Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
1 When irregular operations (IROPS) call for evacuating, sheltering in place (SIP), and repopulating passengers in an airport terminal, managers face a complex decision-making process made more difficult by the pressures of time, stress, and the necessity to maintain continuity of operations. Evacuation and SIP events result in disruption to normal terminal operations such as ticketing, baggage check-in, concession operations, boarding, and deplaning. Repopula- tion may carry less urgency than evacuation and sheltering in place, but it tends to be more complicated. For example, after a SIP situation, it may be necessary to evacuate passengers and even employees to complete transition tasks before repopulation can begin. In order to support these multifaceted processes and enhance preparedness, a robust, flex- ible, and user-friendly tool was created to develop effective terminal incident response plans (TIRPs). Generating, training with, and employing TIRPs will improve overall readiness for incidents that disrupt normal operations in airport passenger terminals, ensuring more efficient and orderly responses and proactively preventing mishaps, both large and small. A risk analysis determined the nine highest-priority types of incidents that call for evacu- ation, sheltering in place, and repopulation. They are snowstorms, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, structural fires, power failures, security breaches, bomb threats, and active shooter situations. These findings were verified and elaborated on by a literature review investigating both academic papers and mainstream news articles. Senior managers at seven commercial airports of differing types and sizes examined the results of the risk analysis to ensure validity. The documents guiding the response to incidents in passenger terminals were provided by 36 representative primary commercial airports of all types and sizes. The research team ana- lyzed airport plans, checklists, and related documents for recurring patterns of response and best practices. Working from these documents, the teamâs analysts and modelers mapped the processes for the nine highest-priority incident types. Those process maps were then used to program the TIRP tool. This synthesis of risk analysis, literature review, expert validity, and investigation of air- port documents has yielded a content-rich and user-friendly tool to help terminal managers develop effective plans for addressing unexpected incidents. Four key parameters determine the details of basic TIRPs: urgency, scope, duration, and available resources. Standard emer- gency management priorities inform the plans as well: â¢ Protect life. â¢ Protect property. â¢ Secure a crime scene. â¢ Ensure continuity of business and operations. Summary
2 Airport Terminal Incident Response Planning The TIRP tool automates the creation of realistic, actionable response plans while allowing customized inputs to match specific airport terminal configurations, policies, and standard operating procedures. This report explains: â¢ How, why, and when a response to an irregular terminal incident should be initiated; â¢ Differences between evacuation and sheltering in place and their relationship to repopulation; â¢ Patterns of repopulation and necessary transitional activities that must occur before repopulation; â¢ How TIRPs relate to standard documents such as airport emergency plans (AEPs), airport security program (ASP) documents, IROPS documents, airport certification manuals (ACMs), and so forth; and â¢ How and why the TIRP tool was developed. Special considerations are detailed regarding a wide variety of areas of particular concern, such as customer service, access and functional needs planning, communications, security, budgeting, training, airplane crashes, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), fire and emergency medical services (EMS), Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 139.325, the Inci- dent Command System (ICS), and the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The TIRP tool is robust, flexible, and easy to use because it: â¢ Incorporates state-of-the-art best practices; â¢ Has been verified by industry experts and terminal managers; â¢ Does not require a high level of technical expertise; â¢ Can be scaled up or down for any category of airport, from non-hub to large hub; â¢ Requires only a minimum amount of input to yield considerable practical output; â¢ Addresses three major response activities: evacuation, SIP, and repopulation; â¢ Accounts for personnel, coordinating entities, equipment, and other considerations for the nine major risk types; â¢ Allows further subdivision of major risk types to create plans for addressing scenarios outside the nine major risk types; â¢ Allows modification to account for unique or unusual airport-specific events; and â¢ Uses prompts, questions, and resulting plans to highlight key considerations for the termi- nal incident planner, manager, airport operator, incident commander, and others involved in a coordinated effort to mitigate and manage disruptive events. A short, clear userâs guide leads managers through the process of creating TIRPs with the TIRP tool. Following an easy learning curve, managers will be able to generate and revise customized TIRPs to improve preparedness for all types of terminal incidents that result in irregular operations.