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The Earth's Electrical Environment (1986)

Chapter: References

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 182

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ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE FROM 0 TO 30 KILOMETERS 181 and aerosol measurements, are clearly needed to gain a deeper insight into the physics and chemistry of atmospheric ions. Volcanic eruptions can result in a rather dramatic increase of the aerosol content of the lower atmosphere. The extent to which these aerosols directly affect the atmospheric conductivity, small-ion concentration, and mobility should be investigated to a greater extent. On the other hand, the sulfuric acid content of the lower atmosphere is also drastically enhanced following volcanic eruptions and might considerably influence the ion composition. Air-earth current-density measurements seem to be consistent with the classical picture of the global circuit with some exceptions. The question of whether there are other global generators in the lower atmosphere in addition to thunderstorms could probably be unraveled by ground-based and balloonborne current measurements at different locations. The electric-field strength in the lower atmosphere, which is closely related to the air-earth current and the atmospheric conductivity, can undergo considerable fluctuations near the ground owing to conductivity variations and the influence of a local generator. References Arnold, F. (1983). Ion nucleation—A potential source for stratospheric aerosols, Nature 299, 134-137 . Arnold, F., and Th. Bührke (1984). New H2SO4 and HSO3 vapor measurements in the stratosphere—Evidence for a volcanic influence, Nature 301, 293-295 . Arnold F., G. Henschen, and E. E. Ferguson (1981). Mass spectrometer measurements of fractional ion abundances in the stratosphere— Positive ions, Planet. Space Sci. 29, 185-193 . Barouch, E., and L. F. Burlaga (1975). Causes of Forbush decreases and other cosmic ray variations, J. Geophys. Res . 80, 449-456 . Burke, H. K., and A. A. Few (1978). Direct measurements of the atmospheric conduction current, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3093-3098 . Chalmers, J. A. (1967). Atmospheric Electricity , Pergamon Press, London. Cobb, W. E. (1977). Atmospheric electric measurements at the South Pole, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres , H. Dolezalek and R. Reiter, eds., Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp. 161-167 . Dolezalek, H. (1972). Discussion of the fundamental problem of atmospheric electricity, Pure Appl. Geophys. 100, 8-43 . Duggal, S. P., and M. A. Pomerantz (1977). The origin of transient cosmic ray intensity variations, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2170-2174 . Fischer, H.J. (1977). Das luftelektrische Feld in Abhangigkeit von Luftverunreinigung und Wetterlage, Prometheus 7/2, 4-12 . Fischer, H. J., and R. Mühleisen (1972). Variationen des Ionospharen-potentials und der Weltgewittertatigkeit im 11-jahrigen solaren Zyklus, Meteorol. Rundsch. 25, 6-10 . Fischer, H.J., and R. Mühleisen (1975). A method for precise determination of the voltage between ionosphere and ground, Report, Astron. Inst., Universität Tübingen, FRG. Forbush, S. E. (1954). World-wide cosmic-ray variations, 1937-1952, J. Geophys. Res. 59, 525-542 . Gringel, W. (1978). Untersuchungen zur elekrischen Luftleitfahigkeit unter Berucksichtigung der Sonnenaktivitat und der Aerosolteilchenkonzentration bis 35 km Hohe, Dissertation, Universität Tübingen, FRG. Gringel, W., and R. Mühleisen (1978). Sahara dust concentration in the troposphere over the North Atlantic derived from measurements of air conductivity, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 51, 121-128 . Gringel, W., J. Leidel, and R. Mühleisen (1978). The air-earth current density at the water surface and in the free atmosphere above the ocean, Meteor Forschungsergebn. Reihe B 13, 41-52 . Gringel, W., D. J. Hofmann, and J. M. Rosen (1983). Measurements of mobility, small ion recombination and aerosol attachment coefficients to 33 km, unpublished manuscript. Gringel, W., D. J. Hofmann, and J. M. Rosen (1984). Stratospheric conductivity reductions related to El Chichon aerosol layers, presented at the VII International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity. Heaps, M. G. (1978). Parameterization of the cosmic ray ion-pair production rate above 18 km, Planet. Space Sci. 26, 513-517 . Hofmann, D. J., and J. M. Rosen (1979). Balloon-borne measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters. I: The ionization rate, Atmos. Phys. Rep. AP-54, Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie. Hofmann, D. J., and J. M. Rosen (1983a). Stratospheric sulfuric acid fraction and mass estimate for the 1982 volcanic eruption of El Chichon, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 313-316 . Hofmann, D. J., and J. M. Rosen (1983b). Sulfuric acid droplet formation and growth in the stratosphere after the 1982 eruption of El Chichon, Science 222, 325-327 . Hofmann, D. J., J. M. Rosen, T. J. Pepin, and R. G. Pinnick (1975). Stratospheric aerosol measurements I: Time variations at northern mid- latitudes, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1446-1456 . Hogan, A. W., and V. A. Mohnen (1979). On the global distributions of aerosols, Science 205, 1373-1375 . Holzworth, R. H., and F. S. Mozer (1979). Direct evidence of solar flare modification of stratospheric electric fields, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 363-367 . Israël, H. (1973a). Atmospheric Electricity , Vol. I , Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. Israël, H. (1973b). Atmospheric Electricity , Vol. II , Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. Junge, C. E. (1963). Air Chemistry and Radioactivity , Academic Press, New York. Kasemir, H. W. (1960). A radiosonde for measuring the air-earth current density, USASRDL Tech. Rep. 2125. Kroening, J. L. (1960). Ion density measurements in the stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 145-151 . Markson, R. (1978). Solar modulation of atmospheric electrification and possible implications for the sun-weather relationship, Nature 273, 103-109 . Meyerott, R. E., J. B. Reagen, and R. G. Joiner (1980). The mobility and concentration of ions and ionic conductivity in the lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res 85, 1273-1278 . Mitchell, J. D., R. S. Sagar, and R. S. Oslen (1977). Positive ions in the middle atmosphere during sunrise conditions, Rep. ECOM-5819, U. S. Army Electron. Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J. Morita, Y., H. Ishikawa, and M. Kanada (1971). The vertical profiles of the small ion density and the electric conductivity in the atmosphere up to 19 km, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3431-3436 . Neher, H. V. (1961). Cosmic-ray knee in 1958, J. Geophys. Res 66, 4007-4012 . Neher, H. V. (1967). Cosmic ray particles that changed from 1954 to 1958 to 1965, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1527-1539 . Ogawa, T., Y. Tanaka, A. Huzita, and M. Yasuhara (1977). Three dimensional electric fields and currents in the stratosphere, in Elec

ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE FROM 0 TO 30 KILOMETERS 182 trical Processes of Atmospheres , H. Dolezalek and R. Reiter, eds., Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp. 552-556 . Paltridge, G. W. (1965). Experimental measurements of the small ion density and electrical conductivity of the stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2751-2761 . Patterson, E. M., and D. A. Gillette (1977). Commonalities in measured size distribution for aerosols having a soil-derived component, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074-2081 . Pierce, E. T., and A. L. Whitson (1964). The variation of potential gradient with altitude above ground of high radioactivity, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 2895-2898 . Pinnick, R. G., J. M. Rosen, and D. J. Hofmann (1976). Stratospheric aerosol measurements III: Optical model calculations, J. Atmos. Sci . 33, 304-314 . Pollack, J. B., O. B. Toon, E. F. Danielson, D. J. Hofmann, and J. M. Rosen (1983). The El Chichon volcanic cloud: An introduction, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 989-992 . Riekert, H. (1971). Untersuchungen zur Beweglichkeit der Kleinionen in der freien Atmosphere, Dissertation, Universität Tübingen, FRG. Rosen, J. M., and D. J. Hofmann (1981a). Balloon borne measurements of the small ion concentration, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7399-7405 . Rosen, J. M., and D. J. Hofmann (1981b). Balloon borne measurements of electrical conductivity, mobility, and the recombination coefficient, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7406-7410 . Rosen, J. M., and D. J. Hofmann (1983). Unusual behavior in the condensation nuclei concentration at 30 km, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3725-3731 . Rosen, J. M., D. J. Hofmann, and K. H. Kaselau (1978a). Vertical profiles of condensation nuclei, J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 1737-1740 . Rosen, J. M., D. J. Hofmann, and S. P. Singh (1978b). A steady-state aerosol model, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1304-1313 . Rosen, J. M., D. J. Hofmann, W. Gringel, J. Berlinski, S. Michnowski, Y. Morita, T. Ogawa, and D. Olson (1982). Results of an international workshop on atmospheric electrical measurements, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1219-1227 . Russell, P. B., T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, and T. J. Pepin (1981). Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol I: An optical model for data conversions, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279-1294 . Smith, D., and M. J. Church (1977). Ion-ion recombination rates in the Earth's atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 433-439 . Viggiano, A. A., H. Schlager, and F. Arnold (1983). Stratospheric negative ions—; Detailed height profiles, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 813-820 . Widdel, H. U., G. Rose, and R. Borchers (1976). Experimental results on the variation of electrical conductivity and ion mobility in the mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 6217-6220 . Willeke, K, and K. T. Whitby (1975). Atmospheric aerosols: Size distribution interpretation, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 529-534 . Winn, W. P., C. B. Moore, C. R. Holmes, and L. G. Byerley III (1978). Thunderstorm on July 16, 1975, over Langmuir Laboratory: A case study, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3079-3092 . Zikmunda, J., and V. A. Mohnen (1972). Ion annihilation by aerosol particles from ground level to 60 km height, Meteorol. Rundsch. 25, 10-14 .

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This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lightning, cloud, and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

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