National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations

« Previous: 12 Knowledge Gaps and Future Directions
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Appendix A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

μmol/L micromoles per liter
23Na MRI sodium magnetic resonance imaging
ACE-I angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
AI Adequate Intake
AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
AMSTAR A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews
ARB angiotensin-receptor blocker
BMI body mass index
CCHS Canadian Community Health Survey
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDRR Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake
CI confidence interval
CKD chronic kidney disease
DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
df degrees of freedom
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DoHAD developmental origins of health and disease
DRI Dietary Reference Intake
DRV Dietary Reference Value
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
EAR Estimated Average Requirement
EER Estimated Energy Requirement
EFSA European Food Safety Authority
FITS Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study
FNDDS Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies
GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation
HDL high-density lipoprotein
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HR hazard ratio
IOM Institute of Medicine
kg/m2 kilograms per meter square
KHCO3 potassium bicarbonate
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LOAEL lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
MD mean difference
mg milligrams
mg/d milligrams per day
mg/L milligrams per liter
mL milliliters
mm Hg millimeter of mercury
mmol millimoles
mmol/d millimoles per day
mmol/L millimoles per liter
MSG monosodium glutamate
NCI National Cancer Institute
NDSR Nutrition Data System for Research
NEAP net endogenous acid production
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHE3 sodium hydrogen exchange 3
OR odds ratio
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
PAHO Pan American Health Organization
PICO population, intervention, comparator, and outcome
RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance
REML restricted maximum likelihood
RR risk ratio
SPRINT Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial
TOHP Trials of Hypertension Prevention
TONE Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly
UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
WHI Women’s Health Initiative
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 421
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 422
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 423
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 424
Next: Appendix B: Open Session Agendas »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $85.00 Buy Ebook | $69.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

As essential nutrients, sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiology and pathology of human health and disease. In clinical settings, these are two important blood electrolytes, are frequently measured and influence care decisions. Yet, blood electrolyte concentrations are usually not influenced by dietary intake, as kidney and hormone systems carefully regulate blood values.

Over the years, increasing evidence suggests that sodium and potassium intake patterns of children and adults influence long-term population health mostly through complex relationships among dietary intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. The public health importance of understanding these relationships, based upon the best available evidence and establishing recommendations to support the development of population clinical practice guidelines and medical care of patients is clear.

This report reviews evidence on the relationship between sodium and potassium intakes and indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease. It updates the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using an expanded DRI model that includes consideration of chronic disease endpoints, and outlines research gaps to address the uncertainties identified in the process of deriving the reference values and evaluating public health implications.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!