and tools and identify how they are used.) Notification Systems (List airport-specific systems/methods/tools) Emergency Incident Non- Emergency Initial Follow- up All- Clear 1. 2. 3. Resource NA-8a

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Prorgram (ACRP) Research Report 170: Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports offers standards and practices to help airport industry practitioners develop and implement effective programs for delivering both routine notifications as well as incident and emergency-related notifications. The guidance provides readers with the ability to customize their programs to match their unique circumstances.

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