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TELLURIC CURRENTS: THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND INTERACTIONS WITH MAN-MADE SYSTEMS 254 StÃ¶rmer, C. (1955). The Polar Aurora , Clarendon Press, Oxford, 403 pp . Summers, D. M. (1982). On the frequency response of induction anomalies, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 70 , 487-503 . Thakur, N. K., M. V. Mahashabde, B. R. Arora, and B. P. Singh (1981). Anomalies in geomagnetic variations on peninsular India near Palk Straight, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8 , 947-950 . Thomson, K. S. (1983). The sense of discovery and vice-versa, Am. Sci. 71 , 522-524 . Tsikerman, L. Ya. (1960). Insulation of buried metal pipes to prevent corrosion, Gosstroiizdat, Moscow. U.S. Geodynamics Committee (1983). The LithosphereâReport of a Workshop , National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 84 pp . Varentsov, I. M. (1983). Modern trends in the solution of forward and inverse 3D electromagnetic induction problems, Geophys. Surv. 6 , 55-78 . Varley, C. F. (1873). Discussion of a few papers on Earth currents, J. Soc. Telegr. Eng. 2 , 111-114 . Walker, M. M., J. L. Kirschvink, S.-B. R. Chang, and A. E. Dizon (1984). A candidate magnetic sense organ in the yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, Science 224 , 751-753 . Ward, S. H. (1983). Controlled source electrical methods for deep exploration, Geophys. Surv. 6 , 137-152 . Wertheim, G. K. (1954). Studies of electrical potential between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, Trans. AGU 35 , 872 . Williams, D. J. (1979). Magnetosphere impacts on ground-based power systems, in Solar System Plasma Physics , L. J. Lanzerotti, C. F. Kennel, and E. N. Parker, eds., North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 327-330 . Winch, D. E. (1981). Spherical harmonic analysis of geomagnetic tides, 1964-1965, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A303 , 1-104 . Winckler, J. R., L. Peterson, R. Hoffman, and R. Arnoldy (1959). Auroral x rays, cosmic rays, and related phenomena during the storm of February 10-11, 1958, J. Geophys. Res. 64 , 597-610 . Wollaston, C. (1881). Discussion of the paper by A. J. S. Adams "Earth currents" (2nd paper), J. Soc. Telegr. Eng. Electricians 10 , 50-51; 85-87 . Woods, D. V., and F. E. M. Lilley (1980). Anomalous geomagnetic variations and the concentration of telluric currents in south-west Queensland, Australia, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 62 , 675-689 . Yanagihara, K. (1977). Magnetic field disturbance produced by electric railway, Mem. Kakioka Magn. Obs. ( Suppl. 7), 17-35 . Yanagihara, K., and H. Oshima (1953). On the Earth-current disturbances at Haranomachi caused by the leakage current from the electric railway Fukushima-Yonezawa [in Japanese], Mem. Kakioka Magn. Obs. 6 , 119-134 . Yanagihara, K., and T. Yokouchi (1965). Local anomaly of Earth-currents and Earth-resistivity [in Japanese], Mem. Kakioka Magn. Obs. 12 , 105-113 . Yoshimatsu, T. (1964). Results of geomagnetic routine observations and earthquakes; locality of time changes of short period variations [in Japanese], Mem. Kakioka Magn. Obs. 11 , 55-68 . APPENDIX: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT A selective sketch of the historical development of the understanding of telluric currents follows. It is essentially impossible for the present authors to attempt to give full justice to all authors of the most recent investigations. It is particularly difficult to evaluate these recent works in a historical context. For more extensive general aspects of the subject and for recent literature references, the interested reader should refer to Dosso and Weaver (1983). A recent excellent review of primarily American work is contained in Hermance (1983), while Rokityansky (1982) and Berdichevsky and Zhdanov (1984) contain many references to Eastern literature. 1540 First reported measurement of geomagnetic declination and dip in London (as discussed, for example, in Malin and Bullard, 1981; Barraclough, 1982). For the early history of geomagnetism, including the works of Gilbert and Gauss, refer also to Mitchell (1932a, 1932b; 1937), Chapman (1963), Mattis (1965, Chap. 1), Parkinson (1982, Chap. 6), and Merrill and McElhinny (1983). 1600 First modeling of the geomagnetic field by Gilbert's (1600) terrella (Malin, 1983). 1821 Davy (1821) suggested the existence of Earth currents that, he argued, could be responsible for variations in the geomagnetic declination (Burbank, 1905). 1832 Faraday (1832) envisaged for the first time the existence of induced currents in water, related to water flows and tides. He also attempted, without success, to detect, from the Waterloo Bridge, such currents flowing within the Thames. Gauss (1833) reported the first measurements, on May 21, 1832, of the absolute value of the geomagnetic field (Malin, 1982). 1846-1847 Barlow (1849) made the first observations, in England, "on the spontaneous electric currents observed in the wires of the electric telegraph." 1848 Matteucci detected induced currents in the telegraph wire between Florence and Pisa, while Highton observed the same effect in England (see section on Communication Cables). 1850 Similar effects were reported in the United States. 1859 A telegraph line in the United States was reported operated by means of the natural induced currents during geomagnetic disturbances on September 2. 1862 Lamont (1862) reported one of the first experiments to specifically address Earth currents (carried out in the Munich Alps). 1865 Experiment by Airy (1868) on two wires of 13 and 16 km from Greenwich. 1867 Secchi (1867) reported measurements on two almost orthogonal telegraph lines of lengths 58 km (Rome- Arsoli) and 52 km (Rome-Anzio). 1881 The Electrical Congress, meeting in Paris, recommended that certain short lines be set apart in each country for the study of Earth current phenomena and that longer lines be used as frequently as possible (Burbank, 1905). 1884-1887 Four complete years of records on two telegraph wires in Germany (262 and 120 km) investigated by Weinstein (1902) and Steiner (1908). 1883-1884 Blavier (1884) recorded, for 9 months, Earth potentials on five long telegraph lines extending from Paris, ranging in length from 200 to 390 km. See also Counil et al. (1983). 1886 Shyda (1886) reported an Earth current study on the
TELLURIC CURRENTS: THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND INTERACTIONS WITH MAN-MADE SYSTEMS 255 land line plus ocean cable route from Nagasaki, Japan, to Fusan, Korea. 1889 Schuster (1883, 1908) performed the first investigations on the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field. He concluded that the origin is external, that the Earth must have an upper layer less conducting than that deep in the interior, and he proposed the "suggestive cause" of tidal motion in the atmosphere for the origin of the observed diurnal variation. 1892-1985 Two orthogonal Earth current lines, ~15 km each, were established at Saint-Maur-des-FossÃ©s Observatory southwest of Paris (Moureaux, 1895, 1896; Bossler, 1912; Rougerie, 1940; Counil et al., 1983). 1893 Moureaux (1893) found that the east-west Earth currents in the Paris basin were "exactly" correlated with the H-component of the geomagnetic field (i.e., the horizontal, north-south component), while this did not appear to be true for the north-south Earth current and the declination (east-west horizontal) geomagnetic field. This was the first reported detection of what is now interpreted in terms of telluric currents channeled east-west in the Seine basin from the Atlantic Ocean. 1905 Burbank (1905) provided a comprehensive bibliography on Earth currents. 1908 Van Bemmelen (1908) found that geomagnetic storm sudden commencements (ssc's) have opposite signs at Kew (close to London) and at St. Maur (close to Paris). He correctly explained this in terms of electric currents flowing in the English Channel. 1909 Schmidt (1909) investigated geomagnetic storms at Potsdam and at the Hilf Observatory (13 km south of Potsdam). 1912-1913 Van Bemmelen (1912, 1913) investigated the lunar period magnetic variation at 15 observatories. 1917-1918 Terada (1917) and DechÃ©vren (1918a, 1918b) investigated Earth currents in Japan and in England (Jersey), respectively. 1918 The British Admiralty succeeded for the first time to detect electro-magnetic disturbances related to seawater flows (Young et al., 1920; figure reported in Chapman and Bartels, 1940). 1919 Chapman (1919) performed a systematic (and still quite valuable) analysis on the diurnal magnetic variation at 21 observatories, based on records collected in 1905. 1922 Bauer (1922) reviewed the status of Earth current studies. Some historical points of interest in the past 60 years include the following: 1923 Chapman and Whitehead (1923) appear to have been the first investigators to be concerned with induction effects associated with the auroral electrojet (a localized current system). They erroneously concluded that geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes are produced by Earth currents induced by the auroral electrojet. 1927-1928 Baird (1927) and Skey (1928) detected for the first time (at Watheroo in Australia and at Amberley and Christchurch in New Zealand, respectively) the intersection of what is now called the Parkinson plane (see, e.g., Gregori and Lanzerotti, 1980) with the DZ plane (i.e., the vertical, east-west oriented plane). 1930 Chapman and Price (1930) reconsidered the Chapman and Whitehead (1923) analysis and clearly stated that "the storm-time variations of the geomagnetic field in low latitudes cannot be due to currents, induced either the Earth or in a conducting layer of the atmosphere, by varying primary currents in the auroral zones." 1931 Cooperative project between the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company initiated at Tucson magnetic observatory to study Earth currents. 1936 Bossolasco (1936) detected for the first time (from measurements performed at Mogadiscio, Somalia, during the second International Polar Year, 1932-33) what is now called the Parkinson plane. 1949 De Wet (1949) attempted a numerical computation of the induction effects in oceans taking into account the coastal shapes. 1950 Ashour (1950) estimated the decay time of induced telluric currents within oceans. Constantinescu (1950) discovered what is now called the Parkinson plane and draw a plot, which is quite similar to a Wiese plot (see, e.g., Gregori and Lanzerotti, 1980). 1953 Rikitake and Yokoyama (1953) clearly stated the existence of the Parkinson plane. Banno (1953) detected for the first time the coast effect on Earth currents at Memambetsu (Hokkaido). 1954 Fleischer (1954a, 1954b, 1954c) hypothesized an east-west electric conductor 70 to 100 km deep beneath Bremen. Kertz (1954) stated that it cannot be lower than 80 km. Bartels (1957) estimated a depth of 50 to 100 km. Schmucker (1959) estimated a cylinder 63 km in radius, 100 km deep. Porstendorfer (1966) estimated high conductivity (0.2-0.5 mho/m) down to 10 km depth, an insulator (0.0001 mho/m) down to 100 km, a conductor (0.1 mho/m) between 100 and 130 km, an insulator (0.0001 mho/m) between 130 and 400 km, and 0.1 mho/m underneath. Vozoff and Swift (1968) reported a sedimentary layer (1.0 mho/m) 6 km deep in North Germany (8 sites from Braunschweig to Luebeck). The North German conductivity anomaly is now believed to be principally produced by surface-hydrated sedimentary layers that channel electric currents from the North Sea eastward to Poland. This is a classic example of how difficult the inversion (interpretation) problem is for geomagnetic measurements. 1955 Rikitake and Yokoyama (1955) appear to be the first authors to use the term "coast effect." In theoretically calculating a model of electromagnetic induc