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I-48 Public agencies in the United States have begun to develop technology transition plans for dealing with transformational technologies in land use and the transportation system. State DOTs in several statesâMissouri, Delaware, Iowa, and Texas, for exampleâare devel- oping plans for dealing with the implications of fully autonomous AVs (Missouri DOT 2019; Barnes, Turkel, Moreland, and Pragg 2017; McGehee, Brewer, Schwarz, and Smith 2016; and Kockelman, Boyles, Stone, Fagnant, and Pateet 2017). FHWA-funded field tests of CV equipment are being conducted at locations in Florida, New York, Ohio, and Wyoming (U.S. DOT 2018a). Some agencies have reacted quickly to address, on a piecemeal basis, the less-desirable impacts of transformational technologies (e.g., city reactions to dockless bike litter). Other agencies have begun a more comprehensive process to compare the benefits and impacts of transformational technologies to their goals and objectives. They have identified performance measures and data needs and are currently developing regulations to fill the gaps. Some representative examples of these efforts are highlighted in this chapter. 10.1 Virginia DOT: Connected and Automated Vehicle Program Plan The Virginia DOT published its Connected and Automated Vehicle Program Plan (CAV Plan) in late 2017 (Lingham 2018). This plan establishes the Virginia DOTâs vision to âcapitalize on the safety and operational benefits of CAV,â and to position Virginia âas the most attractive state for industry to deploy, test, operate, and evolve CAV products and services.â The Virginia DOTâs CAV Program has the following goals and objectives (Lingham 2018): â¢ Reduce crashes and fatalities on Virginia roadways by improving safety measures; â¢ Improve mobility to reduce delays, increase system reliability, and provide more efficient use of physical infrastructure; â¢ Reduce infrastructure investments through efficiencies enabled by increasing use of CAVs and fully autonomous AVs; and â¢ Enhance traveler information. The CAV Plan anticipates the deployment of CAV technology and applications over the next 20 years and focuses on âpreparing the organization for the future, rather than prioritizing individual projects or development effortsâ (Lingham 2018). Its recommended actions are: â¢ Organizational Actions â Identify and designate roles and responsibilities for the CAV Program Manager, CAV deployment lead positions and other key staff C H A P T E R 1 0 Example Agency Responses
Example Agency Responses I-49 â Launch the CAV program plan department wide to internally promote and support the creation of a culture of innovation and proactive integration of CAV technologies into plans, programs and projects â Coordinate and convene executive steering committee for the CAV Program â¢ Technical Actions and Activities â Focus on development and early deployment activities â Demonstrate the capabilities and benefits of CAVs â Integrate CAV strategies into long-term planning and programming processes â Develop a data architecture plan and strategy â¢ External Partnership-Related Actions â Track technology advances that will impact the CAV program â Develop an external stakeholder outreach, communication, and coordination strategy that is coor- dinated with the [Virginia DOT] CAV strategy The CAV Plan also recommends development of a long-term implementation plan, estab- lishment of deployment guidance for stakeholders, and the development of CAV standards and specifications. 10.2 Texas DOT: Agency Strategic Plan The Texas Transportation Commission adopted the Texas DOTâs 2019â2023 Strategic Plan in May 2018. The Strategic Plan identifies the following actions related to transformational technologies (Texas DOT 2018): â¢ Establish a statewide integrated traffic management system. â¢ Improve traffic information for more efficient freight movement by developing connected freight corridors. â¢ Coordinate with local transportation entities to ensure the efficiency of the overall transportation system to facilitate movement of people and goods. In addition, the Strategic Plan calls for the Texas DOT to: â¢ Work with cities and MPOs to identify smart technology solutions that improve traffic management while helping to solve city mobility challenges. â¢ Complement the federally funded Texas Connected Freight Corridor project with additional resources to greatly advance freight information, safety, and movement. 10.3 Los Angeles, California: Transportation Technology Strategy The City of Los Angeles, California, adopted its strategic plan for transportation technology in 2016 (Hand 2016). This plan identified goals, policies, and actions focused on three con- cepts: (1) data-as-a-service (DaaS), (2) mobility-as-a-service (MaaS), and (3) infrastructure- as-a-service (IaaS). As outlined by Hand (2016), the goals, policies, and actions in the cityâs strategic plan provide examples of how a local agency might address the planning and policy implications of transformational technologies: Goal #1: Build a solid data foundation Policies 1. Define what can be shared. 2. Adopt privacy principles. 3. Develop a standard data-sharing agreement. 4. Create a regional blueprint for system integration. 5. Establish design guidelines for digital infrastructure. Short-Term Actions (0â2 years) 1. Inventory available data. 2. Create a wish list for other data sets and prioritize.
I-50 Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation 3. Implement a data analysis bench contract and grow internal analytics capacity. 4. Develop a roadmap for new data resources. Mid-Term Actions (3â5 years) 1. Make the data easier to use with data dictionaries and other tools. 2. Adopt APIs [application programming interfaces] + other tools to streamline sharing. Long-Term Actions (6+ years) 1. Leverage data to manage a more flexible transportation system with public and private service providers. Goal #2. Leverage tech plus design for a better transportation experience Policies 1. Create ATSAC 3.0. (The cityâs central traffic signal control system). 2. Enforce congestion-busting rules for safety. 3. Adopt a customer bill of rights and metrics for transportation happiness. 4. Require corridor and building designs that serve multiple modes. 5. Eliminate parking minimums. 6. Rethink parking garages. 7. Stop widening roads. Short-Term Actions (0â2 years) 1. Code the curb to optimize access. 2. Develop customer-centered requirements for public services. 3. Integrate real-time data and tech into urban design and planning processes. 4. Publish data on EV charging station locations. 5. Advance fleet conversion to greener fuel. Mid-Term Actions (3â5 years) 1. Create a unified wayfinding program. 2. Route transit by demand where suitable. 3. Expand ExpressPark citywide. 4. Introduce a portal for employers to manage transit benefits. Long-Term Actions (6+ years) 1. Create a universal fare system for Los Angeles. Goal #3. Create partnerships for more shared services Policies 1. Update regulations to include new modes. 2. Make it easier to work with the City of Los Angeles and provide a level playing field. 3. Adopt a revised transportation demand management ordinance for new developments. Short-Term Actions (0â2 years) 1. Develop a shared mobility action plan. 2. Form a multi-discipline mobility assessment team. 3. Designate an innovation pilot project manager. Mid-Term Actions (3â5 years) 1. Bring sharing to City Hall through car sharing, bike sharing, and carpooling platforms. 2. Launch a mobility lab. Long-Term Actions (6+ years) 1. Implement mobility-as-a-service [MaaS]. Goal #4. Establish feedback loops for services and infrastructure Policies 1. Become a more responsive service provider. 2. Establish a project evaluation standard.
Example Agency Responses I-51 Short-Term Actions (0â2 years) 1. Create a user experience working group. 2. Investigate new tools for the ongoing evaluation of infrastructure conditions. 3. Engage the entire community on infrastructure condition assessments. 4. Partner and support a marketing campaign on shared mobility. Mid-Term Actions (3â5 years) 1. Streamline LADOT online content and launch a project dashboard. 2. Prepare the workforce for changes driven by innovation in transportation technology. 3. Adopt a multimodal smart fare system. Long-Term Actions (6+ years) 1. Develop a methodology to move towards infrastructure-as-a-service [IaaS]. Goal #5. Prepare for an automated future Policies 1. Call for mobility innovation in California. 2. Collaborate regionally to promote interoperability. 3. Launch a taskforce on data monetization strategies. 4. Advocate for new approaches to financing infrastructure projects. Short-Term Actions (0â2 years) 1. Develop a business plan for a city-owned automated fleet. 2. Create a dedicated staff position focused on connected and fully autonomous vehicle technologies. 3. Implement blind spot detection systems for public transit vehicles. 4. Expand City of LADOT connected bus technologies fleet-wide. 5. Invest in lane markings that enhance effectiveness of lane departure warning and prevention systems. Mid-Term Actions (3â5 years) 1. Create better access to ATSAC (central traffic control system) data and enhance transparency of network prioritization for planning. 2. Develop a fully autonomous vehicle road network along transit and enhanced vehicle networks. 3. Launch a data-as-a-service [DaaS] program to provide real-time infrastructure data to connected vehicles. Long-Term Actions (6+ years) 1. Convert the public transit vehicle fleet to fully autonomous [AVs]. 10.4 San Francisco, California: Regulating TNCs In 2017, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority (SFCTA) produced an overview of the TNC (MaaS services employing hired drivers) landscape in the City and County of San Francisco, and compared the local situation with how other major cities in the United States were regulating TNCs (SFCTA 2017). The SFCTA report noted that, as of June 2017, 48 states and the District of Columbia had passed legislation to regulate TNCs statewide. These state-level regulations have focused on safety, insurance, and fares. The report also identified dozens of cities and counties that have enacted their own policies for TNCs. The local policies have focused on safety, mobility for all modes, accessibility, data-sharing, and congestion management. Some agencies and transit operators have initiated pilot tests and marketing partnerships with TNCs to enhance first- and last-mile transit access. As listed in the report, the City of San Franciscoâs 10 principles for TNCs are (SFCTA 2017): 1. SAFETY: Emerging mobility services and technologies must be consistent with the City and County of San Franciscoâs goal for achieving Vision Zero, reducing conflicts, and ensuring public safety and security on roads, sidewalks, and public rights-of-way.
I-52 Foreseeing the Impact of Transformational Technologies on Land Use and Transportation 2. TRANSIT: Emerging mobility services and technologies must complement rather than compete with public transit services, must support and account for the operational needs of public transit and encourage use of high-occupancy modes. 3. EQUITABLE ACCESS: Emerging mobility services and technologies must promote equitable access to services. All people, regardless of age, race, color, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, national origin, religion, or any other protected category, should benefit from emerging mobility services and technologies, and groups that have historically lacked access to mobility benefits must be prioritized and should benefit most. 4. DISABLED ACCESS: Emerging mobility services and technologies must be inclusive of persons with disabilities. Those who require accessible vehicles, physical access points, services, and technolo- gies are entitled to receive the same or a comparable level of access as persons without disabilities. 5. SUSTAINABILITY: Emerging mobility services and technologies must support sustainability, including helping to meet the cityâs greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction goals, promote use of all non-auto modes, and support efforts to increase the resiliency of the transportation system. 6. CONGESTION: Emerging mobility services and technologies must consider the effects on traffic and public rights-of-way congestion, including the resulting impacts on road and sidewalk safety, modal choices, emergency vehicle response time, and transit performance and reliability. 7. ACCOUNTABILITY: Emerging mobility services and technologies providers must share relevant data so that the City and the public can effectively evaluate the servicesâ benefits to and impacts on the transportation system and determine whether the services reflect the goals of San Francisco. 8. LABOR: Emerging mobility services and technologies must ensure fairness in pay and labor policies and practices. Emerging mobility services and technologies should support San Franciscoâs local hire principles, promote equitable job training opportunities, and maximize procurement of goods and services from disadvantaged business enterprises. 9. FINANCIAL IMPACT: Emerging mobility services and technologies must promote a positive financial impact on the Cityâs infrastructure investments and delivery of publicly provided transpor- tation services. 10. COLLABORATION: Emerging mobility services and technology providers and the City must engage and collaborate with each other and the community to improve the city and its transportation system. In 2018, the SFCTA produced its evaluation of the emerging mobility (MaaS) services in San Francisco, identifying the cityâs guiding principles for emerging mobility, assessing where the mobility services fall short of meeting those guiding principles, and recommending various city actions for addressing those shortfalls (SFCTA 2018). The emerging mobility services that were evaluated included electric standing scooter sharing, bike sharing, scooter sharing, car sharing, ride sharing, ride hailing, microtransit, courier network services, fully autonomous vehicles, robots, and drones. This report concludes (SFCTA 2018): â¢ Companies that have performed pilot tests with San Francisco public agencies have provided the City with data and experience that has informed development of the Cityâs permit systems for these types of services. â¢ The City is not receiving adequate data from enough companies providing these services to fully evaluate how well these services are fulfilling the Cityâs 10 guiding principles. â¢ Emerging mobility services are providing opportunities for equitable access during late night hours and on weekends in areas not well served by public transit. â¢ The City lacks sufficient information to assess the degree to which the emerging mobility services are supporting public transit. â¢ Operator training is inconsistent across mobility services and almost no providers test operators following training. â¢ The City lacks sufficient data to assess the impacts of the emerging mobility services on traffic congestion. The SFCTA report also provides the following seven recommendations (SFCTA 2018): 1. The City should proactively partner with TNCs to develop innovative solutions to the cityâs trans- portation needs. 2. The City should collect and warehouse data on TNC activities. 3. The City should collect sufficient permit fees to fully recover cost of regulation. 4. The City should conduct a study to identify equity gaps in TNC services for low-income users. 5. The City should pursue TNC pilot programs to better support public transit. 6. The City should increase and improve enforcement to encourage safe operation. 7. The City should develop a curb management strategy that allocates and prices curb access appropriately.