National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page R10

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences Committee on State of the Art and Practice in Earthquake Induced Soil Liquefaction Assessment Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a grant from the American Society of Civil Engineers, an award from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, an award from the Port of Long Beach, an award from the Port of Los Angeles, Grant No. R11AP81544 from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Award No. DTFH6114P00075 from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration, and Award No. NRC-HQ-12-G-04-0061 with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: 10.177226/23474 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 1017226/23474. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit nationalacademies.org/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

COMMITTEE ON STATE OF THE ART AND PRACTICE IN EARTHQUAKE INDUCED SOIL LIQUEFACTION ASSESSMENT EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR., Chair, Arizona State University, Tempe JOSÉ E. ANDRADE, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena KANDIAH “ARUL” ARULMOLI, Earth Mechanics, Inc., Fountain Valley, California BRIAN F. ATWATER, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Washington, Seattle JOHN T. CHRISTIAN, Independent Consultant, Burlington, Massachusetts RUSSELL GREEN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg STEVEN L. KRAMER, University of Washington, Seattle LELIO MEJIA, AECOM, Oakland, California JAMES K. MITCHELL, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Retired), Blacksburg ELLEN RATHJE, The University of Texas at Austin JAMES R. RICE, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts YUMEI WANG, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Portland THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE STAFF SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Study Director COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate v PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GENE WHITNEY, Chair, Congressional Research Service (Retired), Washington, DC R. LYNDON (LYN) ARSCOTT, International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (Retired), Danville, California CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, GeoLogical Consulting, LLC, Houston, Texas CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville T. MARK HARRISON, University of California, Los Angeles ANN S. MAEST, Buka Environmental, Boulder, Colorado DAVID R. MAIDMENT, The University of Texas at Austin M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MARY M. POULTON, University of Arizona, Tucson JAMES M. ROBERTSON, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE STAFF ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant RAYMOND M. CHAPPETTA, Program Assistant vi PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

Acknowledgments The committee relied on input from the geotechnical engineering community in addition to the expertise contained within the itself. Thoughtful input from many technical experts informed committee deliberations. We gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for giving presentations or serving on panels during the committee’s two-day community workshop or during information-gathering sessions at committee meetings: Donald Anderson, CH2M Hill; Ronald Andrus, Clemson University; Pedro Arduino, University of Washington; Gregory Baecher, University of Maryland; Laurie Baise, Tufts University; Steven Bartlett, University of Utah; Michael Beaty, Beaty Engineering, LLC; Ronaldo Borja, Stanford University; Scott Brandenberg, University of California, Los Angeles; Giuseppe Buscarnera, Northwestern University; Misko Cubrinovski, University of Canterbury, New Zealand; Craig Davis, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Ricardo Dobry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Leslie Harder, HDR, Inc.; David Gillette, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation; Antonio Gioiello, Port of Los Angeles; Thomas Holzer, U.S. Geological Survey; Kenji Ishihara, Chuo University, Tokyo; Richard Iverson, U.S. Geological Survey; Robert Kayen, U.S. Geological Survey; Geoffrey Martin, University of Southern California; Milan Pavich, U.S. Geological Survey; Peter Robertson, Gregg Drilling and Testing, Inc.; Robert Schweinfurth, Geo-Institute/American Society of Civil Engineers; Jonathan Stewart, University of California, Los Angeles; Thomas Weaver, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and T. Les Youd, Brigham Young University (Emeritus). Ross Boulanger, University of California, Davis; K. Önder Çetin; Middle East Technical University, Turkey; Izzat M. Idriss, University of California, Davis; and Raymond Seed, University of California, Berkeley, provided helpful written responses to questions from the committee. The committee also thanks Tarek Abdoun, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Scott Anderson, U.S. Federal Highway Administration; Christopher Baxter, University of Rhode Island; Brady Cox, The University of Texas at Austin; Yannis Dafalias, University of California, Davis; Shideh Dashti, University of Colorado Boulder; Roupen Donikian, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc.; Kevin Franke, Brigham Young University; Ian Friedland, U.S. Federal Highway Administration; Daniel Gillins, Oregon State University; Youssef Hashash, University of Illinois; Jianping Hu, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Harold Magistrale, FM Global; Majid Manzari, George Washington University; Allen Marr, Geocomp Corporation; Neven Matasovic, Geosyntec Consultants; Jorge Meneses, Group Delta Consultants, Inc.; Yoshi Moriwaki, GeoPentech; Adam Perez, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Didier Perret, Natural Resources Canada; Daniel Pradel, University of California, Los Angeles; Michael Riemer, University of California, Berkeley; Curt Scheyhing, Group Delta Consultants, Inc.; Thomas Shantz, California Department of Transportation; Sabanayagam Thevanayagam, State University of New York, Buffalo; Kohji Tokimatsu, Toyko Institute of Technology, Japan; Sjoerd Van Ballegooy, Tonkin and Taylor; Rick Wentz, Wentz Pacific, LTD; Derek Wittwer, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation; and Zia Zafir, Kleinfelder, for contributing to meaningful discussions during meetings and the committee workshop. Many members of the technical community interacted with members of the committee throughout the conduct of this study. The committee is appreciative of all this input. vii PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Ronald Andrus, Clemson University Gregory Baecher, NAE, University of Maryland, College Park Ross Boulanger, University of California, Davis Jonathan Bray, NAE, University of California, Berkeley K. Önder Çetin; Middle East Technical University, Turkey Lloyd Cluff, NAE, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (emeritus) Misko Cubrinovski, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Ahmed-Waeil Elgamal, University of California, San Diego Liam Finn, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (emeritus) Kenji Ishihara, Chuo University, Tokyo Michael Lewis, Bechtel Corporation Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robin McGuire, Lettis Consultants International, Inc., and Andrew Whittle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. viii PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

Contents SUMMARY .....................................................................................................................................1 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................14 Liquefaction Hazards, 17 State of Practice for Liquefaction Assessment, 22 Prior Reviews of Liquefaction Assessment, 23 The Committee’s Task, 25 Report Organization, 27 2 A PRIMER ON EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED SOIL LIQUEFACTION ..........................29 Mechanism of Liquefaction, 30 Factors Affecting Liquefaction Potential and Its Consequences, 39 Earthquake Loading, 43 Soil Resistance to Liquefaction, 44 Consequences of Liquefaction, 47 3 CASE HISTORIES ............................................................................................................52 Site Characterization for Case History Assessments, 53 Liquefaction Triggering Case Histories, 58 Site-Specific Ground Motion Recordings, 69 Lateral Spreading Case Histories, 70 Post-Liquefaction Shear Strength Case Histories, 73 Nontraditional Sources of Data, 75 Enhancing Database Development, 75 4 THE SIMPLIFIED STRESS-BASED APPROACH TO TRIGGERING ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................................................80 Seismic Demand, 81 Liquefaction Resistance, 86 Geotechnical Field Data for Liquefaction Triggering Analyses, 106 Interpreting the Results of Stress-Based Triggering Analysis, 107 5 ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO LIQUEFACTION TRIGGERING ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................................111 Regional Liquefaction Hazard Maps and Past Occurrence of Liquefaction, 112 Cyclic Strain Approach, 113 Energy-Based Approaches, 115 Laboratory and Physical Model Testing, 117 Field Measurement of Pore-Pressure Generation Under Dynamic Loading, 127 Computational Mechanics Approaches toAssess Liquefaction Triggering, 129 ix PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

6 RESIDUAL SHEAR STRENGTH OF LIQUEFIED SOIL ............................................133 Residual Shear Strength of Sandy Soils, 134 Residual Shear Strength of Gravelly- and Fine-Grained Soils, 140 Dealing with Uncertainty, 141 7 EMPIRICAL AND SEMI-EMPIRICAL METHODS FOR EVALUATING LIQUEFACTION CONSEQUENCES ............................................................................143 Screening Procedures, 144 Flow Sliding, 149 Lateral Spreading, 150 Liquefaction-Induced Settlement, 158 Deep Foundations, 161 Shallow Foundations, 166 Retaining Structure Damage, 166 Utilities and Buried Structures, 167 Liquefaction-Induced Modification of Ground Motions, 169 8 USE OF COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS TO PREDICT LIQUEFACTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES .........................................................................................170 Computational Liquefaction Modeling in Engineering Practice, 172 Issues in the Computational Modeling of Liquefaction Problems, 174 Constitutive Modeling of Liquefiable Soil, 180 Recent Computational Research Developments Applicable to Liquefaction Analysis, 182 9 PERFORMANCE-BASED EVALUATION AND DESIGN .........................................189 Approaches to Performance-Based Evaluation, 191 Future Developments for Performance-Based Evaluations, 198 10 RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................200 Collecting, Reporting, and Assessing Data Sufficiency and Quality, 201 Addressing the Spatial Variability and Uncertainty of Data, 205 Improving Tools for Assessing Liquefaction Triggering and Its Consequences, 208 Improving Research and Practice, 210 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................212 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members ..............................................................248 B Meeting Agendas and Workshop Participants .................................................................254 C Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases .265 D General Description of Performance-Based Design ........................................................271 E Glossary ...........................................................................................................................276 x PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

Next: Summary »
State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $75.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction (liquefaction) is a leading cause of earthquake damage worldwide. Liquefaction is often described in the literature as the phenomena of seismic generation of excess porewater pressures and consequent softening of granular soils. Many regions in the United States have been witness to liquefaction and its consequences, not just those in the west that people associate with earthquake hazards.

Past damage and destruction caused by liquefaction underline the importance of accurate assessments of where liquefaction is likely and of what the consequences of liquefaction may be. Such assessments are needed to protect life and safety and to mitigate economic, environmental, and societal impacts of liquefaction in a cost-effective manner. Assessment methods exist, but methods to assess the potential for liquefaction triggering are more mature than are those to predict liquefaction consequences, and the earthquake engineering community wrestles with the differences among the various assessment methods for both liquefaction triggering and consequences.

State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences evaluates these various methods, focusing on those developed within the past 20 years, and recommends strategies to minimize uncertainties in the short term and to develop improved methods to assess liquefaction and its consequences in the long term. This report represents a first attempt within the geotechnical earthquake engineering community to consider, in such a manner, the various methods to assess liquefaction consequences.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!