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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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RECOMMENDATIONS 211 Perhaps most importantly, liquefaction assessment needs to expand beyond empirically based methods with new methods that are informed by more data, by quantification of uncertainties, and by fundamental scientific and engineering principles. To be adopted by the engineering community, any new method needs to be responsive to practitioner needs. In particular, the (a) fundamental basis and applicability of the model needs to be understandable; (b) outputs from the model need to be translatable to the problems of interest; (c) limitations of the model need to be clearly defined; (d) model needs to be readily implementable by practicing engineers; (e) methods must be economical (i.e., not require excessive effort); and the (f) methods must keep pace with the evolution of earthquake engineering practice toward performance-based design. Moving along these recommended paths forward will fundamentally improve prediction of earthquake-induced soil liquefaction and its consequences. Reliable predictions will provide greater protection of life safety, of built infrastructure, and of the economy by reducing adverse economic, environmental, and social impacts of liquefaction. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

References AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). 2014. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design with 2012 and 2014 Interim Revisions. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Available at http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpAASHTO53/aashto-guide-specifications; accessed 15 November 2016. Abdoun, T. 1997. Modeling of seismically induced lateral spreading of multilayer sand deposit and its effects on pile foundations. Ph.D. diss. Troy, NY: Department of Civil Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 630 pp. Abrahamson, N.A., B.A. Bolt, R.B. Darragh, J. Penzien, and T.B. Tsai. 1987. The SMART 1 accelerograph array (1980–1987): A review. Earthquake Spectra 3:263–287. ALA (American Lifelines Alliance). 2001. Seismic Fragility Formulations for Water Systems. Available at http://americanlifelinesalliance.com/pdf/Part_1_Guideline.pdf; accessed 18 February 2016. Alarcon-Guzman, A., G.A. Leonards, and J.L. Chameau. 1988. Undrained monotonic and cyclic strength of sands. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 114(10):1089–1108. Ambraseys, N.N. 1988. Engineering seismology. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 17:1–105. Amos, C.B., A.T. Lutz, A.S. Jayko, S.A. Mahan, G.B. Fisher, and J.R. Unruh. 2013. Refining the southern extent of the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake rupture through paleoseismic investigations in the Haiwee area, Southeastern California. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103:1022–1037, doi:10.1785/0120120024. Anderson, D.G., G.R. Martin, I. Lam, and J.N. Wang. 2008. Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls, Buried Structures, Slopes and Embankments, Recommended Specifications, Commentaries and Example Problems. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 611.Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. 148 pp. Anderson, D.G., S. Seungcheol, and S.L. Kramer. 2011. Observations from nonlinear, effective-stress ground motion response analyses following the AASHTO guide specifications for LRFD seismic bridge design. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2251:114–154, DOI: 10.3141/2251-15. Andrade, J.E. 2009. A predictive framework for liquefaction instability. Géotechnique 59(8):673–682. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW 212

REFERENCES 213 Andrade, J.E., and R.I. Borja. 2007. Modeling deformation banding in dense and loose fluid-saturated sands. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 43:361–383. Andrade, J.E., and X. Tu. 2009. Multiscale framework for behavior prediction in granular media. Mechanics of Materials 41(6):652–669. Andrade, J.E., A.M. Ramos, and A. Lizcano. 2013. Criterion for flow liquefaction instability. Acta Geotechnica 8:525–535. Andrews, D.C.A., and G.R. Martin. 2000. Criteria for liquefaction of silty soils. Paper 0312 in Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 30 January–4 February 2000, Auckland, New Zealand. Upper Hutt, N.Z.: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering. Andrus, R.D. 1986. Subsurface investigations of a liquefaction induced lateral spread Thousand Springs Valley, Idaho: Liquefaction recurrence and a case history in gravel. Master’s thesis. Provo, UT: Department of Civil Engineering, Brigham Young University. 117 pp. Available at https://ceen.et.byu.edu/sites/default/files/snrprojects/245-ronald_d_andrus-1986-tly.pdf; accessed 18 February 2016. Andrus, R.D., and K.H. Stokoe II. 1997. Liquefaction resistance based on shear wave velocity. Pp. 89– 128 in Proceedings of the NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, 5–6 January 1996, Salt Lake City, Utah. Buffalo, NY: National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Andrus, R.D., and K.H. Stokoe II. 2000. Liquefaction resistance of soils from shear-wave velocity. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 126(11):1015–1025. Andrus, R.D., and T.L. Youd. 1987. Subsurface investigation of a liquefaction-induced lateral spread, Thousand Springs Valley, ID. Geotechnical Laboratory Miscellaneous Paper GL-87-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Andrus, R.D., and T. L. Youd. 1989. Penetration tests in liquefiable gravels. Pp. 679–682 in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foudation Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Andrus, R.D., K.H. Stokoe, J.A. Bay, and T.L. Youd. 1992. In situ Vs of gravelly soils which liquefied. Pp. 1447–1452 in Proceedings of the Tenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 19– 24 July 1992, Madrid, Spain. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. Andrus, R.D., K.H. Stokoe, R.M. Chung, and C.H. Juang. 2003. Guidelines for Evaluating Liquefaction Resistance Using Shear Wave Velocity Measurements and Simplified Procedures. NIST GCR 03- 854. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Andrus, R.D., H. Hayati, and N. Mohanan. 2009. Correcting liquefaction resistance of aged sands using measured to estimated velocity ratio. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 135(6):735–744. Arango, I., M.R. Lewis, and C. Kramer. 2000. Updated liquefaction potential analysis eliminates foundation retrofitting of two critical structures. Soil Dynamics Earthquake Engineering 20:17– 25. Archuleta, R.J., S.H. Seale, P.V. Sangas, L.M. Baker, and S.T. Swain. 1992. Garner Valley downhole array of accelerometers: Instrumentation and preliminary data analysis. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America 82:1592–1621. Arduino, P. 2014. Consequences of Liquefaction Analytical Models. Presentation to the Committee on State of the Art and Practice in Earthquake Induced Soil Liquefaction Assessment, 11 March, Tempe, Arizona State University. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Arias, A. 1970. A measure of earthquake intensity. Pp. 438–483 in Seismic Design for Nuclear Power Plants, edited by R.J. Hansen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Armstrong, R.J., and E.J. Malvick. 2014. Comparison of liquefaction susceptibility criteria. Pp. 29–37 in Dams and Extreme Events—Reducing Risk of Aging Infrastructure under Extreme Loading Conditions: 34th Annual USSD Conference, San Francisco, California, April 7-11, 2014. Denver, CO: United States Society on Dams. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

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REFERENCES 245 Zienkiewicz, O.C., and R.L. Taylor. 2013. The Finite Element Method, 7th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Zienkiewicz, O.C., A.H.C. Chan, M. Pastor, D.K. Paul, and T. Shiomi. 1990a. Static and dynamic behaviour of soils: a rational approach to quantitative solutions. I. Fully saturated problems. Proceedings of Royal Society of London A 429:285–309. Zienkiewicz, O.C., Y.M. Xie, B.A. Schrefler, A. Ledesma, and N. Bicanic. 1990b. Static and dynamic behaviour of soils: a rational approach to quantitative solutions. II. Semi-saturated problems. Proceedings of Royal Society of London A 429:311–321. Zienkiewicz, O.C., A.H.C. Chan, M. Pastor, B.A. Schrefler, and T. Shiomi. 1999. Computational Geomechanics with Special Reference to Earthquake Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Ziotopoulou, K., R.W. Boulanger, and S.L. Kramer, 2012. Site response analysis of liquefying sites. Geo- Congress 2012: State of the Art and Practice in Geotechnical Engineering 1799–1808, doi: 10.1061/9780784412121.185. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW 246

Appendixes PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW 247

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Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction (liquefaction) is a leading cause of earthquake damage worldwide. Liquefaction is often described in the literature as the phenomena of seismic generation of excess porewater pressures and consequent softening of granular soils. Many regions in the United States have been witness to liquefaction and its consequences, not just those in the west that people associate with earthquake hazards.

Past damage and destruction caused by liquefaction underline the importance of accurate assessments of where liquefaction is likely and of what the consequences of liquefaction may be. Such assessments are needed to protect life and safety and to mitigate economic, environmental, and societal impacts of liquefaction in a cost-effective manner. Assessment methods exist, but methods to assess the potential for liquefaction triggering are more mature than are those to predict liquefaction consequences, and the earthquake engineering community wrestles with the differences among the various assessment methods for both liquefaction triggering and consequences.

State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences evaluates these various methods, focusing on those developed within the past 20 years, and recommends strategies to minimize uncertainties in the short term and to develop improved methods to assess liquefaction and its consequences in the long term. This report represents a first attempt within the geotechnical earthquake engineering community to consider, in such a manner, the various methods to assess liquefaction consequences.

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