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« Previous: Appendix I Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentile of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-1996
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
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J
Glossary and Acronyms


AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

Action

Demonstrated effects in various biological systems that may or may not have physiological significance

Adverse effect

Any significant alteration in the structure or function of the human organism or any impairment of a physiologically important function that could lead to a health effect that is adverse

AI

Adequate Intake

AITD

Autoimmune thyroid disease

Association

Potential interactions derived from studies (e.g., epidemiological) of the relationship between specific nutrients and specific diseases

ASTDR

Agency for Toxic Substance and Diet Registry


Bioavailability

Accessibility of a nutrient to participate in unspecified metabolic and/or physiological processes

BMI

Body mass index: weight (kg)/height (cm)2


CHD

Coronary heart disease

Cr

Elemental symbol for chromium

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

CRBP

Cellular retinol binding protein

CSFII

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; a survey conducted periodically by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

CV

Coefficient of variation: mean ÷ standard deviation

CVD

Cardiovascular disease


DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Dose-response assessment

Second step in a risk assessment, in which the relationship between nutrient intake and an adverse effect (in terms of incidence or severity of the effect) is determined

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake


EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Erythrocyte

Red blood cell


FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FASEB

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

Fe

Elemental symbol for iron

FNB

Food and Nutrition Board

Function

Role played by a nutrient in growth, development, and maturation


Gravid

Pregnant


Hazard identification

First step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

ICC

Indian childhood cirrhosis

ICCIDD

International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders

ICT

Idiopathic copper toxicosis

IM

Intramuscular

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IPCS

International Programme on Chemical Safety

IR

Insulin receptor

IRE

Iron response element

IRP

Iron response proteins

IU

International units


Lacto-ovovegetarian

Person who consumes milk (lacto), eggs (ovo), and plant foods and products, but no meat or fish

LDL

Low density lipoprotein

LMWCr

Low molecular weight chromium-binding substance

LOAEL

Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level: lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified

LSRO

Life Sciences Research Office


MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin—the amount of hemoglobin in erythrocytes (red blood cells)

MCV

Mean corpuscular volume—the volume of the average erythrocyte

MI

Myocardial infarction

Mn

Elemental symbol for manganese

MnSOD

Manganese superoxide dismutase

MTF1

Metal response element transcription factor

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide hydride; a coenzyme

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

NOAEL

No-observed-adverse-effect level; highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed

NRC

National Research Council


OTA

Office of Technology Assessment


Phylloquinone

Plant form of vitamin K and a major form of this vitamin in the human diet

Provitamin A carotenoids

α-Carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin


RAR

Retinoic acid receptor

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

RE

Retinol equivalents

Risk assessment

Organized framework for evaluating scientific information, which has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk

Risk characterization

Final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the risk assessment (hazard identification, dose response, and estimates of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the Tolerable Upper Intake Level

Risk management

Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, risk management

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

RNI R

ecommended Nutrient Intake

RXR

Retinoid X receptor


SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

SEM

Standard error of the mean

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

sTfR

Soluble transferrin receptor


TDS

Total Diet Study; a study conducted by the Food and Drug Administration

TfR

Transferrin receptor

Tg

Thyroglobulin

Thyrotropin

Glycoprotein hormone that regulates thyroid function

TIBC

Total iron binding capacity

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone, also known as thyrotropin


UF

Uncertainty factor; number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL); the size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture


VLDL

Very low density lipoprotein


WHO

World Health Organization

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 704
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 705
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 706
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 707
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J Glossary and Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 708
Next: Appendix K Conversion of Units »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Get This Book
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This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

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