National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response (2020)

Chapter: APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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APPENDIX C

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ACR acute-to-chronic ratio
ADIOS2 Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills version 2
API American Petroleum Institute
BaPE benzo[a]pyrene equivalents
BOP blowout preventer
BSEE Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene
BW body weight
CAFE Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CERA Consensus Ecological Risk Assessment
CEWAF chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction
CF conversion factor
CI confidence interval
CR consumption rate
CRA Comparative Risk Assessment
CROSERF Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum
CSF cancer slope factor
DFO Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Department of Fisheries and Oceans)
DIVER Data Integration Visualization Exploration and Reporting
DOR dispersant-to-oil ratio
DOSS dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
DS model proposed by Delvigne & Sweeney or DeepSpill
DSD droplet size distribution
DWH Deepwater Horizon
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
ED exposure duration
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
EL50 median effects-loading concentration
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPS extracellular polymeric substance
EqP equilibrium partitioning
ERL effects range low
ES ecosystem services
ESA ecosystem services analysis
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FEV forced expiratory volume
FVC forced vital capacity
GC gas chromatography
GC-FID gas chromatography and flame ionization detection
GC-MS gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
GDS Global Dispersant Stockpile
GNOME General NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Operational Modeling Environment
GoMRI Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative
GOR gas-to-oil ratio
GRIIDC Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information & Data Cooperative
HC5 hazard concentration 5%
HEWAF high-energy water-accommodated fraction
HYCOM Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model
IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
IFT interfacial tension
IOGP International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
IRB Institutional Review Board
ISB in situ burning
IVOC intermediate-volatility organic compound
LC50 median lethal concentration
LEWAF low energy water-accommodated fraction
LISST Laser In Situ Scattering and Transmissiometry
LL50 lethal loading 50
LN log-normal
LOC level of concern
LT50 lethal time 50
MAH monoaromatic hydrocarbon
MD microdroplet concentration
MEWAF medium-energy water-accommodated fraction
MEXUS Mexico–United States
MOS marine oil snow
MOSSFA Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
MPa megapascal
MS mass spectrometry
NAPL non-aqueous-phase liquid
NEBA Net Environmental Benefit Analysis
NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NRC National Research Council
NRDA Natural Resource Damage Assessment
NRT National Response Team
OMA oil-mineral aggregate
OPA oil-particle aggregate
ORMS oil-related marine snow
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PDMS polydimethylsiloxane
PLC50 median phototoxic lethal concentration
PPE personal protective equipment
PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder
RANS Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes
RfD reference dose
RL risk level
ROC resource of concern
SABGOM South Atlantic Bight—Gulf of Mexico
SilCam silhouette camera
SIMA Spill Impact Mitigation Assessment
SOA secondary organic aerosol
SOO spill of opportunity
SPME solid-phase microextraction
SSD Species Sensitivity Distribution
SSDI subsea dispersant injection
SVOC semi-volatile organic compound
SwRI Southwest Research Institute
TAMOC Texas A&M Oilspill Calculator
THC total hydrocarbon concentration
TLM target lipid model
TPAH total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
TPH total petroleum hydrocarbon
TROPICS Tropical Oil Pollution Investigations in Coastal Systems
TU toxic unit
TUHH Hamburg University of Technology
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
UI uncertainty interval
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
USCG U.S. Coast Guard
UV ultraviolet
VEC valued ecosystem component
VOC volatile organic compound
WAF water-accommodated fraction
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 282
Next: APPENDIX D: MINORITY REPORT »
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Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response options—including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools.

This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

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