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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001)

Chapter: Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994

« Previous: Appendix G Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

H
Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994

TABLE H-1 Mean Serum Retinol Concentrations (μg/dl) by Quartile of Dietary Vitamin A Intake of Individuals Who Were Not Taking Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Quartile

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

M 4–8 y

950

35.6

34.5

35.2

34.4

M 9–13 y

885

39.5

40.5

41.8

39.4

M 14–18 y

698

47.8

49.7

49.9

51.4

M 19–30 y

1,210

54.0

58.2

56.1

56.8

M 31–50 y

1,520

60.7

62.6

62.5

61.7

M 51–70 y

1,035

62.6

59.7

64.2

65.4

M 71+ y

490

62.7

61.7

62.9

62.2

M Total

6,788

54.5

55.8

55.9

55.9

F 4–8 y

926

34.8

34.1

35.3

34.6

F 9–13 y

851

38.9

40.6

38.9

40.9

F 14–18 y

624

42.2

42.0

45.5

46.4

F 19–30 y

833

45.0

44.3

47.3

47.8

F 31–50 y

1,583

47.2

46.9

48.7

48.7

F 51–70 y

871

56.8

56.4

57.7

59.2

F 71+ y

524

58.4

61.5

60.0

59.6

F Total

6,212

46.9

46.9

48.3

48.9

a M = male, F = female.

SOURCE: C. Ballew and C. Gillespie, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE H-2 Mean Serum Retinol Concentrations (μg/dl) by Quartile of Total Vitamin A Intake of Individuals Who Were Taking Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

n

Quartile

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

M 4–8 y

401

b

33.0

35.6

35.2

M 9–13 y

159

33.0

45.0

41.6

M 14–18 y

71

52.0

53.0

53.8

M 19–30 y

227

64.0

60.5

M 31–50 y

360

63.3

68.4

M 51–70 y

295

59.4

68.6

M 71+ y

151

66.2

64.4

M Total

1,664

45.9

54.3

59.4

F 4–8 y

380

32.0

34.3

35.7

F 9–13 y

185

34.2

40.8

F 14–18 y

85

46.5

F 19–30 y

202

41.0

49.5

F 31–50 y

519

35.0

44.0

48.4

51.9

F 51–70 y

271

53.6

60.4

F 71+ y

194

59.6

63.0

F Total

1,836

35.0

36.9

44.2

51.2

a M = male, F = female.

b No value could be computed, primarily due to an empty data cell or the absence of sampling strata representation.

SOURCE: C. Ballew and C. Gillespie, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE H-3 Weighted Median Serum Ferritin by Body Mass Index (BMI) Quartiles, Adult Reference Sample, NHANES III (1988–1994)

BMI Quartilea

Men

Women

20–49 y Median

50+ y Median

20–49 y Median

50+ y Median

Non-Hispanic White

Quartile 1

118

138

39

77

Quartile 2

132

156

38

89

Quartile 3

132

165

48

92

Quartile 4

168

172

50

101

Regression Results, BMI (adjusted for age)

Beta

4.007

3.619

1.434

2.358

p

0.0001

0.007

0.014

0.0017

Non-Hispanic Black

Quartile 1

129

207

38

125

Quartile 2

143

146

51

120

Quartile 3

166

206

47

124

Quartile 4

186

191

59

150

Regression Results, BMI (adjusted for age)

Beta

2.786

1.885

0.917

0.58

p

0.0048

NSb

0.03

NS

Mexican American

Quartile 1

90

111

30

90

Quartile 2

128

160

34

87

Quartile 3

137

169

40

93

Quartile 4

178

174

65

112

Regression Results, BMI (adjusted for age)

Beta

6.852

–0.6788

3.192

1.372

p

0

NS

0

0.019

NOTE: Excludes individuals with C-reactive protein levels > 1 and values indicative of iron deficiency for transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and mean corpuscular volume.

a BMI quartiles were defined using race/ethnicity-, age-, and sex-specific cutoffs.

b NS = not significant.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE H-4 Lower and Upper Quartiles of Plasma Glucose (mmol/L) and Median Serum Ferritin Levels (μg/L), NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

Lower Quartile of Plasma Glucose

Upper Quartile of Plasma Glucose

Median Plasma Glucose (mmol/L)

Median Serum Ferritin (μg/L)

Median Plasma Glucose (mmol/L)

Median Serum Ferritin (μg/L)

M 20 to 30 y

4.66

108.4

5.57

116.2

M 31 to 50 y

4.77

147.5

5.82

177.8

M 51 to 70 y

4.87

131.2

6.57

188.6

M 71+ y

4.95

122.8

6.72

149.4

F 20 to 30 y

4.41

33.0

5.23

37.3

F 31 to 50 y

4.55

36.4

5.62

44.8

F 51 to 70 y

4.74

73.6

6.19

119.5

F 71+ y

4.90

87.8

6.37

120.0

F P/L

4.17

21.6

5.00

22.0

NOTE: The plasma glucose values used for constructing the lower and upper quartile populations were estimated using WestVarPC 2.12. Median serum ferritin values and plasma glucose values also were estimated with WestVarPC 2.12. Plasma glucose values were measured for individuals 20 years and older. Only individuals who reported fasting 4 or more hours prior to the blood draw and individuals not taking insulin were included in the analyses. Population groups included only those individuals for whom complete food intakes were reported. Females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation, 1999.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

TABLE H-5 Lower and Upper Quartiles of Iron Intake from Food (mg/d) and Median Levels of Serum Ferritin (μg/L): Individuals Who Do Not Report Intake of Iron Supplements, NHANES III (1988–1994)

Sex/Age Categorya

Lower Quartile of Iron Intake

Upper Quartile of Iron Intake

Median of Estimated Usual Iron Intake from Food

Median of Observed Serum Ferritin Levels

Median of Estimated Usual Iron Intake from Food

Median of Observed Serum Ferritin Levels

Both sexes, 1 to 3 y

4.6

21.0

16.3

23.5

Both sexes, 4 to 8 y

9.4

29.0

16.9

30.0

M 9 to 13 y

10.4

35.0

21.6

33.0

M 14 to 18 y

12.8

48.0

26.9

50.0

M 19 to 30 y

13.2

111.0

23.6

105.0

M 31 to 50 y

12.6

168.0

24.4

163.0

M 51 to 70 y

10.0

160.0

23.6

148.0

M 71+ y

8.3

148.0

25.1

134.0

F 9 to 13 y

10.5

29.0

16.4

31.0

F 14 to 18 y

7.8

28.0

16.5

25.0

F 19 to 30 y

9.9

33.0

15.4

31.0

F 31 to 50 y

8.4

43.0

16.9

40.0

F 51 to 70 y

7.3

102.0

17.0

93.5

F 71+ y

7.4

107.5

16.9

87.0

F P/L

10.8

32.0

21.1

28.5

All Individuals

9.2

51.0

19.6

49.0

All Individuals (+P/L)

9.2

51.0

19.6

49.0

NOTE: The iron intakes used for constructing the lower and upper quartiles were estimated using the Iowa State University method. Computations of the medians were completed with the C-SIDE program. Children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses.

a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and lactating.

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 1999.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 692
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 693
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 694
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 695
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 696
Next: Appendix I Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentile of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-1996 »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Get This Book
×

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

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