National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001)

Chapter: Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994

« Previous: Appendix F Canadian Dietary Intake Data, 1990
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

G
Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994

TABLE G-1 Mean and Percentiles for Hemoglobin (g/L), NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

SEMb

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 1 to 3 y

2,389

120.9

0.2

108.0

110.8

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

2,910

126.9

0.2

113.5

116.4

M 9 to 13 y

1,110

135.2

0.5

120.3

123.2

M 14 to 18 y

830

149.0

0.6

131.6

135.3

M 19 to 30 y

1,804

154.0

0.4

138.9

142.1

M 31 to 50 y

2,416

152.0

0.4

135.2

139.3

M 51 to 70 y

1,874

148.8

0.2

128.7

134.7

M 71+ y

1,189

143.7

0.6

117.6

125.1

F 9 to 13 y

1,090

131.8

0.5

117.9

121.3

F 14 to 18 y

883

132.4

0.5

116.8

120.3

F 19 to 30 y

1,809

132.8

0.3

115.8

119.8

F 31 to 50 y

2,805

132.2

0.3

112.9

118.3

F 51 to 70 y

1,976

135.1

0.3

117.4

121.7

F 71+ y

1,306

134.1

0.4

113.7

119.5

F Pregnant

317

121.0

1.0

105.1c

108.9

F Lactating

96

134.2

2.1

114.7c

117.6c

F P/L

408

123.9

1.0

106.7c

110.2

All Individuals

24,391

139.5

0.2

116.8

121.3

All Indiv (+P/L)

24,799

139.2

0.2

116.4

120.9

NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Children fed human milk and females who had "blank but applicable" pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded "I don't know" to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

b SEM = standard error of the mean.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

25th

50th

75th

90th

95th

99th

115.7

120.4

125.7

130.5

133.3

138.3c

121.1

127.2

132.1

136.4

139.2

145.1

128.3

134.6

141.2

146.3

150.1

161.9c

141.5

149.4

156.1

161.0

164.2

169.7c

147.1

153.7

160.1

164.9

168.5

177.7c

145.6

152.2

158.2

164.5

167.8

174.6c

141.7

149.1

155.7

162.2

166.6

174.5c

135.8

144.2

152.6

159.7

164.3

173.2c

126.3

130.6

136.5

143.1

146.2

154.6c

125.9

132.5

138.8

143.8

147.3

153.0c

126.3

133.0

139.2

144.8

147.7

154.6c

126.0

132.5

139.1

145.2

149.5

156.9

128.3

135.0

141.7

147.8

151.6

158.6c

127.4

134.1

141.3

147.7

152.4

160.9c

114.5

120.7

126.2

136.1

137.9c

148.8c

128.7c

134.4

140.2c

146.9c

150.7c

151.9c

115.7

122.4

131.1

138.9

145.4c

151.3c

129.1

138.8

149.7

158.1

162.7

170.9

128.8

138.5

149.5

158.0

162.6

170.8

c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as indicated in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/ Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE G-2 Mean and Percentiles for Serum Transferrin Saturation (%), NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

SEMb

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 1 to 3 y

1,935

18.6

0.3

5.6

7.6

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

2,865

21.4

0.2

8.9

11.1

M 9 to 13 y

1,097

22.5

0.5

9.4

11.8

M 14 to 18 y

836

27.7

0.7

12.4

14.4

M 19 to 30 y

1,802

30.4

0.4

13.1

16.2

M 31 to 50 y

2,413

29.1

0.3

15.3

17.0

M 51 to 70 y

1,879

27.5

0.4

13.0

15.9

M 71+ y

1,188

27.1

0.4

12.2

14.5

F 9 to 13 y

1,087

22.6

0.6

8.8

10.7

F 14 to 18 y

884

23.4

0.5

7.3

10.0

F 19 to 30 y

1,795

25.4

0.5

8.5

11.3

F 31 to 50 y

2,802

23.4

0.4

7.3

9.9

F 51 to 70 y

1,980

23.6

0.3

11.1

13.0

F 71+ y

1,301

23.9

0.3

11.0

13.2

F Pregnant

318

22.8

1.0

9.3c

10.5

F Lactating

93

25.8c

1.9

10.1c

10.8c

F P/L

407

23.5

0.8

9.7c

10.6

All Individuals

23,864

25.5

0.1

9.6

12.6

All Indiv (+P/L)

24,271

25.5

0.1

9.6

12.5

NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Females who had "blank but applicable" pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded "I don't know" to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

b SEM = standard error of the mean.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

25th

50th

75th

90th

95th

99th

11.4

17.6

24.6

29.8

35.3

44.9c

15.3

20.5

26.6

31.9

37.4

47.5

15.5

20.9

27.9

33.7

39.2

47.5c

19.2

25.1

34.8

44.2

49.7

63.6c

21.8

29.6

36.8

46.0

52.3

68.3c

21.5

27.5

34.9

43.0

48.9

64.0c

20.6

26.5

33.2

39.7

45.1

56.5c

19.6

25.9

33.2

39.9

45.9

65.7c

16.1

21.3

27.2

34.3

41.2

58.9c

15.9

22.0

29.5

36.0

44.4

59.6c

16.5

23.5

31.6

40.6

47.7

67.0c

15.0

21.4

29.8

39.0

45.1

57.4

17.0

22.4

28.6

35.2

41.3

54.2c

17.5

22.2

29.2

35.6

40.7

54.7c

14.0

21.4

28.5

38.2

43.8c

53.9c

15.3c

23.9c

33.6c

45.4c

46.6c

47.7c

14.5

22.0

29.5

40.7

46.2c

53.4c

17.6

24.0

31.5

39.8

46.0

59.7

17.5

24.0

31.4

39.8

46.0

59.6

c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as indicated in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE G-3 Mean and Percentiles for Serum Ferritin (μg/L), NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 1–3 y

2,429

27.9

6.0

9.0

Both sexes, 4–8 y

2,906

34.1

14.3

17.0

Standard error

 

0.5

0.4

0.4

M 9–13 y

1,098

38.8

16.2

19.2

Standard error

 

1.1

0.7

1.3

M 14–18 y

837

56.6

20.0

24.0

Standard error

 

2.1

1.0

1.1

M 19–30 y

1,801

131.0

42.0

54.0

Standard error

 

2.5

3.2

6.0

M 31–50 y

2,418

189.4

41.0

60.0

Standard error

 

3.6

2.5

2.6

M 51–70 y

1,877

204.2

37.0

53.0

Standard error

 

6.8

2.5

3.1

M 71+ y

1,189

184.8

28.0

41.0

Standard error

 

6.4

1.7

1.9

F 9–13 y

1,092

36.4

12.3

16.0

Standard error

 

1.1

1.3

1.4

F 14–18 y

888

35.8

9.0

12.0

Standard error

 

2.9

1.0

1.0

F 19–30 years

1,797

47.8

9.0

13.0

Standard error

 

1.5

0.6

0.8

F 31–50 y

2,808

64.0

7.0

11.0

Standard error

 

3.1

0.4

0.6

F 51–70 years

1,980

120.1

19.0

28.0

Standard error

 

3.3

1.0

1.2

F 71+ y

1,300

135.1

21.0

30.0

Standard error

 

5.0

1.4

2.3

F Pregnant

320

37.6

12.0

15.0

Standard error

 

3.9

5.3

5.1

F Lactating

94

47.3

18.0

21.0

Standard error

 

6.1

5.6

6.1

F P/L

410

41.1

11.0

14.0

Standard error

 

3.3

1.7

2.1

All Individuals

24,420

104.3

12.0

18.0

Standard error

 

1.4

0.2

0.3

All Indiv (+P/L)

24,830

103.2

12.0

17.0

Standard error

 

1.4

0.2

0.3

NOTE: The intake distributions for 2–6 months, 7–11 months, and 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to ques tions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual serum ferritin distributions are not reliable.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

25th

50th

75th

90th

95th

15.0

23.0

34.0

49.0

64.0

21.8

29.8

41.2

56.6

68.9

0.5

0.6

0.9

1.4

2.1

25.4

34.8

47.7

63.4

75.2

1.9

0.9

3.6

3.0

5.0

33.0

48.0

70.0

99.0

123.0

1.4

1.9

2.8

4.8

6.9

80.0

118.0

168.0

224.0

263.0

6.9

7.0

7.6

6.5

10.0

101.0

157.0

235.0

355.0

455.0

2.6

3.3

5.6

8.5

13.0

92.0

161.0

267.0

408.0

519.0

4.6

6.9

9.5

13.6

18.4

74.0

136.0

239.0

385.0

506.0

3.0

5.7

9.6

15.1

20.9

22.5

31.7

44.2

60.7

76.4

1.0

1.1

1.6

3.2

3.7

19.0

29.0

42.0

63.0

86.0

1.0

1.2

2.2

6.5

12.3

22.0

37.0

60.0

94.0

124.0

1.2

1.5

2.2

3.1

4.6

21.0

42.0

75.0

133.0

194.0

0.8

1.8

2.4

5.9

12.9

50.0

91.0

157.0

247.0

321.0

1.8

3.2

4.7

7.4

10.8

53.0

96.0

170.0

281.0

380.0

6.0

3.0

18.5

12.4

30.4

22.0

33.0

47.0

65.0

80.0

4.6

4.0

4.8

9.8

15.5

29.0

41.0

59.0

81.0

98.0

5.4

4.7

12.3

19.0

23.3

22.0

33.0

51.0

77.0

99.0

2.1

2.5

5.6

8.4

12.0

31.0

65.0

135.0

237.0

322.0

0.5

1.0

2.3

3.9

5.4

31.0

64.0

133.0

235.0

320.0

0.5

0.9

2.3

3.8

5.3

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE G-4 Mean and Percentiles for Serum Vitamin A (Retinol) (μmol/L), NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

SEMb

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

2,704

1.22

0.01

0.84

0.91

M 9 to 13 y

1,076

1.43

0.01

0.99

1.06

M 14 to 18 y

823

1.76

0.02

1.22

1.31

M 19 to 30 y

1,784

2.01

0.02

1.38

1.50

M 31 to 50 y

2,397

2.22

0.01

1.43

1.59

M 51 to 70 y

1,870

2.27

0.02

1.48

1.65

M 71+ y

1,174

2.34

0.03

1.42

1.62

F 9 to 13 y

1,070

1.40

0.01

1.01

1.09

F 14 to 18 y

877

1.61

0.02

1.07

1.16

F 19 to 30 y

1,786

1.87

0.02

1.14

1.26

F 31 to 50 y

2,781

1.79

0.02

1.14

1.23

F 51 to 70 y

1,965

2.14

0.02

1.32

1.48

F 71+ y

1,282

2.24

0.02

1.32

1.49

F Pregnant

316

1.47

0.04

0.84c

0.99

F Lactating

94

1.82c

0.05

1.31c

1.39c

F P/L

406

1.55

0.03

0.88c

1.04

All Individuals

21,589

1.93

0.01

1.10

1.22

All Indiv (+P/L)

21,995

1.92

0.01

1.10

1.22

NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Females who had "blank but applicable" pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded "I don't know" to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

b SEM = standard error of the mean.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

25th

50th

75th

90th

95th

99th

1.04

1.20

1.35

1.49

1.58

1.86

1.21

1.40

1.57

1.81

1.89

2.09c

1.52

1.71

1.95

2.20

2.34

2.83c

1.69

1.95

2.23

2.54

2.72

3.10c

1.85

2.16

2.52

2.88

3.11

3.63c

1.90

2.21

2.58

2.94

3.17

3.56c

1.88

2.19

2.65

3.17

3.47

4.62c

1.20

1.34

1.54

1.72

1.82

2.28c

1.32

1.55

1.78

2.08

2.34

2.84c

1.48

1.77

2.16

2.56

2.80

3.27c

1.44

1.71

2.01

2.36

2.63

3.29

1.73

2.06

2.41

2.79

3.10

4.10c

1.81

2.16

2.56

3.00

3.32

4.27c

1.22

1.45

1.67

1.94

2.21c

2.34c

1.53c

1.87c

1.94c

2.24c

2.31c

2.50c

1.28

1.51

1.78

2.02

2.25c

2.42c

1.49

1.85

2.25

2.65

2.92

3.51

1.49

1.84

2.25

2.65

2.92

3.50

c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as indicated in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE G-5 Mean and Percentiles for Serum Retinyl Esters (μmol/L), NHANES III (1998–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

SEMb

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

1,026

0.186

0.005

0.035

0.055

M 9 to 13 y

682

0.177

0.007

0.024

0.045

M 14 to 18 y

703

0.158

0.004

0.030

0.042

M 19 to 30 y

1,625

0.183

0.004

0.028

0.047

M 31 to 50 y

2,220

0.207

0.004

0.030

0.054

M 51 to 70 y

1,745

0.219

0.006

0.029

0.057

M 71+ y

1,090

0.196

0.007

0.018

0.038

F 9 to 13 y

651

0.171

0.005

0.032

0.054

F 14 to 18 y

770

0.154

0.004

0.024

0.039

F 19 to 30 y

1,669

0.174

0.004

0.017

0.039

F 31 to 50 y

2,625

0.187

0.003

0.028

0.049

F 51 to 70 y

1,809

0.247

0.016

0.038

0.062

F 71+ y

1,159

0.229

0.005

0.029

0.056

F Pregnant

268

0.221

0.010

0.048c

0.078

F Lactating

86

0.189c

0.017

0.031c

0.045c

F P/L

351

0.212

0.009

0.040c

0.068

All Individuals

17,774

0.198

0.003

0.028

0.049

All Indiv (+P/L)

18,125

0.198

0.003

0.028

0.049

NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Females who had "blank but applicable" pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded "I don't know" to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

b SEM = standard error of the mean.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

25th

50th

75th

90th

95th

99th

0.097

0.146

0.220

0.295

0.379

0.517c

0.092

0.155

0.209

0.276

0.324

0.424c

0.082

0.135

0.192

0.238

0.278

0.355c

0.101

0.153

0.213

0.290

0.340

0.515c

0.110

0.173

0.239

0.340

0.400

0.629c

0.106

0.170

0.252

0.342

0.437

0.817c

0.081

0.148

0.237

0.331

0.410

0.781c

0.090

0.149

0.211

0.264

0.294

0.379c

0.073

0.128

0.184

0.249

0.294

0.407c

0.089

0.153

0.209

0.277

0.310

0.402c

0.092

0.156

0.225

0.302

0.352

0.490

0.120

0.191

0.274

0.379

0.451

0.868c

0.110

0.191

0.278

0.383

0.466

0.713c

0.142

0.194

0.256

0.330

0.385c

0.621c

0.103c

0.167c

0.235c

0.273c

0.327c

0.411c

0.129

0.189

0.249

0.306

0.369c

0.610c

0.097

0.161

0.231

0.310

0.377

0.597

0.097

0.161

0.231

0.310

0.376

0.598

c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as indicated in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/ Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE G-6 Mean and Percentiles for Urinary Iodine (μg/dL), NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Mean

SEMb

Percentile

5th

10th

Both sexes, 6 to 8 y

1,369

30.0

1.7

6.0

9.2

M 9 to 13 y

1,184

96.1

73.7

7.0

9.0

M 14 to 18 y

876

26.0

1.4

6.0

8.4

M 19 to 30 y

1,852

21.3

0.9

3.8

5.7

M 31 to 50 y

2,481

18.2

0.7

2.9

4.6

M 51 to 70 y

1,896

29.7

6.2

3.6

4.6

M 71+ y

1,181

33.0

4.1

4.4

5.8

F 9 to 13 y

1,146

23.3

1.0

4.6

7.0

F 14 to 18 y

897

26.9

2.8

4.4

6.2

F 19 to 30 y

1,860

31.9

13.4

2.9

4.6

F 31 to 50 y

2,886

18.8

1.6

2.1

2.9

F 51 to 70 y

2,009

23.5

1.8

2.4

3.3

F 71+ y

1,228

39.7

11.5

3.5

4.4

F Pregnant

343

19.6

1.1

4.3c

5.8

F Lactating

95

16.1c

2.2

2.5c

2.9c

F P/L

433

18.7

1.0

3.7c

5.4

All Individuals

20,865

27.6

2.7

3.0

4.5

All Indiv (+P/L)

21,298

27.5

2.7

3.0

4.5

NOTE: Means, standard errors, and percentiles calculated with WesVar Complex Samples 3.0. Females who had "blank but applicable" pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded "I don't know" to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

b SEM = standard error of the mean.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

25th

50th

75th

90th

95th

99th

15.1

25.5

36.9

53.3

64.0

103.3c

14.3

23.7

39.6

57.6

70.5

138.8c

12.5

21.0

30.2

44.6

58.9

117.8c

10.0

15.3

23.9

38.3

52.7

123.0c

8.3

13.8

21.6

34.4

45.7

92.3c

8.0

14.1

23.2

37.7

50.0

114.4c

9.5

15.5

27.1

43.8

68.0

193.8c

11.4

17.9

26.5

42.3

52.2

140.3c

10.5

17.2

27.5

49.0

66.6

188.4c

7.8

12.9

19.9

29.4

41.2

98.4c

5.5

11.1

19.0

31.9

41.3

94.8

5.8

11.0

19.0

31.2

44.4

151.8c

6.8

12.6

21.4

36.1

50.3

131.5c

9.2

14.0

25.2

39.7

44.8c

72.7c

8.1c

10.9c

22.4c

32.3c

36.8c

59.3c

9.1

13.1

24.0

38.3

44.7c

72.4c

8.1

14.5

23.8

38.6

52.5

115.0

8.1

14.5

23.8

38.6

52.1

113.4

c These values are potentially unreliable in a statistical sense based on an insufficient sample size as indicated in statistical reporting standards (Life Sciences Research Office/ Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1995. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 2000.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 680
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 681
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 682
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 683
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 684
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 685
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 686
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 687
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 688
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 689
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 690
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 691
Next: Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994 »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Get This Book
×

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

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