National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

A Report of the

Panel on Micronutrients,

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of

Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

Food and Nutrition Board

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033, T03; the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity; Health Canada; the Institute of Medicine; the Dietary Reference Intakes Private Foundation Fund, including the Dannon Institute and the International Life Sciences Institute; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors’ Fund. Contributors to the Fund to date include Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc., Kemin Foods, L.C., M&M/Mars, Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Nabisco Foods Group, Natural Source Vitamin E Association, Roche Vitamins Inc., U.S. Borax, and Weider Nutritional Group. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc : a report of the Panel on Micronutrients … [et al.], Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-07279-4 (pbk.)—ISBN 0-309-07290-5 (hc.)

1. Trace elements in nutrition. 2. Vitamin A in human nutrition. 3. Vitamin K. 4. Reference Values (Medicine) I. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Micronutrients.

QP534 .D54 2002

612.3′924--dc21

2001052139

This report is available for sale from the
National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP’s on-line bookstore at http://www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at http://www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.

Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

Shaping the Future for Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

PANEL ON MICRONUTRIENTS

ROBERT RUSSELL (Chair),

Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

JOHN L. BEARD,

Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

ROBERT J. COUSINS,

Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville

JOHN T. DUNN,

University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville

GUYLAINE FERLAND,

Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada

K. MICHAEL HAMBIDGE,

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver

SEAN LYNCH,

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Hampton, Virginia

JAMES G. PENLAND,

U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota

A. CATHARINE ROSS,

Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

BARBARA J. STOEKER,

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

JOHN W. SUTTIE,

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison

JUDITH R. TURNLUND,

U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, California

KEITH P. WEST,

Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

STANLEY H. ZLOTKIN,

Departments of Pediatrics and Nutritional Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children and The University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Consultants

LEWIS BRAVERMAN,

School of Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

FRANCOISE DELANGE,

Department of Pediatrics, Hôpital Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium

Staff

PAULA R. TRUMBO, Study Director

ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate

MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

SUBCOMMITTEE ON UPPER REFERENCE LEVELS OF NUTRIENTS

IAN C. MUNRO (Chair),

CanTox, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

GEORGE C. BECKING,

Phoenix OHC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

RENATE D. KIMBROUGH,

Institute for Evaluating Health Risks, Washington, D.C.

RITA B. MESSING,

Division of Environmental Health, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul

SANFORD A. MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio

HARRIS PASTIDES,

School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia

JOSEPH V. RODRICKS,

The Life Sciences Consultancy LLC, Washington, D.C.

IRWIN H. ROSENBERG,

Clinical Nutrition Division, the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University and New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts

STEVE L. TAYLOR,

Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

JOHN A. THOMAS, Retired,

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

GARY M. WILLIAMS,

Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla

Staff

SANDRA SCHLICKER, Study Director

ELISABETH A. REESE, Research Associate

MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERPRETATION AND USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

SUZANNE MURPHY (Chair),

Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu

LENORE ARAB,

University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill

SUSAN I. BARR,

University of British Columbia, Vancouver

SUSAN T. BORRA,

International Food Information Council, Washington, D.C.

ALICIA CARRIQUIRY,

Iowa State University, Ames

BARBARA L. DEVANEY,

Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, New Jersey

JOHANNA T. DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

JEAN-PIERRE HABICHT,

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

HARRIET V. KUHNLEIN,

Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada

Staff

MARY POOS, Study Director

ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate

SHELLEY GOLDBERG, Senior Project Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

VERNON R. YOUNG (Chair),

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair),

Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

LINDSAY H. ALLEN,

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis

STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON,

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

ROBERT J. COUSINS,

Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville

JOHANNA T. DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

JOHN D. FERNSTROM,

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

SCOTT M. GRUNDY,

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

SANFORD A. MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

WILLIAM M. RAND,

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

U.S. Government Liaison

ELIZABETH CASTRO,

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

Canadian Government Liaison

PETER W.F. FISCHER,

Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa

Consultant

GEORGE BEATON,

GHB Consulting, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada

Staff

ALLISON A. YATES, Study Director

SANDRA SCHLICKER, Senior Program Officer

MARY POOS, Senior Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

PAULA TRUMBO, Senior Program Officer

ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate

KIMBERLY FREITAG, Research Assistant

MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

CUTBERTO GARZA (Chair),

Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

ALFRED H. MERRILL, JR. (Vice Chair),

Department of Biochemistry, Emory Center for Nutrition and Health Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

ROBERT M. RUSSELL (Vice Chair),

Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS (Vice Chair),

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

LARRY R. BEUCHAT,

Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, University of Georgia, Griffin

BENJAMIN CABALLERO,

Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

FERGUS M. CLYDESDALE,

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

ROBERT J. COUSINS,

Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville

JOHANNA T. DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

SCOTT M. GRUNDY,

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

SHIRIKI KUMANYIKA,

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

LYNN PARKER,

Child Nutrition Programs and Nutrition Policy, Food Research and Action Center, Washington, D.C.

ROSS L. PRENTICE,

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington

A. CATHARINE ROSS,

Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

ROBERT E. SMITH,

R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont

STEVE L. TAYLOR,

Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Staff

ALLISON A. YATES, Director

GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

GARY WALKER, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

Preface

This report is one in a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S. and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) working in cooperation with Canadian scientists.

The report establishes a set of reference values for vitamin A, vitamin K, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc to replace previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for the United States and Canada. The report also examines data about arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium. Although all reference values are based on data, available data often were scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the various questions that confronted the Panel. Thus, although governed by reasoning, informed judgments often were required in setting reference values. The reasoning used is described for each nutrient in Chapters 4 through 13.

Close attention was given to the evidence relating intake of micronutrients to reduction of the risk of chronic disease, and the daily amounts needed to maintain normal status based on biochemical indicators and daily body losses. In addition, a major task of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients (UL Subcommittee), and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI Committee) was to analyze the evidence on beneficial and adverse effects

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

of arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium—in the context of setting Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

Another major task of the report was to outline a research agenda to provide a basis for future public policy decisions related to recommended intakes of these micronutrients and ways to achieve those intakes. Many of the questions that were raised about requirements for and recommended intakes of micronutrients were not answered fully because of inadequacies in the published database. Apart from studies of overt deficiency diseases, there is a dearth of studies that address specific effects of inadequate micronutrient intakes on health status. For most of the micronutrients, there is no direct information that permits estimating the amounts required by children, adolescents, the elderly, and pregnant and lactating women. For four of the micronutrients, data were sparse for setting Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs), precluding reliable estimates of how much can be ingested safely. For some of these micronutrients, there are questions about how much is contained in the foods North Americans eat.

Readers are urged to recognize that the establishment of DRIs is an iterative process that is expected to evolve as its conceptual framework is applied to new nutrients and food components. With more experience, the proposed models for establishing reference intakes of nutrients and food components that play a role in health will be refined. Also, as new information or new methods of analysis are adopted, these reference values undoubtedly will be reassessed.

Thus, because the project is ongoing, many comments were solicited and have been received on the reports that have been previously published. Refinements that have resulted from this iterative process have been included in the general information regarding approaches used (Chapters 1 through 3) and in the discussion of uses of DRIs (Chapter 14 in this report).

The Subcommittee on the Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (Uses Subcommittee), formed subsequent to the release of the first two reports, has been primarily responsible for chapter 14, which addresses major issues conceptually included since the beginning of the DRI process that relate to the anticipated uses and applications of reference values as developed further by the Uses Subcommittee.

This report reflects the work of the Food and Nutrition Board’s DRI Committee, its expert Panel on Micronutrients, and the UL and Uses Subcommittees. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the government of Canada and Canadian scientists in this initiative

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

that represents a pioneering first step in the standardization of nutrient reference intakes at least within a major part of one continent. A brief description of the overall project of the DRI Committee and of the panel’s task is given in Appendix A. We hope that the critical, comprehensive analyses of available information and knowledge gaps contained in this initial series of reports will assist the private sector, foundations, universities, government laboratories, and other institutions with the development of a productive research agenda for the next decade.

The DRI Committee, the Panel on Micronutrients, the UL and Uses Subcommittees, and the Food and Nutrition Board wish to extend sincere thanks to the many experts who assisted with this report by giving presentations, providing written materials, participating in discussions, analyzing data, and other means. Many, but far from all, of these individuals are named in Appendix B. Special thanks go to George Beaton and the staff at the National Center for Health Statistics, the Food Surveys Research Group of the Agricultural Research Service, ENVIRON Corporation, Health Technomics, and the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University for extensive analyses of survey data.

The respective chairs and members of the Panel on Micronutrients and subcommittees have performed their work under great time pressure. Their dedication made the completion of this report possible. All gave of their time willingly and without financial reward; the public and the science and practice of nutrition are among the major beneficiaries.

The DRI Committee and the Food and Nutrition Board wish to acknowledge, in particular, the commitment shown by Robert Russell, Chair of the Panel on Micronutrients, who guided this difficult project through challenging and innovative paths. His ability to keep the effort and various biases moving in a positive direction is very much appreciated. Thanks are also due to the DRI Committee members, Lindsay Allen and William Rand, who served as in-depth internal reviewers for this report.

Special thanks also are expressed to the staff of the Food and Nutrition Board and foremost to Paula Trumbo, who was the study director for the panel and without whose assistance, both intellectual and managerial, this report would neither have been as polished nor as timely in its release. It is, of course the Food and Nutrition Board staff who get much of the work completed and so the panel, committees, and the Food and Nutrition Board wish to thank Allison Yates, Director of the Food and Nutrition Board, for her and her

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

staff’s constant assistance. Thus, we also recognize and appreciate the contributions of Sandra Schlicker, Mary Poos, Elisabeth Reese, Alice Vorosmarti, Gail Spears, and Michele Ramsey and thank Pat Stephens for editing the manuscript, Jacqueline Dupont for technical review, and Claudia Carl for assistance with publication.

Vernon Young

Chair, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

Cutberto Garza

Chair, Food and Nutrition Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Sarah L. Booth, Tufts University

James D. Cook, Kansas University Medical Center

Mark L. Failla, University of North Carolina

Jeanne Freeland-Graves, University of Texas

James K. Friel, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Walter Mertz, Rockville, Maryland

Phylis B. Moser-Veillon, University of Maryland

Robert S. Parker, Cornell University

John B. Stanbury, Massachusetts General Hospital

Clive E. West, Wageningen Agricultural University

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Kurt J. Isselbacher, Massachusetts General Hospital and Ronald W. Estabrook, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Appointed by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committees and the institution.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

3

 

A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS

 

60

   

 Background,

 

60

   

 A Model for the Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

62

   

 Risk Assessment and Food Safety,

 

62

   

 Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients,

 

67

   

 Steps in the Development of the Tolerable Upper Intake Level,

 

71

   

 Intake Assessment,

 

79

   

 Risk Characterization,

 

79

   

 References,

 

80

4

 

VITAMIN A

 

82

   

 Summary,

 

82

   

 Background Information,

 

83

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin A,

 

97

   

 Factors Affecting the Vitamin A Requirement,

 

106

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

110

   

 Intake of Vitamin A,

 

122

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

125

   

 Research Recommendations for Vitamin A,

 

146

   

 References,

 

146

5

 

VITAMIN K

 

162

   

 Summary,

 

162

   

 Background Information,

 

162

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin K,

 

165

   

 Factors Affecting the Vitamin K Requirement,

 

173

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

176

   

 Intake of Vitamin K,

 

184

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

187

   

 Research Recommendations for Vitamin K,

 

189

   

 References,

 

189

6

 

CHROMIUM

 

197

   

 Summary,

 

197

   

 Background Information,

 

197

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Chromium,

 

202

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
   

 Factors Affecting the Chromium Requirement,

 

204

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

205

   

 Intake of Chromium,

 

211

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

213

   

 Research Recommendations for Chromium,

 

216

   

 References,

 

217

7

 

COPPER

 

224

   

 Summary,

 

224

   

 Background Information,

 

224

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Copper,

 

229

   

 Factors Affecting the Copper Requirement,

 

233

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

235

   

 Intake of Copper,

 

245

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

246

   

 Research Recommendations for Copper,

 

252

   

 References,

 

252

8

 

IODINE

 

258

   

 Summary,

 

258

   

 Background Information,

 

258

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Iodine,

 

262

   

 Factors Affecting the Iodine Requirement,

 

267

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

268

   

 Intake of Iodine,

 

277

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

278

   

 Research Recommendations for Iodine,

 

284

   

 References,

 

284

9

 

IRON

 

290

   

 Summary,

 

290

   

 Background Information,

 

290

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Iron,

 

300

   

 Factors Affecting the Iron Requirement,

 

311

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

316

   

 Intake of Iron,

 

355

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

356

   

 Research Recommendations for Iron,

 

378

   

 References,

 

378

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

10

 

MANGANESE

 

394

   

 Summary,

 

394

   

 Background Information,

 

394

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Manganese,

 

397

   

 Factors Affecting the Manganese Requirement,

 

401

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

402

   

 Intake of Manganese,

 

407

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

408

   

 Research Recommendations for Manganese,

 

414

   

 References,

 

415

11

 

MOLYBDENUM

 

420

   

 Summary,

 

420

   

 Background Information,

 

420

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Molybdenum,

 

422

   

 Factors Affecting the Molybdenum Requirement,

 

424

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

425

   

 Intake of Molybdenum,

 

432

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

433

   

 Research Recommendations for Molybdenum,

 

439

   

 References,

 

439

12

 

ZINC

 

442

   

 Summary,

 

442

   

 Background Information,

 

442

   

 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Zinc,

 

447

   

 Factors Affecting the Zinc Requirement,

 

454

   

 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

458

   

 Intake of Zinc,

 

480

   

 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

481

   

 Research Recommendations for Zinc,

 

488

   

 References,

 

489

13

 

ARSENIC, BORON, NICKEL, SILICON, AND VANADIUM

 

502

   

 Summary,

 

502

   

 Arsenic,

 

503

   

 Boron,

 

510

   

 Nickel,

 

521

   

 Silicon,

 

529

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
   

 Vanadium,

 

532

   

 References,

 

543

14

 

USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

 

554

   

 Overview,

 

554

   

 Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Individuals,

 

555

   

 Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups,

 

558

   

 Planning Nutrient Intakes of Individuals,

 

562

   

 Planning Nutrient Intakes of Groups,

 

563

   

 Nutrient-Specific Considerations,

 

564

   

 Summary,

 

576

   

 References,

 

578

15

 

A RESEARCH AGENDA

 

580

   

 Approach,

 

580

   

 Major Knowledge Gaps,

 

581

   

 The Research Agenda,

 

584

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

A

 

Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes,

 

587

B

 

Acknowledgments,

 

591

C

 

Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,

 

594

D

 

Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes By Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,

 

644

E

 

Dietary Intake Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study, 1991–1997,

 

654

F

 

Canadian Dietary Intake Data, 1990,

 

674

G

 

Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,

 

680

H

 

Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,

 

692

I

 

Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,

 

697

J

 

Glossary and Acronyms,

 

704

K

 

Conversion of Units,

 

709

L

 

Options for Dealing with Uncertainties,

 

710

M

 

Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members,

 

715

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×


DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R20
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R22
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R23
Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page R24
Next: Summary »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Get This Book
×

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!