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The Earth's Electrical Environment (1986)

Chapter: References

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/898.
Page 194

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ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE OF THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE 193 instrumental techniques used in these measurements. Significant challenges for the future exist in almost every aspect of middle-atmospheric electricity. References Arnold, F., and G. Henschen (1978). First mass analysis of stratospheric negative ions, Nature 275 , 521 . Arnold, F., J. Kissel, H. Wieder, and J. Zähringer (1971). Negative ions in the lower ionosphere: A mass spectrometric measurement, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 33 , 1969 . Arnold, F., H. Böhringer, and G. Henschen (1978). Composition measurements of stratospheric positive ions, Geophys. Res. Lett. 5 , 653 . Arnold, F., A. A. Viggiano, and E. E. Ferguson (1982). Combined mass spectrometric composition measurements of positive and negative ions in the lower ionosphere. II. Negative ions, Planet. Space Sci. 30 , 1307 . Becker, K. H., and A. Ionescu (1982). Acetonitrile in the lower troposphere, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9 , 1349 . Bjorn, L. G., and F. Arnold (1981). Mass spectrometric detection of precondensation nuclei at the Arctic summer mesopause, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8 , 1167 . Charlson, R. J. (1965). Noctilucent clouds: A steady-state model, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 91 , 517 . Chesworth, E. T., and L. C. Hale (1974). Ice particulates in the mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett. 1 , 347 . Chiu, Y. T. (1974). Self-consistent electrostatic field mapping in the high-latitude ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 79 , 2790 . Conley, T. D. (1974). Mesospheric positive ion concentrations, mobilities, and loss rates obtained from rocketborne Gerdien condenser measurements, Radio Sci. 9 , 575 . Cook, J. W., G. E. Brueckner, and M. E. VanHoosier (1980). Variability of the solar flux in the far ultraviolet 1175-2100 Å, J. Geophys. Res. 85 , 2257 . Dolezalek, H. (1972). Discussion of the fundamental problem of atmospheric electricity, Pure Appl. Geophys. 100 , 8-43 . Donahue, T. M., B. Guenther, and J. E. Blamont (1972). Noctilucent clouds in daytime: Circumpolar particulate layers near the summer mesopause, J. Atmos. Sci. 29 , 1205 . Fehsenfeld, F. C., and E. E. Ferguson (1969). Origin of water-cluster ions in the D region, J. Geophys. Res. 74 , 2217 . Ferguson, E. E. (1974). Laboratory measurements of ionospheric ion-molecule reaction rates, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12 , 703 . Ferguson, E. E., and F. Arnold (1981). Ion chemistry of the stratosphere, Acc. Chem. Res. 14 , 327 . Ferguson, E. E., D. B. Dunkin, and F. C. Fehsenfeld (1972). Reactions of with HCl and HBr, J. Chem. Phys. 57 , 1459 . Ferguson, E. E., F. C. Fehsenfeld, and D. L. Albritton (1979). Ion chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere, in Gas Phase Ion Chemistry , Vol. 1 , M. T. Bowers, ed., Academic Press, New York, Chapter 2. Fogle, B., and B. Haurwitz (1966). Noctilucent clouds, Space Sci. Rev. 6 , 278 . Forbush, S. E. (1938). On cosmic-ray effects associated with magnetic storms, Terrest. Magn. Atmos. Electr. 43 , 203 . Goldberg, R. A., and G. Witt (1977). Ion composition in a noctilucent cloud region, J. Geophys. Res. 82 , 2619 . Good, A., D. A. Durden, and P. Kebarle (1970). Mechanism and rate constants of ion-molecule reactions leading to formation of H+ (H2O) n in moist oxygen and air, J. Chem. Phys. 52 , 222 . Hale, L. C., and C. L. Croskey (1979). An auroral effect on the fair weather electric field, Nature 278 , 239 . Hale, L. C., D. P. Hoult, and D. C. Baker (1968). A summary of blunt probe theory and experimental results, Space Res. 8 , 320 . Hays, P. B., and R. G. Roble (1979). A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. 1. The lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 84 , 3291-3305 . Heaps, M. G. (1978). Parametrization of the cosmic-ray ion-pair production rate above 18 km, Planet. Space Sci. 26 , 513 . Hesstvedt, E. (1961). Note on the nature of noctilucent clouds, J. Geophys. Res. 66 , 1985 . Holzworth, R. H., and F. S. Mozer (1979). Direct evidence of solar flare modification of stratospheric electric fields, J. Geophys. Res. 84 , 363-367 . Hunten, D. M., R. P. Turco, and O. B. Toon (1980). Smoke and dust particles of meteoric origin in the mesosphere and stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci. 37 , 1342 . Kelley, M. C., C. L. Siefring, and R. F. Pfaff (1983). Large amplitude middle atmospheric electric fields: Fact or fiction? Geophys. Res. Lett. 10 , 733 . Luhmann, J. G. (1977). Auroral bremsstrahlung spectra in the atmosphere, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 39 , 595 . Maynard, N. C., C. L. Croskey, J. D. Mitchell, and L. C. Hale (1981). Measurement of volt/meter vertical electric fields in the middle atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8 , 923 . Meyerott, R. E., J. B. Reagan, and R. G. Joiner (1980). The mobility and concentration of ions and the ionic conductivity in the lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 85 , 1273 . Mitchell, J. D., and L. C. Hale (1973). Observations of the lowest ionosphere, Space Res. 13 , 471 . Mozer, F. S., and R. Serlin (1969). Magnetospheric electric field measurements with balloons, J. Geophys. res. 74 , 4739-4754 . Narcisi, R. S., and A. D. Bailey (1965). Mass spectrometric measurements of positive ions at altitudes from 64 to 112 kilometers, J. Geophys. Res. 70 , 3687 . Narcisi, R. S., A. D. Bailey, L. Della Lucca, C. Sherman, and D. M. Thomas (1971). Mass spectrometric measurements of negative ions in the D and lower E regions, J. Atmos. Terrest. Phys. 33 , 1147 . Park, C. G. (1976). Downward mapping of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields to the ground, J. Geophys. Res. 81 , 168-174 . Park, C. G., and M. Dejnakarintra (1973). Penetration of thundercloud electric fields into the ionosphere and magnetosphere. 1. Middle and subauroral latitudes, J. Geophys. Res. 78 , 6623 . Pedersen, A., J. Troim, and J. A. Kane (1970). Rocket measurements showing removal of electrons above the mesopause in summer at high latitude, Planet. Space Sci. 18 , 945 . Pomerantz, M. A., and S. P. Duggal (1974). The Sun and cosmic rays, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 12 , 343-361 . Reagan, J. B. (1977). Ionization processes, in Dynamical and Chemical Coupling Between the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere , B. Grandal and J. A. Holtet, eds., Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, p. 145 . Reagan, J. B., R. E. Meyerott, J. E. Evans, W. L. Imhof, and R. G. Joiner (1983). The effects of energetic particle precipitation on the atmospheric electric circuit, J. Geophys. Res. 88 , 3869 . Reid, G. C. (1974). Polar-cap absorption—Observations and theory, Fundam. Cosmic Phys. 1 , 167-200 . Reid, G. C. (1975). Ice clouds at the summer polar mesopause, J. Atmos. Sci. 32 , 523 . Reid, G. C. (1977). The production of water-cluster positive ions in the quiet daytime D region, Planet. Space Sci. 25 , 275 . Roble, R. G., and P. B. Hays (1979). A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. 2. Electrical coupling between the upper and lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 84 , 7247-7256 . Rose, G., and H. U. Widdel (1972). Results of concentration and mobility measurements for positively and negatively charged particles

ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE OF THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE 194 taken between 85 and 22 km in sounding rocket experiments, Radio Sci. 7 , 81 . Smith, D., and N. G. Adams (1982). Ionic recombination in the stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9 , 1085 . Smith, D., and M. J. Church (1977). Ion-ion recombination rates in the Earth's atmosphere, Planet. Space Sci. 25 , 433 . Solomon, S., P. J. Crutzen, and R. G. Roble (1982a). Photochemical coupling between the thermosphere and the lower atmosphere. 1. Odd nitrogen from 50 to 120 km, J. Geophys. Res. 87 , 7206 . Solomon, S., G. C. Reid, R. G. Roble, and P. J. Crutzen (1982b). Photochemical coupling between the theromosphere and the lower atmosphere. 2. D region ion chemistry and the winter anomaly, J. Geophys. Res. 87 , 7221 . Strobel, D. F., T. R. Young, R. R. Meier, T. P. Coffey, and A. W. Ali (1974). The nighttime ionosphere: E region and lower F region, J. Geophys. Res. 79 , 3171 . Thomas, G. E., G. H. Mount, C. P. McKay, and L. Sitongia (1982). Satellite observations of noctilucent clouds, EOS 63 , 1049 . Turco, R. P., O. B. Toon, R. C. Whitten, R. G. Keesee, and D. Hollenbach (1982). Noctilucent clouds: Simulation studies of their genesis, properties and global influences, Planet. Space Sci. 30 , 1147 . Tyutin, A. A. (1976). Mesospheric maximum of the electric-field strength, Cosmic Res. 14 , 132 . Tzur, I., and R. G. Roble (1983). Ambipolar diffusion in the middle atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 88 , 338-344 . Vampola, A. L., and D. J. Gorney (1983). Electron energy deposition in the middle atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 88 , 6267 . Viggiano, A. A., R. A. Perry, D. L. Albritton, E. E. Ferguson, and F. C. Fehsenfeld (1980). The role of H2SO4 in stratospheric negativeion chemistry, J. Geophys. Res. 85 , 4551 . Viggiano, A. A., F. Arnold, D. W. Fahey, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and E. E. Ferguson (1982). Silicon negative ion chemistry in the atmosphere—in situ and laboratory measurements, Planet. Space Sci. 30 , 499 . Volland, H. (1972). Mapping of the electric field of the Sq current into the lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 77 , 1961-1965 . Volz, F. E., and R. M. Goody (1962). The intensity of the twilight and upper atmosphere dust, J. Atmos. Sci. 19 , 385 . Widdel, H. U., G. Rose, and R. Borchers (1976). Experimental results on the variation of electric conductivity and ion mobility in the mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 81 , 6217 .

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This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lightning, cloud, and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

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