National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response (2019)

Chapter: APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

« Previous: APPENDIX B: DISCLOSURE OF CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 312
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 313
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 314
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 315

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APPENDIX C ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADE—Advection Diffusion Equation ANS—Alaska North Slope API—American Petroleum Institute BLS—Bureau of Labor Statistics BSEE—Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement BTEX—Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene CBI—Confidential Business Information CDC—Center for Disease Control CDOG - Clarkson Deep Oil and Gas CEOSSIM—Canadian Environmental Oil Spill Simulator CERA—Consensus Ecological Risk Assessment CEWAF—Chemically Enhanced Water Accommodated Fraction CNR—Center for Natural Resource CRA—Comparative Risk Assessment CRRC—Coastal Response Research Center DDO—Dispersants and Dispersed Oil DFO—Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Department of Fisheries and Oceans) DMP2—Dispersant Mission Planner 2 DOR—Dispersant-to-Oil Ratio DOSS—Dioctyl Sodium sulfosuccinate DSD—Droplet Size Distribution DWH—Deepwater Horizon ECCC—Environment and Climate Change Canada EIS—Environmental Impact Statement EPS—Extracellular Polymeric Substances ES—Ecosystem Services ESA—Ecosystem Services Analysis FDA—Food and Drug Administration FOSC—Federal On Scene Coordinator GDS—Global Dispersant Stockpile PREPUBLICATION COPY 312

Appendix C: Acronyms 313 GI—Global Initiative GOR—Gas-to-Oil Ratio GRIIDC—Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information & Data Cooperative HEWAF—High Energy Water Accommodated Fraction HIA—Health Impact Analysis ICS—Incident Command System IDLH—Immediate Danger to Life and Helath IEWAF—Intermediate Energy Water Accommodated Fraction IFT—Interfacial Tension IMO—International Maritime Organization IMS—Incident Management System IOGP—International Oil and Gas Producers IRB—Institutional Review Board IRIS—Integrated Risk Information System ISB—In-situ Burning IVOCs—Intermediate-volatility organic compounds JEM—Job Exposure Matrix LES—Large-eddy Simulation LEWAF—Low Energy Water Accommodated Fraction LISST—Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometer LN—Log-Normal LOC—Level of Concern LSM—Lagrangian Stochastic Models MAR—Mass Accumulation Rates MEWAF—Medium Energy Water Accommodated Fraction MEXUS—Mexico-United States MMS—Minerals and Management Service (now now Bureau of Ocean Energy Management/Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement) MODU—Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit MOS—Marine Oil Snow MOSSFA—Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation NAPL—Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid NEBA—Net Environmental Benefit Analysis NEWAF—No Energy Water Accommodated Fraction NHANES—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey PREPUBLICATION COPY

314 The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response NIEHS—National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIOSH—National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health NOAA—National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRDA—National Resource Damage Assessment NRDA—Natural Resources Damage Assessment NRT—National Response Team OIILS—Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System OMA—Oil-mineral Aggregates OPA—Oil-particle Aggregates OPA 90—Oil Pollution Act of 1990 OPRC—Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation OSA—Oil-sediment Aggregate OSAs—Oil-suspended Particulate Matter Aggregates PAH—Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PPE—Personal Protective Equipment RANS - Reynolds Average Navier Stokes RCT—Randomized Control Trial REL—Recommended Exposure Level RR—Rosin-Rammler SARA—Saturates, Aromatics, Resins, and Asphaltenes SGS—Subgrid-scale SIMA—Spill Impact Mitigation Assessment SOAs—Secondary Organic Aerosols SSD—Species Sensitivity Distribution SSD—Species Sensitivity Distribution SSDI—Subsea Dispersant Injection STEL—Short-Term Exposure Limit SVOCs—Semi-volatile Organic Compounds (no “organic” listed on pg 2) TAMOC—Texas A & M Oil Spill Calculator TEP—Transparent Exopolymeric Particles THC—Total Hydrocarbon Concentration TPAH—Total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons TPH—Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons TROPICS—Tropical Oil Pollution Investigations in Coastal Systems PREPUBLICATION COPY

Appendix C: Acronyms 315 TU—Toxic Unit Concentration UNCLOS—United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea VC—Valued Component VEC—Valued Ecosystem Components VOCs—Volatile Organic Compounds WAF—Water Accommodated Fraction PREPUBLICATION COPY

Next: APPENDIX D: MINORITY REPORT »
The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Get This Book
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Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response options—including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools.

This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

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