BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
IN PARTS II THROUGH V THE PAPERS from the workshop appear in the in which they were presented. The chapters have undergone limited editorial change, have not been reviewed by an outside group, and represent the views of the individual authors. Selected questions and the speakers' responses are included at the end of each section to provide the flavor of the workshop discussion.
Part II includes four chapters based on the introductory presentations by current and former Army scientists and personnel to provide the background for understanding military nutrition issues in the cold and at high altitudes and to highlight the importance of coordinating research and logistical considerations. Chapter 3 presents the purpose of the workshop and an overview of cold and high-altitude research conducted or sponsored by the Army. Research efforts were largely a civilian-military collaboration until the 1970s, and now much of the research on soldiers' nutritional needs in environmental extremes are conducted by the military. This chapter puts this report into historical perspective.
The influence of a positive attitude at environmental extremes should not be underestimated. In Chapter 4, the performance expectations of unit commanders are discussed as being essential to developing and maintaining their troops' positive attitude.
Chapters 5 and 6 summarize the preparation and use of military operational rations in cold environments, an important topic given that rations are the principal source of nutrients for soldiers in the field. In Chapter 5, the options for group and individual field feeding are reviewed, as is the composition of the rations in relation to the cold. The problems of feeding soldiers in harsh environments are discussed in Chapter 6. The development and improvement of mobile kitchen equipment requires attention because the unique conditions of cold and wind affect the sheltering of personnel and the preparation of food.