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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 112 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Security and Emergencies â¢ Terminals and Facilities Airport Terminal Incident Response Planning Don Griffith Aaron Moore IEM Inc. Research Triangle Park, NC Gloria Bender Karthik Ayodhiramanujan Nader Sayadi TranssoluTIons, llc Fort Worth, TX James Smith sMITh-WoolWInE assocIaTEs, Inc. Floyd, VA Alvy Dodson DoDson avIaTIon sEcurITy consulTIng, llc Mansfield, TX Carol White carol WhITE consulTIng, llc Floyd, VA John Sawyer JMs aIrfIElD safETy consulTIng, llc Phoenix, AZ Julie Quinn Katherine Williams QuInnWIllIaMs, llc Los Angeles, CA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transÂ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interÂ national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responÂ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport CooperaÂ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative nearÂterm solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponÂ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National CooperaÂ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research ProÂ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainteÂ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operaÂ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100ÂCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council InternationalÂNorth America (ACIÂNA), the American AssociaÂ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orgaÂ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responÂ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by idenÂ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport proÂ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels preÂ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperÂ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended endÂusers of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workÂ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airportÂindustry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 112 Project 04Â15 ISSN 1935Â9802 ISBN 978Â0Â309Â28421Â9 Library of Congress Control Number 2014944145 Â© 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and notÂforÂprofit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and notÂforÂprofit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.nationalÂacademies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 04Â15, âA Tool for Developing AirÂ port Terminal Incident Response Plans.â IEM was the contractor for this study and TransSolutions, LLC, was a subcontractor. Donald Griffith of IEM Inc. was the Principal Investigator, James F. Smith of SmithÂ Woolwine Associates, Inc., Gloria G. Bender, Managing Principal of TransSolutions, John Sawyer of JMS Airfield Safety Consulting, Julie Quinn and Katherine Williams of QuinnÂWilliams, LLC, Alvy Dodson of Dodson Aviation Security Consulting, LLC, Aaron T. Moore of IEM Inc., and Carol White of Carol White Consulting, LLC, authored the research material and userâs guide. Karthik Ayodhiramanujan and Nader Sayadi of TransSolutions, LLC, in conjunction with Mike Kelly of IEM Inc., provided the software development expertise for the TIRP tool. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the project panel for their support and insightful comments throughout this research projÂ ect. The research team would also like to thank the many airport directors and staff who took the time to share their insights, experience, and opinions and to respond to followÂup queries during all stages of development and beta testing of the software. Additionally, special thanks go to Fred McCosby, Security Programs Manager of the Savannah Airport Commission, for his diligent work in providing the TIRP plan example to the aviation community. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 112 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 04-15 PANEL Field of Safety Sean Brosnan, Detroit Metropolitan Airport, Detroit, MI (Chair) Herby Duverne, Taino Consulting Group, Boston, MA Job D. Kunkel, The Louis Berger Group, Inc., Albany, NY William J. Liese, Corgan Associates Architects PC, New York, NY Michael Pape, Idaho Division of Aeronautics, Boise, ID Connie M. Proctor, Salt Lake City Department of Airports, Salt Lake City, UT Thomas R. Rossbach, HNTB Corporation, Chicago, IL Roman PiÃ±on, FAA Liaison Bernardo Kleiner, TRB Liaison
ACRP Report 112: Airport Terminal Incident Response Planning provides a scalable tool that airport operators, terminal managers, emergency managers, and planners can use to create and maintain integrated incident response plans that address hazards in and around airport terminals. The Airport Terminal Incident Response Plan (TIRP) tool (available on the CDÂROM that accompanies this report) assists in the development of a response plan that, when implemented, would mitigate the impact of these events on the termiÂ nal users. These response plans cover natural and manmade incidents such as hurricanes, snowstorms, tornados, earthquakes, structural fires, electrical outages/power failures, bomb threats, security breaches, and active shooter situations for evacuation, sheltering in place, relocation, and repopulation/recovery and are applicable to a variety of sizes and types of airports and airport terminals. In addition to the TIRP tool, the report contains a userâs guide that provides a stepÂbyÂstep process of generating incident response plans. The report also contains an output example that demonstrates completed terminal incident response plans using the TIRP tool. Recent natural and manmade emergency events at airport terminals (e.g., snowstorms, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, structural fires, power failures, security breaches, bomb threats, and active shooter situations) have demonstrated the need for a more compreÂ hensive response to protect the traveling public. Evacuation, shelterÂinÂplace, relocation, and repopulation/recovery plans, if available, are in need of improvement. Beyond planÂ ning, there are also improvements needed in training, drilling, exercises, and mutual aid agreements. In addition, the increase of travelers with mobility and cognitive impairments further challenges incident response. Evidence indicates that plans need to better address coordination and response between the airport operator and all stakeholders. Under ACRP Project 04Â15, research was conducted by Innovative Emergency ManageÂ ment, Inc., in association with TransSolutions, LLC; SmithÂWoolwine Associates, Inc.; and QuinnWilliams, LLC to develop a tool that airport operators can use to create and maintain integrated incident response plans that address hazards in and around airport terminals. As part of the research, the team conducted a risk analysis that determined the nine highest priority types of incidents. Their findings were verified and elaborated on by a literature review as well as verification by senior managers at seven commercial airports of differing types and sizes that examined the results of the risk analysis to ensure validity. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Focus on Evacuation, Shelter in Place, and Repopulation 3 Introduction 3 Evacuation and Shelter in Place 4 Transition from Evacuation or Shelter in Place to Repopulation 4 Patterns of Repopulation 5 Chapter 2 Methodology and Data Sources 5 Risk Analysis 5 Results 9 Airports and Documents 9 Airports in Study 11 Documents 11 Process Mapping Theory and Procedure 13 Chapter 3 Taxonomy of Incidents 15 Chapter 4 Key Parameters 15 Urgency 15 Scope 16 Duration 16 Available Resources 18 Chapter 5 Relationship of Terminal Incident Response Plans and Other Plans and Programs 18 Airport Certification Manual 18 Airport Emergency Plan 18 Airport Security Program 19 Irregular Operations 19 Safety Management Systems 19 Access and Functional Needs Populations 19 Terminal Operations Manuals 19 Customer Service Manuals 20 Overlap 20 Methods of Presenting TIRPs visÂÃ Âvis AEPs 23 Chapter 6 Best Practices for Developing and Sustaining TIRPs 23 Leadership 23 Stakeholder Involvement 24 Incident Command System Structures: Sectors, Branches, and Tactical Objectives for Each 24 National Incident Management System 25 Customer Service C O N T E N T S
25 Communications 26 To Individuals Within the Terminal 26 To the Public at Large 26 Security 26 General 26 Airports with International Arrivals 27 Training 27 Training Requirements 27 Benefits of Training for the Management of Terminal Incidents 28 Drilling and Exercising 28 FullÂScale Drills and Exercises 29 Problems with FullÂScale Drills and Exercises of Evacuation and SIP 29 Adaptive Management and the Continuous Improvement Cycle 31 Chapter 7 Budgeting for Airport Terminal Preparedness 32 Chapter 8 Introducing the Tool 32 What the TIRP Tool Can Do 32 Inputs 32 Processing Within the Tool 32 Outputs 33 What the TIRP Tool Cannot Do 33 Directions for Using the Tool 34 Chapter 9 Summary 35 References 36 Acronyms and Abbreviations 37 Appendix A Stakeholders for Terminal Incident Response Planning 38 Appendix B Checklist of Budget Line Items for Terminal Preparedness 39 Appendix C Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport (SAV) TIRP Example 68 Appendix D Frequently Asked Questions 72 Appendix E Lessons Learned 73 Appendix F Userâs Guide Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.