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J Glossary and Acronyms AAP American Academy of Pediatrics Action Demonstrated effects in various biological systems that may or may not have physiological significance Adverse effect Any significant alteration in the structure or function of the human organism or any impair- ment of a physiologically important function that could lead to a health effect that is adverse AI Adequate Intake AITD Autoimmune thyroid disease Association Potential interactions derived from studies (e.g., epidemiological) of the relationship be- tween specific nutrients and specific diseases ASTDR Agency for Toxic Substance and Diet Registry Bioavailability Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in un- specified metabolic and/or physiological pro- cesses BMI Body mass index: weight (kg)/height (cm)2 CHD Coronary heart disease Cr Elemental symbol for chromium 704
APPENDIX J 705 CRBP Cellular retinol binding protein CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; a survey conducted periodically by the Agricul- tural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture CV Coefficient of variation: mean Ã· standard devia- tion CVD Cardiovascular disease DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Dose-response Second step in a risk assessment, in which the assessment relationship between nutrient intake and an adverse effect (in terms of incidence or severity of the effect) is determined DRI Dietary Reference Intake EAR Estimated Average Requirement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Erythrocyte Red blood cell FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FASEB Federation of American Societies for Experi- mental Biology FDA Food and Drug Administration Fe Elemental symbol for iron FNB Food and Nutrition Board Function Role played by a nutrient in growth, develop- ment, and maturation Gravid Pregnant Hazard First step in a risk assessment, which is concerned identification with the collection, organization, and evalua- tion of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HRT Hormone replacement therapy
706 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer ICC Indian childhood cirrhosis ICCIDD International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders ICT Idiopathic copper toxicosis IM Intramuscular IOM Institute of Medicine IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety IR Insulin receptor IRE Iron response element IRP Iron response proteins IU International units Lacto-ovo- Person who consumes milk (lacto), eggs (ovo), vegetarian and plant foods and products, but no meat or fish LDL Low density lipoprotein LMWCr Low molecular weight chromium-binding sub- stance LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level: lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified LSRO Life Sciences Research Office MCH Mean corpuscular hemoglobinâthe amount of hemoglobin in erythrocytes (red blood cells) MCV Mean corpuscular volumeâthe volume of the average erythrocyte MI Myocardial infarction Mn Elemental symbol for manganese MnSOD Manganese superoxide dismutase MTF1 Metal response element transcription factor
APPENDIX J 707 NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide hydride; a coenzyme NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level; highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed NRC National Research Council OTA Office of Technology Assessment Phylloquinone Plant form of vitamin K and a major form of this vitamin in the human diet Provitamin A Î±-Carotene, Î²-carotene, and Î²-cryptoxanthin carotenoids RAR Retinoic acid receptor RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance RE Retinol equivalents Risk assessment Organized framework for evaluating scientific information, which has as its objective a charac- terization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk Risk Final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes characterization the conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the risk assessment (hazard identification, dose re- sponse, and estimates of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characteriza- tion of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the Tolerable Upper Intake Level Risk management Process by which risk assessment results are inte- grated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, risk management
708 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES considers such issues as the public health signif- icance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control RNA Ribonucleic acid RNI Recommended Nutrient Intake RXR Retinoid X receptor SD Standard deviation SE Standard error SEM Standard error of the mean SOD Superoxide dismutase sTfR Soluble transferrin receptor TDS Total Diet Study; a study conducted by the Food and Drug Administration TfR Transferrin receptor Tg Thyroglobulin Thyrotropin Glycoprotein hormone that regulates thyroid function TIBC Total iron binding capacity TPN Total parenteral nutrition TRH Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone, also known as thyrotropin UF Uncertainty factor; number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL); the size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VLDL Very low density lipoprotein WHO World Health Organization