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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 188 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Environment â¢ Operations and Management Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk ICF Washington, D.C. w i t h Gresham, Smith & Partners Columbus, OH a n d Faith Group, LLC St. Louis, MO
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 188 Project 02-74 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-47987-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2018910644 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This handbook was developed under ACRP Project 02-74 by ICF and its subcontractors Gresham, Smith & Partners and Faith Group, LLC. Beth Rodehorst was the principal investigator. The other authors of this report were Cassandra Bhat, Tommy Hendrickson, Amanda Vargo, and Charlotte Cherry of ICF; Lauren Seydewitz of Gresham, Smith & Partners; John Lengel of RS&H (formerly with Gresham, Smith & Partners); and Dave Fleet of Faith Group, LLC. Airport stakeholders also contributed to the research by providing feedback on the direction and con- tent of the handbook during a series of webinars and site visits. Webinar participants included representa- tives from the City of Phoenix Airport Department, the City and County of Denver, Atlanta Department of Aviation, Lee County Port Authority, Columbus Regional Airport Authority, Allegheny County Airport Authority, and Massachusetts Port Authority. Site visits were held at Southwest Florida International Airport, Denver International Airport, Logan International Airport, Pittsburgh International Airport, and SeattleâTacoma International Airport. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 188 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ann E. Petty, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-74 PANEL Field of Environment Patti Clark, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityâWorldwide, Hahira, GA (Chair) Peter Adams, NYC Mayorâs Office of Recovery and Resiliency, New York, NY Chris M. S. Baglin, PPC, D DSA Company, McLean, VA Scott Morrissey, Denver International Airport, CO Akiya N. Simms, HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport, GA R. Burr Stewart, Burrst, Seattle, WA Thomas Cuddy, FAA Liaison Andrea L. Schwartz Freeburg, FAA Liaison Molly Laster, U.S. Government Accountability Office Liaison, Washington, DC Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Justin M. Towles, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison
ACRP Research Report 188 is a handbook to help airport planners, management, airport operations staff, and others who need to integrate current and projected climate change- related risks into airport management systems and planning. The goal is to enable airports of all sizes, types, and geographic locations to reduce their vulnerability to current and projected impacts of climate change, including extreme weather events, and to minimize long-term costs to their facilities and operations. This handbook provides a detailed guide for integration, as well as a self-assessment tool for determining the applicable systems for climate-related decision-making within the airport. The accompanying quick start guide helps airports get started on the most critical portions of the handbook. Airports manage riskâincluding risks related to climate and weatherâunder various programs and decision-making processes, such as enterprise risk management, safety management, and emergency management. Additional processes such as asset manage- ment, capital planning, and others also manage risk by making sure resources are allo- cated, and assets designed and maintained, to reduce an airportâs vulnerability to certain stressors. Assumptions about climate and weather are built into most airport management sys- tems. Budget planning, for example, involves assumptions about how much infrastructure maintenance or replacement is needed to counteract effects of climate and weather. Emer- gency management and irregular operations planning involves assumptions about events that might disrupt operations. Expectations for future climate and weather conditions are usually based on historical records. However, climate change means that past events are not indicative of future events. If climate change is not taken into account, expensive infrastructure could be inadequately designed for future needs, the airport could be underprepared for extreme weather events and associated service disruptions, and other financial and operational planning efforts might not be optimized. Rather than considering climate change as a completely new and separate risk to address, airports can integrate the concept of climate change into their existing decision-making processes to ensure that climate risks are adequately managed. Approaching climate change in this way allows airports to make more informed decisions about appropriate invest- ments to mitigate risks over time. However, there are no universal best practices or existing guidelines on how to do so. Without an integrative resource for airports, climate risks can be viewed as an abstract and unquantifiable, with missed opportunities as a result. Air- ports also may not be aware of the full range of climate risk factors warranting inclusion in airportsâ multihazard risk management processes. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
To help overcome this barrier, ACRP is releasing ACRP Research Report 188: Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk, which is a handbook that helps airports understand the need to address climate change and demonstrates how climate change can be factored into their existing decision- making processes. The handbook includes a self-assessment tool for determining applicable management systems for climate-related decision-making within the airport, a detailed guide for integrating climate risks into seven key management systems, and strategies for building support across the airport. The seven man- agement systems addressed are strategic planning, master planning, enterprise risk management, safety management, capital planning, asset management, and emergency management. Under ACRP Project 02-74, research was conducted by ICF (led by Principal Investigator Beth Rodehorst), Gresham Smith & Partners, and Faith Group, LLC. Initial insights into the state of practice and key management systems for climate risk management were obtained through a literature review and webinars with airport stakeholders. The handbook was based on this initial research and then tested and vetted through several airport focus groups and site visits. An accom- panying quick start guide [Appendix E and online, found by searching the TRB website (www.TRB.org) for ACRP Research Report 188: Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk] covers the most critical portions of the handbook; airports may choose to use the quick start guide as a starting point and then refer to the handbook for more detailed information as needed. A MicrosoftÂ® PowerPoint presentation as an overview of the project is also avail- able online at the same site.
K E Y T E R M S Adaptation. Initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects. Various types of adaptation exist, for example, anticipatory and reactive, private and public, and autonomous and planned. Adaptation increases resilience to future impacts. Adaptation puts an understanding of hazard and risk first and considers impacts, costs, and acceptance in addition to return on investment [Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) 2015a]. This research report uses the term climate risk management to refer to adaptation. Adaptive management. A systematic approach to managing uncertainty that promotes flexible decision-making as information evolves. Adaptive management emphasizes learning while doing (ACRP 2015a and U.S. Department of Interior 2009). Airport management system. Function or formalized airport process for managing aspects of the business. In this handbook, these systems or processes are described using the planâdoâcheckâact model used to manage processes and systems (International Organization for Standardization 2015). Climate entry point. Existing step in a management system that provides an opportunity to manage climate risks. Climate hazard (or climate change hazard). Changes due to or directly related to changing climate. Examples include sea level rise, increased global and regional temperatures, and shifts in precipitation patterns. Also known as a climate stressor (ACRP 2015a). Climate risk (or climate change risk). The potential losses associated with individual or multiple climate hazards, defined in terms of expected probability and frequency, exposure, and consequences (ACRP 2015a). Climate risk management. Methods to minimize, monitor, and control climate risks, such as through avoiding, accepting, removing, reducing, sharing, and retaining the risk (ISO 2009). Extreme weather event. An event that is rare at a particular place and time of year. Definitions of rare vary, but an extreme weather event would normally be as rare as or rarer than the 10th or 90th percentile of the observed probability density function. By definition, the characteristics of what is called extreme weather may vary from place to place in an absolute sense. Single extreme events cannot be simply and directly attributed to anthropogenic climate change, as there is always a finite chance that the event in question might have occurred naturally. When a pattern of extreme weather persists for some time, such as a season, that pattern may be classified as an extreme climate event, especially if it yields an average or total that is itself extreme (e.g., drought, heavy rainfall over a season) (ACRP 2015a). Resilience. The ability of a system to bounce back after experiencing a shock or stress. Resilient systems are usually characterized by flexibility and persistence (ACRP 2015a). Resilience may be an outcome of climate risk management activities.
vii Key Terms 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Who Should Use This Handbook? 1 1.2 Why Should I Use This Handbook? 4 1.3 What Is the Purpose of This Handbook? 4 1.4 What Does the Handbook Cover? 8 Chapter 2 Conduct Self-Assessment of Relevant Climate Hazards and Management Systems 8 2.1 What Are My Relevant Climate Hazards? 12 2.2 What Are My Expected Climate Risks? 16 2.3 Which Management Systems Should I Use to Manage My Climate Risks? 19 Chapter 3 Build Support 19 3.1 Identify a Champion 19 3.2 Define Roles and Responsibilities 20 3.3 Make the Case to Executive Management 20 3.4 Build Support across Airport Departments 20 3.5 Coordinate with External Stakeholders 21 3.6 Communicate Effectively 22 Chapter 4 Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 22 4.1 Strategic Planning Strategies 27 4.2 Master Planning Strategies 32 4.3 Enterprise Risk Management Strategies 36 4.4 Safety Management Strategies 41 4.5 Capital Planning Strategies 48 4.6 Asset Management Strategies 53 4.7 Emergency Management Strategies 58 4.8 Cross-Cutting Adaptive Management Strategies 61 Chapter 5 Next Steps 62 References A-1 Appendix A Self-Assessment Worksheet B-1 Appendix B Template for Communicating with Airport Executives C-1 Appendix C Data Metrics to Monitor D-1 Appendix D Climate Data Resources E-1 Appendix E Quick Start Handbook C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.