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INTRODUCTION 5 simulates federal income taxes and social security payroll taxes. The original DYNASIM model was developed by the Urban Institute in the early 1970s; see Johnson and Zedlewski (1982) and Johnson, Wertheimer, and Zedlewski (1983). Household Income and Tax Simulation Model (HITSM) HITSM is a static model of government tax and transfer programs, including AFDC, SSI, food stamps, energy assistance, unemployment insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, housing assistance, school lunch programs, federal income taxes, state income taxes, sales taxes, and social security payroll taxes. The model is proprietary and was developed by Lewin/ICF, Inc., in the mid-1980s; see Lewin/ICF, Inc. (1988). Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households (MATH) Model MATH is a static model of government tax and transfer programs, including AFDC, general assistance, SSI, food stamps, federal income taxes, and social security payroll taxes. The model was developed by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., in the mid-1970s; see Doyle et al. (1990). Multi-Regional Policy Impact Simulation (MRPIS) Model MRPIS is a hybrid model, with microsimulation, cell-based, and input-output components. It is designed to estimate the second-round effects of tax and transfer program changes on regional product mix and therefore on regional employment. The model was developed by the Social Welfare Research Institute at Boston College in the mid-1980s; see Social Welfare Research Institute (n.d.) and Havens and Clayton-Matthews (1989). Pension and Retirement Income Simulation Model (PRISM) PRISM is a dynamic model of labor force and selected demographic processes and retirement income programs, including social security, employer pensions, SSI, and individual retirement accounts. The model also simulates federal income taxes, social security payroll taxes, and state income taxes. The model was developed by Lewin/ICF, Inc., in the early 1980s. In the mid-1980s the model was expanded to include a long-term care financing submodel; see Kennell and Sheils (1986) and Kennell et al. (1988). Social Policy Simulation Database/Model (SPSD/M) SPSD/M is a static microsimulation model of Canadian tax and transfer programs