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110Â SectionÂ 6:Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExercisesÂ Â Â AsÂ emphasizedÂ inÂ SectionÂ 4,Â plansÂ shouldÂ beÂ routinelyÂ testedÂ throughÂ training,Â drills,Â andÂ exercises.Â ThisÂ sectionÂ coversÂ training,Â drills,Â andÂ exercisesÂ forÂ notÂ onlyÂ theÂ stateÂ DOTâsÂ emergencyÂ plansÂ butÂ theÂ agencyâsÂ broaderÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ program.Â Â Also,Â relevantÂ stateÂ DOTÂ caseÂ examplesÂ ofÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ implementationÂ areÂ included.Â InÂ addition,Â thisÂ sectionÂ introducesÂ theÂ HomelandÂ SecurityÂ ExerciseÂ andÂ EvaluationÂ ProgramÂ (HSEEP)Â approachÂ toÂ exerciseÂ developmentÂ andÂ evaluation.Â Â Â OnceÂ aÂ planÂ hasÂ beenÂ developedÂ andÂ neededÂ resourcesÂ haveÂ beenÂ procured,Â personnelÂ areÂ organizedÂ andÂ equipped;Â andÂ training,Â exercises,Â andÂ evaluationÂ conductedÂ toÂ developÂ requiredÂ capabilitiesÂ andÂ competencies.Â PerÂ theÂ 2015Â AASHTOÂ FundamentalÂ CapabilitiesÂ ofÂ EffectiveÂ AllâHazardsÂ InfrastructureÂ Protection,Â Resilience,Â andÂ EmergencyÂ Management,Â thisÂ capabilityÂ is:Â ï· PreparingÂ DOTÂ employeesÂ forÂ theirÂ roles; ï· UnderstandingÂ andÂ improvingÂ plansÂ putÂ inÂ place; ï· ProvidingÂ anÂ opportunityÂ toÂ testÂ plansÂ andÂ validateÂ theÂ effectivenessÂ ofÂ training. ThereÂ isÂ noÂ questionÂ thatÂ successfulÂ managementÂ ofÂ emergencies,Â especiallyÂ largeâscaleÂ orÂ complexÂ ones,Â requiresÂ wellâtrainedÂ andÂ exercisedÂ personnelÂ whoÂ canÂ notÂ onlyÂ performÂ theirÂ assignedÂ tasksÂ butÂ workÂ withÂ personnelÂ fromÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ andÂ jurisdictions,Â andÂ provideÂ emergencyÂ servicesÂ inÂ otherÂ jurisdictionsÂ ifÂ requested.Â EmergencyÂ managementÂ trainingÂ impartsÂ toÂ personnelÂ knowledge,Â skills,Â andÂ abilitiesÂ requiredÂ toÂ performÂ theirÂ roles,Â responsibilities,Â andÂ functionsÂ inÂ emergencies.Â IndividualÂ andÂ roleâ specificÂ trainingÂ leadsÂ toÂ teamâÂ orÂ unitâlevelÂ trainingÂ whichÂ culminatesÂ inÂ interagencyÂ andÂ interjurisdictionalÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ thatÂ allowÂ personnelÂ toÂ practiceÂ andÂ demonstrateÂ whatÂ theyÂ haveÂ learned,Â andÂ becomeÂ familiarÂ withÂ keyÂ personnelÂ fromÂ andÂ fosterÂ collaborationÂ withÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ andÂ organizations.Â Furthermore,Â asÂ notedÂ inÂ theÂ 2014Â NCHRPÂ REPORTÂ 777:Â AÂ GUIDEÂ TOÂ REGIONALÂ TRANSPORTATIONÂ PLANNINGÂ FORÂ DISASTERS,Â EMERGENCIES,Â ANDÂ SIGNIFICANTÂ EVENTS,Â regionalâlevelÂ disastersÂ andÂ emergenciesÂ haveÂ highÂ consequencesÂ butÂ occurÂ infrequentlyÂ orÂ notÂ atÂ all.Â Â InteragencyÂ andÂ interjurisdictionalÂ exercisesÂ areÂ essentialÂ inÂ testingÂ regionalÂ plans,Â EOPs,Â andÂ mutualÂ aidÂ procedures.Â ExercisesÂ alsoÂ helpÂ assessÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ technologies,Â equipment,Â andÂ facilities;Â theÂ abilityÂ ofÂ personnelÂ toÂ mobilizeÂ them;Â andÂ provideÂ personnelÂ withÂ theÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ practiceÂ usingÂ them.Â InÂ addition,Â havingÂ goodÂ documentationÂ andÂ anÂ effectiveÂ andÂ consistentÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ evaluationÂ processÂ willÂ helpÂ DOTsÂ fulfillÂ grantÂ andÂ programÂ requirements;Â and,Â engageÂ inÂ continuousÂ improvementÂ ofÂ plans,Â procedures,Â personnel,Â technologies,Â equipment,Â andÂ facilities.Â Â WhileÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ fullyÂ understandÂ theÂ importanceÂ ofÂ trainingÂ forÂ emergenciesÂ andÂ seekÂ toÂ implementÂ qualityÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programs,Â theyÂ faceÂ numerousÂ challengesÂ thatÂ canÂ impedeÂ theirÂ goal.Â TheÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ ofÂ personnelÂ involvedÂ inÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ continueÂ toÂ evolveÂ andÂ expand,Â andÂ newÂ threatsÂ andÂ hazardsÂ emerge,Â whileÂ budgetsÂ decreaseÂ orÂ remainÂ stagnant.Â TrainingÂ managersÂ andÂ supervisorsÂ areÂ alsoÂ facedÂ withÂ newÂ orÂ changingÂ federalÂ andÂ stateÂ transportationÂ andÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ legislation,Â standards,Â andÂ guidance.Â ToÂ keepÂ upÂ withÂ theseÂ challenges,Â stateÂ DOTsÂ needÂ toÂ actÂ strategicallyÂ andÂ createÂ anÂ emergencyÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programÂ thatÂ isÂ notÂ onlyÂ alignedÂ withÂ federalÂ andÂ stateÂ guidanceÂ butÂ canÂ easilyÂ integrateÂ changesÂ andÂ improvements,Â andÂ takeÂ advantageÂ ofÂ availableÂ resourcesÂ andÂ partnerships.Â ForÂ example,Â FEMAÂ andÂ theÂ stateÂ EMAÂ haveÂ aÂ wealthÂ ofÂ knowledgeÂ andÂ preparednessÂ resourcesÂ onÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ andÂ design,Â conductÂ andÂ evaluation,Â andÂ offersÂ emergencyÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ opportunitiesÂ atÂ nominalÂ orÂ noÂ costÂ toÂ stateÂ agencies.Â CloseÂ
111Â coordinationÂ withÂ theÂ stateÂ EMAÂ isÂ alsoÂ importantÂ sinceÂ stateÂ agenciesÂ areÂ usuallyÂ expectedÂ toÂ supportÂ theÂ stateâsÂ NIMSÂ andÂ StaffordÂ ActÂ complianceÂ andÂ reportingÂ requirementsÂ asÂ wellÂ asÂ theÂ stateâsÂ effortsÂ towardsÂ EMAPÂ accreditation.Â Â InteragencyÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ helpÂ ensureÂ thatÂ keyÂ playersÂ areÂ ableÂ toÂ respondÂ toÂ emergenciesÂ efficientlyÂ andÂ effectively,Â fulfillÂ theirÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ inÂ theÂ EOPÂ andÂ otherÂ emergencyÂ plans,Â andÂ coordinateÂ andÂ collaborateÂ withÂ eachÂ otherÂ usingÂ NIMS/ICS.Â FollowingÂ nationalÂ standardsÂ suchÂ asÂ NIMS/ICS,Â HSEEP,Â EMAP,Â andÂ EMACÂ andÂ incorporatingÂ themÂ intoÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ enhanceÂ theÂ abilityÂ ofÂ stateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ toÂ workÂ withÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ andÂ jurisdictions.Â WhileÂ deliveringÂ trainingÂ toÂ largeÂ numbersÂ ofÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ isÂ costlyÂ andÂ adheringÂ toÂ nationalÂ standardsÂ andÂ undertakingÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ mayÂ beÂ timeÂ consuming,Â theÂ benefitsÂ ofÂ enhancedÂ preparednessÂ farÂ outweighÂ theÂ costs.Â Â EmergencyÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ NeedsÂ Â EmergencyÂ trainingÂ needsÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ withÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ rolesÂ canÂ beÂ determinedÂ byÂ conductingÂ aÂ trainingÂ needsÂ assessment.Â TheÂ assessmentÂ willÂ identifyÂ internalÂ andÂ externalÂ requirementsÂ andÂ mandates,Â andÂ employeesâÂ currentÂ andÂ potentialÂ responsibilities.Â TheÂ assessmentÂ resultsÂ willÂ provideÂ theÂ specificÂ trainingÂ requiredÂ byÂ jobÂ functionÂ orÂ position.Â PersonnelÂ fromÂ M&OÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ toÂ supervisionÂ toÂ CEOsÂ andÂ electedÂ officialsÂ requireÂ someÂ formÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ training.Â InÂ addition,Â individualsÂ responsibleÂ forÂ exerciseÂ planning,Â designÂ andÂ developmentÂ shouldÂ haveÂ appropriateÂ trainingÂ asÂ well.Â SomeÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ offerÂ trainingÂ andÂ assistanceÂ onÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ andÂ recoveryÂ andÂ theÂ FHWAÂ ERÂ programÂ toÂ localÂ publicÂ worksÂ agencies.Â AsÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ increasinglyÂ relyÂ onÂ contractorsÂ toÂ performÂ allÂ typesÂ ofÂ workÂ includingÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ andÂ recoveryÂ work,Â stateÂ DOTsÂ shouldÂ ensureÂ thatÂ thoseÂ contractorsÂ selectedÂ forÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ rolesÂ areÂ bothÂ qualifiedÂ andÂ trained.Â WhereÂ appropriateÂ andÂ feasible,Â stateÂ DOTsÂ mayÂ chooseÂ toÂ includeÂ contractorsÂ inÂ theirÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programs.Â InÂ addition,Â someÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ includeÂ otherÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ providersÂ suchÂ asÂ police,Â fireÂ andÂ localÂ publicÂ worksÂ agenciesÂ inÂ theirÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programs.Â AppendixÂ EÂ ofÂ NCHRPÂ SYNTHESISÂ 468Â providesÂ aÂ NeedsÂ AssessmentÂ formÂ usedÂ byÂ VermontÂ VTransÂ toÂ determineÂ theÂ trainingÂ needsÂ ofÂ theirÂ employees.Â Â NationalÂ preparednessÂ guidanceÂ andÂ mandatesÂ includeÂ theÂ NationalÂ ResponseÂ FrameworkÂ EmergencyÂ SupportÂ FunctionÂ ESF#Â 1Â andÂ ESF#Â 3Â andÂ theÂ NationalÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ SystemÂ (NIMS).Â KeyÂ nationalÂ standardsÂ includeÂ theÂ OSHAÂ andÂ theÂ MUTCDÂ standards.Â Â StateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ withÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ delineatedÂ inÂ plansÂ requireÂ training.Â AccordingÂ toÂ CPGÂ 101Â v.Â 2,Â Â âWheneverÂ possible,Â trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ mustÂ beÂ conductedÂ forÂ eachÂ planÂ toÂ ensureÂ thatÂ currentÂ andÂ newÂ personnelÂ areÂ familiarÂ withÂ theÂ priorities,Â goals,Â objectivesÂ andÂ coursesÂ ofÂ action.âÂ (p.Â 4â 26,Â CPGÂ 101Â v.Â 2)Â PlansÂ includeÂ agencyÂ andÂ stateÂ preparednessÂ plans;Â jointÂ operationalÂ orÂ regionalÂ coordinationÂ plans;Â allâ hazardsÂ evacuationÂ plans;Â StandardÂ OperatingÂ Procedures;Â mobilizationÂ plans;Â continuityÂ plans;Â mitigationÂ plans;Â recoveryÂ plans;Â codesÂ andÂ requirements;Â transportation/trafficÂ incidentÂ managementÂ plans;Â and,Â hazardâspecificÂ responseÂ plans.Â Â DHS/FEMAÂ grantsÂ helpÂ DOTsÂ participateÂ inÂ preparednessÂ activitiesÂ includingÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercises.Â TheyÂ normallyÂ requireÂ implementationÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ andÂ canÂ alsoÂ haveÂ training,Â exercise,Â evaluation,Â andÂ reportingÂ requirements.Â Â Â
112Â Â Â InÂ addition,Â areasÂ ofÂ improvementÂ identifiedÂ inÂ riskÂ assessments,Â selfâassessments,Â reviews,Â performanceÂ indicators,Â lessonsÂ learnedÂ andÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ ofÂ exercises,Â incidents,Â andÂ plannedÂ eventsÂ canÂ alsoÂ impactÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programs.Â Â EmergencyÂ trainingÂ needsÂ ofÂ transportationÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ areÂ discussedÂ inÂ detailÂ inÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468Â onÂ InteractiveÂ TrainingÂ forÂ AllâHazardsÂ EmergencyÂ Planning,Â Preparation,Â andÂ ResponseÂ forÂ MaintenanceÂ andÂ OperationsÂ FieldÂ Personnel.Â TheÂ transportationÂ CEOâsÂ roleÂ inÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ isÂ describedÂ inÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ webâonlyÂ documentÂ 206:Â ManagingÂ CatastrophicÂ TransportationÂ Emergencies:Â AÂ GuideÂ forÂ TransportationÂ Executives.Â AccordingÂ toÂ theÂ document,Â theÂ CEOÂ ofÂ theÂ stateÂ DOTÂ hasÂ theÂ ultimateÂ responsibilityÂ regardingÂ theÂ agencyâsÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ programÂ andÂ itsÂ preparednessÂ andÂ performanceÂ duringÂ emergencyÂ situations.Â AccordingÂ toÂ NCHRPÂ webâonlyÂ documentÂ 206:Â ManagingÂ CatastrophicÂ TransportationÂ Emergencies:Â AÂ GuideÂ forÂ TransportationÂ Executives,Â theÂ CEOÂ mustÂ ensureÂ theÂ following:Â 1. âAnÂ agencyâwideÂ emergencyÂ operationsÂ planÂ thatÂ getsÂ reviewedÂ andÂ updatedÂ onÂ aÂ regularÂ basis.Â 2. AÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programÂ ofÂ annualÂ orÂ greaterÂ frequencyÂ thatÂ involvesÂ theÂ stateÂ directorÂ inÂ atÂ leastÂ oneÂ exercise.Â 3. Â AÂ continuityÂ ofÂ operationsÂ planÂ (COOP)Â planÂ andÂ COOPÂ siteÂ whoseÂ capabilitiesÂ areÂ assessedÂ onÂ aÂ regularÂ basis.âÂ (ManagingÂ CatastrophicÂ TransportationÂ Emergencies:Â AÂ GuideÂ forÂ TransportationÂ Executives,Â p.Â 7â)Â InÂ addition,Â trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ personnelÂ shouldÂ haveÂ functionâspecificÂ expertiseÂ andÂ trainingÂ experience.Â IndividualsÂ responsibleÂ forÂ exerciseÂ evaluationÂ andÂ exerciseÂ designÂ andÂ developmentÂ shouldÂ takeÂ relevantÂ coursesÂ onÂ theÂ topics.Â Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ AccreditationÂ ProgramÂ (EMAP)Â TheÂ 2016Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ StandardÂ promulgatesÂ standardsÂ forÂ training,Â exercises,Â evaluations,Â andÂ correctiveÂ actionÂ processes.Â EMAPÂ providesÂ accreditationÂ onÂ itsÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ StandardÂ toÂ governmentÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ programsÂ includingÂ programsÂ ofÂ stateÂ EMAsÂ andÂ stateÂ DOTs.Â WhileÂ noÂ DOTÂ isÂ currentlyÂ accredited,Â stateÂ DOTsÂ supportÂ theirÂ statesÂ throughÂ complianceÂ withÂ theÂ EMAPÂ standards.Â Â Â TheÂ trainingÂ sectionÂ statesÂ thatÂ anÂ accreditedÂ EMAPÂ includesÂ aÂ formalÂ andÂ documentedÂ trainingÂ programÂ thatÂ includesÂ aÂ âtrainingÂ needsÂ assessment,Â curriculum,Â courseÂ evaluations,Â andÂ recordsÂ ofÂ training...âÂ andÂ providesÂ âtheÂ assessment,Â developmentÂ andÂ implementationÂ ofÂ trainingÂ forÂ ProgramÂ officials,Â emergencyÂ managementÂ responseÂ personnelÂ andÂ theÂ public.âÂ (2016Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ Standard,Â p.Â 11)Â AnÂ accreditedÂ EMAPÂ programÂ shouldÂ haveÂ regularlyÂ scheduledÂ trainingÂ andÂ aÂ methodÂ andÂ scheduleÂ forÂ evaluation,Â maintenance,Â andÂ programÂ revision.Â TrainingÂ shouldÂ beÂ basedÂ onÂ currentÂ andÂ potentialÂ responsibilities,Â andÂ onÂ hazardsÂ identifiedÂ inÂ EMAPÂ StandardÂ 4.1.1.Â InÂ addition,Â personnelÂ toÂ beÂ trainedÂ includeÂ allÂ personnelÂ withÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ responsibilitiesÂ includingÂ keyÂ officials.Â ProgramÂ recordsÂ shouldÂ includeÂ trainingÂ participantÂ names,Â andÂ typesÂ ofÂ trainingÂ plannedÂ andÂ delivered.Â Â WithÂ respectÂ toÂ exercises,Â evaluations,Â andÂ correctiveÂ actions,Â anÂ accreditedÂ EMAPÂ âregularlyÂ testsÂ theÂ knowledge,Â skillsÂ andÂ abilities,Â andÂ experienceÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ personnelÂ asÂ wellÂ asÂ theÂ plans,Â policies,Â procedures,Â equipment,Â andÂ facilities.âÂ (2016Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ Standard,Â p.Â 11)Â Â AnÂ accreditedÂ exerciseÂ programÂ evaluatesÂ plans,Â procedures,Â andÂ capabilitiesÂ throughÂ variousÂ meansÂ includingÂ periodicÂ reviews,Â testing,Â postâincidentÂ reports,Â lessonsÂ learned,Â performanceÂ evaluations,Â exercises,Â andÂ realâ
113Â Â Â worldÂ events.Â TheÂ evaluationÂ resultsÂ shouldÂ beÂ documentedÂ andÂ providedÂ toÂ stakeholders.Â AnÂ accreditedÂ exerciseÂ programÂ alsoÂ includesÂ aÂ processÂ forÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ whichÂ prioritizesÂ andÂ tracksÂ eachÂ action.Â Â ContinuityÂ ofÂ OperationsÂ ContinuityÂ ofÂ operationsÂ plansÂ areÂ activatedÂ whenÂ anÂ emergencyÂ impedesÂ theÂ stateÂ transportationÂ agencyâsÂ abilityÂ toÂ carryÂ outÂ itsÂ essentialÂ functions.Â TheÂ emergencyÂ mayÂ beÂ dueÂ toÂ aÂ naturalÂ disasterÂ orÂ manmadeÂ eventÂ resultingÂ inÂ theÂ destructionÂ ofÂ keyÂ facilitiesÂ orÂ aÂ pandemicÂ incapacitatingÂ aÂ significantÂ proportionÂ ofÂ keyÂ personnel.Â ContinuityÂ ofÂ operationsÂ plansÂ includeÂ informationÂ aboutÂ essentialÂ functions,Â managementÂ ofÂ vitalÂ records,Â devolutionÂ proceduresÂ includingÂ ordersÂ ofÂ succession,Â delegationsÂ ofÂ authority,Â andÂ movementÂ toÂ alternateÂ facilities.Â TheÂ 2013Â FEMAÂ ContinuityÂ GuidanceÂ CircularÂ 1Â forÂ nonâ federalÂ governmentsÂ specifiesÂ theÂ followingÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ frequencyÂ andÂ topicsÂ forÂ continuityÂ capabilitiesÂ andÂ essentialÂ functions:Â AnnualÂ testingÂ shouldÂ beÂ performedÂ for:Â ï· Alert,Â notification,Â andÂ activationÂ proceduresÂ ï· RecoveryÂ ofÂ essentialÂ records,Â criticalÂ informationÂ systems,Â services,Â andÂ dataÂ ï· ProtectingÂ andÂ accessingÂ essentialÂ recordsÂ andÂ informationÂ systemsÂ ï· PrimaryÂ andÂ backupÂ infrastructureÂ systemsÂ andÂ servicesÂ ï· TeleworkÂ capabilitiesÂ includingÂ ITÂ infrastructureÂ AnnualÂ exercisesÂ shouldÂ beÂ performedÂ forÂ ï· EssentialÂ functionsÂ capabilitiesÂ ï· InternalÂ andÂ externalÂ interdependenciesÂ identifiedÂ inÂ theÂ continuityÂ planÂ ï· ContinuityÂ plansÂ andÂ proceduresÂ includingÂ internalÂ andÂ externalÂ communications,Â deliberateÂ andÂ preplannedÂ movementsÂ toÂ anÂ alternateÂ site,Â requiredÂ backupÂ recordsÂ andÂ dataÂ toÂ supportÂ essentialÂ functions,Â andÂ useÂ ofÂ teleworkÂ sitesÂ ifÂ teleworkÂ isÂ aÂ partÂ ofÂ theÂ continuityÂ plan.Â Â AnnualÂ briefingsÂ onÂ continuityÂ awarenessÂ forÂ allÂ personnelÂ shouldÂ beÂ conducted.Â InÂ addition,Â annualÂ briefingsÂ onÂ continuityÂ andÂ devolutionÂ shouldÂ beÂ providedÂ toÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ GroupÂ andÂ DevolutionÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ GroupÂ members.Â PeriodicÂ briefingsÂ shouldÂ beÂ heldÂ forÂ managersÂ aboutÂ essentialÂ records.Â QuarterlyÂ testingÂ ofÂ internalÂ andÂ externalÂ communicationsÂ equipmentÂ andÂ systems,Â andÂ annualÂ testingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ ofÂ physicalÂ securityÂ capabilitiesÂ atÂ continuityÂ facilitiesÂ shouldÂ beÂ conducted.Â Â BiennialÂ exercisesÂ shouldÂ beÂ performedÂ forÂ reconstitutionÂ andÂ devolutionÂ procedures.Â TheÂ followingÂ annualÂ trainingÂ forÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ GroupÂ andÂ DevolutionÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ GroupÂ membersÂ shouldÂ alsoÂ beÂ conducted:Â ï· ReconstitutionÂ plansÂ andÂ proceduresÂ ï· ActivationÂ ofÂ continuityÂ plansÂ ï· CommunicationsÂ andÂ ITÂ systemsÂ ï· DevolutionÂ optionÂ
114Â Â Â ï· ElectronicÂ andÂ hardcopyÂ documents,Â references,Â records,Â infoÂ systems,Â dataÂ managementÂ softwareÂ andÂ equipment.Â InÂ addition,Â annualÂ trainingÂ onÂ essentialÂ functionsÂ andÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ shouldÂ beÂ providedÂ to:Â Â ï· LeadershipÂ staffÂ ï· StaffÂ expectedÂ toÂ teleworkÂ duringÂ anÂ activationÂ ï· StaffÂ whoÂ willÂ assumeÂ theÂ positionÂ ofÂ organizationÂ headÂ orÂ otherÂ keyÂ positionsÂ Â ï· OfficialsÂ whoÂ willÂ haveÂ policyÂ andÂ decisionâmakingÂ authoritiesÂ NIMSÂ /Â ICSÂ NIMSÂ isÂ theÂ essentialÂ foundationÂ ofÂ theÂ NationalÂ PreparednessÂ SystemÂ andÂ providesÂ theÂ templateÂ forÂ theÂ managementÂ ofÂ incidentsÂ andÂ operationsÂ inÂ supportÂ ofÂ allÂ fiveÂ NationalÂ PlanningÂ Frameworks.Â TheÂ 2011Â NIMSÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ documentÂ emphasizesÂ theÂ importanceÂ ofÂ trainingÂ andÂ statesÂ thatÂ trainingÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ personnelÂ âisÂ criticalÂ toÂ theÂ successÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ implementationÂ nationally.âÂ (FEMAÂ 2011,Â p.Â 2)Â Â ResponsibilitiesÂ ofÂ stakeholdersÂ includingÂ stateÂ transportationÂ agenciesÂ includeÂ identifyingÂ appropriateÂ personnelÂ toÂ takeÂ NIMSÂ training,Â ensuringÂ allÂ courseÂ deliveryÂ meetsÂ theÂ standardÂ containedÂ withinÂ theÂ NIMSÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ andÂ otherÂ trainingÂ guidanceÂ providedÂ byÂ theÂ NationalÂ IntegrationÂ CenterÂ (NIC),Â andÂ credentialingÂ emergency/incidentÂ managementÂ personnel.Â CredentialingÂ isÂ definedÂ inÂ theÂ 2017Â draftÂ NIMSÂ GuidelineÂ forÂ theÂ NationalÂ QualificationÂ SystemÂ asÂ âtheÂ processÂ ofÂ providingÂ documentationÂ thatÂ identifiesÂ personnelÂ andÂ verifiesÂ theirÂ qualificationsÂ forÂ particularÂ positions.âÂ Â TheseÂ responsibilitiesÂ alignÂ andÂ dovetailÂ withÂ theÂ conceptsÂ ofÂ personnelÂ qualificationÂ andÂ certificationÂ definedÂ inÂ theÂ 2017Â draftÂ NIMSÂ Guideline.Â QualificationÂ isÂ âtheÂ processÂ ofÂ enablingÂ personnelÂ toÂ performÂ theÂ dutiesÂ ofÂ specificÂ positionsÂ andÂ documentingÂ theirÂ demonstrationÂ ofÂ theÂ capabilitiesÂ thatÂ thoseÂ positionsÂ require.âÂ (NIMS,Â 2017)Â Â QualificationÂ involvesÂ completionsÂ ofÂ training,Â obtainingÂ licensesÂ andÂ certificationsÂ andÂ meetingÂ fitnessÂ requirements.Â CertificationÂ attestsÂ âthatÂ individualsÂ meetÂ qualificationsÂ forÂ keyÂ incidentÂ functionsÂ andÂ areÂ competentÂ toÂ fillÂ specificÂ positions.âÂ (NIMS,Â 2017)Â ForÂ stateÂ DOTs,Â NIMSÂ andÂ ICSÂ trainingÂ shouldÂ beÂ aÂ priorityÂ forÂ theÂ followingÂ reasonsÂ asÂ well:Â NIMSÂ andÂ ICSÂ enhanceÂ theÂ effectivenessÂ ofÂ interagencyÂ coordinationÂ andÂ responseÂ throughÂ aÂ standardizedÂ approachÂ toÂ incidentÂ management.Â ImplementationÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ isÂ aÂ requirementÂ ofÂ federalÂ preparednessÂ grantsÂ andÂ mitigationÂ grants.Â Also,Â NIMSÂ requiresÂ theÂ useÂ ofÂ ICSÂ atÂ trafficÂ incidentÂ managementÂ scenes.Â Furthermore,Â asÂ statedÂ inÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 472,Â Â âAÂ goodÂ understandingÂ andÂ implementationÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ conceptsÂ andÂ principles,Â includingÂ ICS,Â NIMSÂ resourceÂ managementÂ procedures,Â andÂ ICSÂ recordâkeepingÂ proceduresÂ andÂ forms,Â facilitateÂ successfulÂ integrationÂ ofÂ stateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ intoÂ theirÂ stateâsÂ emergencyÂ organizationÂ andÂ effectiveÂ reimbursements.âÂ (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 472,Â p.Â 48)Â TheÂ NICÂ providesÂ NIMSÂ trainingÂ andÂ qualificationÂ guidanceÂ andÂ maintainsÂ andÂ distributesÂ foundationalÂ documentsÂ andÂ otherÂ resources.Â TheÂ NICÂ identifiedÂ coreÂ competenciesÂ forÂ personnelÂ qualificationÂ andÂ aÂ NIMSÂ nationalÂ curriculum,Â andÂ forÂ theÂ MultiâAgencyÂ CoordinationÂ Systems.Â TheÂ 2011Â NIMSÂ TrainingÂ Program,Â releasedÂ inÂ 2011Â andÂ supersedesÂ theÂ 2008Â FiveâYearÂ NIMSÂ TrainingÂ Plan,Â isÂ basedÂ onÂ theseÂ coreÂ competenciesÂ which,Â inÂ turn,Â areÂ basedÂ onÂ operationalÂ needs.Â TheÂ NIMSÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ includesÂ aÂ NIMSÂ CoreÂ CurriculumÂ whichÂ includesÂ baselineÂ NIMSÂ andÂ ICSÂ coursesÂ ISâ700Â andÂ ICSâ100Â andÂ additionalÂ trainingÂ
115Â Â Â includingÂ MACs,Â EOCs,Â mutualÂ aid,Â andÂ resourceÂ management.Â InÂ general,Â incidentÂ complexityÂ willÂ affectÂ trainingÂ needs,Â andÂ someÂ flexibilityÂ isÂ providedÂ toÂ entitiesÂ inÂ theÂ implementationÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ training.Â ForÂ instance,Â agenciesÂ mayÂ developÂ theirÂ ownÂ trainingÂ coursesÂ toÂ suitÂ theirÂ schedulingÂ andÂ budgetaryÂ needsÂ andÂ stillÂ meetÂ theÂ NIMSÂ trainingÂ requirements.Â Â Â WhileÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ requireÂ basicÂ NIMSÂ andÂ ICSÂ training,Â personnelÂ inÂ EOCs,Â MACsÂ andÂ TMCs,Â supervisors,Â seniorÂ management,Â andÂ electedÂ officialsÂ requireÂ additionalÂ orÂ otherÂ training.Â ArizonaÂ DOTâsÂ EmergencyÂ PlanningÂ andÂ ManagementÂ TrainingÂ MatrixÂ showsÂ requiredÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ andÂ securityÂ trainingÂ forÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ byÂ jobÂ category.Â TheÂ MatrixÂ isÂ includedÂ inÂ AppendixÂ GÂ ofÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468.Â MissouriÂ DOTâsÂ NIMSÂ TrainingÂ GuideÂ recommendsÂ specificÂ NIMSÂ trainingÂ coursesÂ forÂ personnelÂ atÂ differentÂ levelsÂ includingÂ EmergencyÂ Responders,Â FirstâLineÂ ResponseÂ Supervisors,Â MidâLevelÂ ResponseÂ Supervisors,Â SeniorâLevelÂ ResponseÂ ManagersÂ andÂ Executives,Â ElectedÂ andÂ AppointedÂ OfficialsÂ andÂ SupportÂ Staff.Â Â InÂ addition,Â NIMS/ICSÂ shouldÂ beÂ usedÂ inÂ allÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ includingÂ useÂ ofÂ ICSÂ inÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ structures;Â and,Â ICSÂ shouldÂ beÂ usedÂ inÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ includingÂ responseÂ toÂ trafficÂ incidents.Â Â FiveÂ newÂ NIMSÂ documentsÂ wereÂ recentlyÂ releasedÂ forÂ publicÂ comment.Â TheyÂ include:Â NIMSÂ GuidelineÂ forÂ theÂ NationalÂ QualificationÂ System,Â NIMSÂ JobÂ Titles/PositionÂ Qualifications,Â NIMSÂ PositionÂ TaskÂ Books,Â NIMSÂ GUIDELINEÂ FORÂ THEÂ CREDENTIALINGÂ OFÂ PERSONNELÂ ANDÂ NIMSÂ GUIDELINEÂ FORÂ MUTUALÂ AID.Â (https://www.fema.gov/nationalâincidentâmanagementâsystem/nationalâengagementÂ )Â SinceÂ 2010,Â NIMSÂ updatesÂ andÂ publicationsÂ includingÂ theÂ fiveÂ recentlyÂ releasedÂ NIMSÂ documentsÂ provideÂ newÂ definitions,Â policyÂ directionÂ andÂ guidance.Â ExistingÂ trainingÂ programsÂ andÂ contentÂ shouldÂ beÂ reviewedÂ againstÂ theÂ finalizedÂ documentsÂ andÂ updatedÂ asÂ needed.Â Also,Â checkÂ withÂ yourÂ stateÂ NIMSÂ coordinatorÂ and/orÂ stateÂ EMAÂ regardingÂ NIMSÂ complianceÂ matters.Â Â MutualÂ Aid/EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ AssistanceÂ CompactÂ (EMAC)Â Â StateÂ DOTsÂ provideÂ andÂ receiveÂ mutualÂ aidÂ to/fromÂ otherÂ statesÂ andÂ organizationsÂ usingÂ mutualÂ aidÂ agreementsÂ andÂ mutualÂ aidÂ plans.Â MutualÂ aidÂ operationalÂ plansÂ includeÂ aÂ scheduleÂ ofÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ forÂ validationÂ ofÂ planÂ design,Â concept,Â implementationÂ andÂ communications,Â logistics,Â andÂ administrativeÂ structure,Â andÂ affordingÂ practiceÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ providers.Â (DraftÂ 2017Â NIMSÂ GuidelineÂ forÂ MutualÂ Aid)Â EMACÂ isÂ anÂ exampleÂ ofÂ interstate/tribe/territoryÂ mutualÂ aidÂ compact,Â andÂ wasÂ discussedÂ inÂ SectionÂ 2Â ofÂ thisÂ Guide.Â UnderstandingÂ andÂ beingÂ ableÂ toÂ executeÂ tasksÂ relatedÂ toÂ EMACÂ andÂ otherÂ mutualÂ aidÂ agreementsÂ isÂ importantÂ andÂ requiresÂ appropriateÂ training.Â Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ PerformanceÂ GrantÂ (EMPG)Â EMPGÂ fundedÂ activitiesÂ includeÂ updatingÂ emergencyÂ plans,Â conductingÂ training,Â andÂ designingÂ andÂ conductingÂ exercisesÂ toÂ validateÂ coreÂ capabilities,Â maintainÂ currentÂ capabilities,Â andÂ enhanceÂ capabilityÂ forÂ highâpriorityÂ coreÂ capabilitiesÂ withÂ lowÂ capabilityÂ levels.Â EMPGÂ recipientsÂ andÂ subrecipientsÂ areÂ expectedÂ toÂ addressÂ capabilityÂ targetsÂ andÂ gapsÂ identifiedÂ throughÂ theÂ annualÂ THIRAÂ andÂ SPRÂ process.Â EMPGÂ programÂ recipientsÂ areÂ alsoÂ requiredÂ toÂ developÂ aÂ MultiyearÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ PlanÂ (TEP)Â addressingÂ THIRAÂ risksÂ andÂ exercising/validatingÂ THIRAÂ capabilityÂ requirementsÂ inÂ aÂ progressiveÂ manner.Â Â Â RecipientsÂ shouldÂ developÂ andÂ maintainÂ aÂ progressiveÂ exerciseÂ programÂ andÂ aÂ multiyearÂ TEPÂ consistentÂ withÂ HSEEP.Â EMPGÂ ProgramÂ fundsÂ relatedÂ toÂ trainingÂ shouldÂ supportÂ NIMSÂ implementationÂ andÂ emphasizeÂ NIMSÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ coreÂ competencies.Â Â NIMSÂ TrainingÂ âÂ IndependentÂ StudyÂ (IS)Â 100,Â ISÂ 200,Â ISÂ 700,Â andÂ ISÂ 800Â areÂ requiredÂ forÂ EMPGâfundedÂ personnel.Â Â InÂ addition,Â theyÂ areÂ requiredÂ toÂ completeÂ eitherÂ
116Â Â Â theÂ coursesÂ inÂ theÂ ProfessionalÂ DevelopmentÂ SeriesÂ orÂ theÂ NationalÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ BasicÂ Academy.Â Â Â EMPGÂ alsoÂ hasÂ theÂ followingÂ exerciseÂ participationÂ requirements:Â ï· NoÂ lessÂ thanÂ fourÂ quarterlyÂ exercisesÂ ofÂ anyÂ typeÂ andÂ oneÂ fullâscaleÂ exerciseÂ withinÂ aÂ 12âmonthÂ periodÂ areÂ required.Â Â TheÂ exercisesÂ shouldÂ increaseÂ inÂ complexityÂ andÂ haveÂ commonÂ programÂ priorities.Â Â ï· EMPGâfundedÂ personnelÂ areÂ requiredÂ toÂ participateÂ inÂ noÂ fewerÂ thanÂ threeÂ exercisesÂ inÂ aÂ 12â monthÂ period.Â Â ForÂ allowableÂ costsÂ andÂ otherÂ information,Â seeÂ DHSÂ NoticeÂ ofÂ FundingÂ OpportunityÂ FiscalÂ YearÂ 2016Â EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ PerformanceÂ GrantÂ ProgramÂ (EMPG)Â Â Â FederalÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ AgencyÂ (FEMA)Â TrainingÂ FEMAâsÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ InstituteÂ offersÂ complimentary,Â onâdemandÂ coursesÂ accessibleÂ toÂ theÂ publicÂ viaÂ theÂ internet.Â FEMAÂ suggestsÂ theÂ completionÂ ofÂ atÂ leastÂ theÂ followingÂ independentÂ studyÂ coursesÂ (http://training.fema.gov/IS/):Â ï· ISâ1:Â EmergencyÂ Manager:Â AnÂ OrientationÂ toÂ theÂ PositionÂ ï· ISâ10:Â AnimalsÂ inÂ Disaster,Â ModuleÂ AÂ âÂ AwarenessÂ andÂ PreparednessÂ ï· ISâ11:Â AnimalsÂ inÂ Disaster,Â ModuleÂ BÂ âÂ CommunityÂ PlanningÂ ï· ISâ100.a:Â IntroductionÂ toÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ SystemÂ ï· ISâ120.a:Â AnÂ IntroductionÂ toÂ ExercisesÂ ï· ISâ130:Â ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ andÂ ImprovementÂ PlanningÂ ï· ISâ197.EM:Â SpecialÂ NeedsÂ PlanningÂ ConsiderationsÂ âÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ200.a:Â ICSÂ forÂ SingleÂ ResourcesÂ andÂ InitialÂ ActionÂ IncidentsÂ ï· ISâ208.a:Â StateÂ DisasterÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ230.a:Â FundamentalsÂ ofÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ235:Â EmergencyÂ PlanningÂ ï· ISâ288:Â TheÂ RoleÂ ofÂ VoluntaryÂ AgenciesÂ inÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ366:Â PlanningÂ forÂ theÂ NeedsÂ ofÂ ChildrenÂ inÂ DisastersÂ ï· ISâ547.a:Â IntroductionÂ toÂ ContinuityÂ ofÂ OperationsÂ ï· ISâ650.a:Â BuildingÂ PartnershipsÂ withÂ TribalÂ GovernmentsÂ ï· ISâ700.a:Â NIMSÂ âÂ AnÂ IntroductionÂ ï· ISâ701.a:Â NIMSÂ MultiagencyÂ CoordinationÂ SystemsÂ ï· ISâ702.a:Â NIMSÂ PublicÂ InformationÂ SystemsÂ ï· ISâ703.a:Â NIMSÂ ResourceÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ704:Â NIMSÂ CommunicationsÂ andÂ InformationÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ706:Â NIMSÂ IntrastateÂ MutualÂ AidÂ âÂ AnÂ IntroductionÂ ï· ISâ800.b:Â NationalÂ ResponseÂ Framework,Â AnÂ IntroductionÂ ï· ISâ860.a:Â NationalÂ InfrastructureÂ ProtectionÂ PlanÂ Â FEMAâsÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ InstituteÂ offersÂ classesÂ inÂ AllâHazardsÂ PositionÂ SpecificÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ annuallyÂ asÂ well.Â TheÂ coursesÂ areÂ forÂ personnelÂ withÂ responsibilitiesÂ forÂ managingÂ complexÂ incidentsÂ andÂ areÂ seekingÂ certificationÂ forÂ ICSÂ command,Â generalÂ staff,Â orÂ unitÂ leaderÂ positionsÂ orÂ currentÂ membersÂ ofÂ anÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ Team.Â Â
117Â Â Â FederalÂ ReimbursementÂ ProgramsÂ (e.g.,Â FHWAÂ ER,Â FEMAÂ PA)Â FederalÂ reimbursementÂ programsÂ suchÂ asÂ theÂ FHWAÂ EmergencyÂ ReliefÂ andÂ theÂ FEMAÂ PublicÂ AssistanceÂ programsÂ haveÂ complexÂ processesÂ andÂ procedures.Â FullyÂ understandingÂ theÂ programÂ requirementsÂ canÂ saveÂ DOTsÂ timeÂ andÂ expensesÂ andÂ helpÂ themÂ receiveÂ theÂ reimbursementÂ amountsÂ toÂ whichÂ theyÂ areÂ entitled.Â InÂ additionÂ toÂ documentation,Â damageÂ assessment,Â andÂ debrisÂ management,Â knowledgeÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ contracting,Â repairÂ versusÂ replacementÂ considerations,Â designÂ andÂ mitigationÂ techniques,Â environmentalÂ andÂ historicalÂ preservationÂ regulations,Â andÂ constructionÂ andÂ procurementÂ proceduresÂ areÂ required.Â Â EachÂ ofÂ theseÂ functionÂ areasÂ haveÂ detailedÂ requirementsÂ andÂ canÂ becomeÂ confusingÂ duringÂ anÂ emergency.Â Â AsÂ statedÂ inÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 472:Â FEMAÂ andÂ FHWAÂ EmergencyÂ ReliefÂ FundsÂ ReimbursementsÂ toÂ StateÂ DepartmentsÂ ofÂ TransportationÂ aÂ âhighÂ levelÂ ofÂ preparednessÂ leadsÂ toÂ betterÂ outcomesÂ [withÂ respectÂ toÂ theÂ FEMAÂ andÂ FHWAÂ reimbursementÂ programs]Â forÂ stateÂ DOTs.âÂ TrainingÂ practicesÂ thatÂ wereÂ helpfulÂ toÂ DOTsÂ inÂ obtainingÂ successfulÂ reimbursementsÂ includedÂ providingÂ trainingÂ onÂ theÂ FHWAÂ EmergencyÂ ReliefÂ andÂ FEMAÂ PublicÂ AssistanceÂ programsÂ toÂ personnelÂ responsibleÂ forÂ documentationÂ andÂ reimbursement,Â trainingÂ inÂ conductingÂ assessments,Â usingÂ scenariosÂ fromÂ priorÂ disasters,Â providingÂ trainingÂ toÂ LocalÂ PublicÂ AgenciesÂ onÂ bothÂ programs,Â providingÂ trainingÂ toÂ stateÂ EMAÂ personnelÂ onÂ theÂ FHWAÂ EmergencyÂ ReliefÂ program,Â andÂ trainingÂ stateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ forÂ integrationÂ intoÂ theÂ stateÂ EMAÂ asÂ FEMAÂ projectÂ officersÂ andÂ projectÂ coordinators. TransitÂ agenciesÂ shouldÂ alsoÂ achieveÂ fullÂ understandingÂ ofÂ FTAâsÂ EmergencyÂ ReliefÂ programÂ andÂ complyÂ byÂ itsÂ requirements.Â Â Â Â Â EmergencyÂ EvacuationsÂ ExercisesÂ canÂ assessÂ theÂ feasibilityÂ ofÂ anÂ evacuationÂ planÂ andÂ trainÂ personnel.Â StateÂ transportationÂ agenciesÂ conductÂ and/orÂ participateÂ inÂ exercisesÂ inÂ areasÂ withÂ highÂ likelihoodÂ ofÂ hurricanesÂ andÂ floodingÂ toÂ prepareÂ forÂ anÂ evacuation.Â Â AsÂ describedÂ inÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ 20â59(30)Â TexasÂ DOTÂ caseÂ study,Â afterÂ Rita,Â DHSÂ conductedÂ aÂ seriesÂ ofÂ hurricaneÂ preparednessÂ exercisesÂ inÂ theÂ GulfÂ CoastÂ regionÂ toÂ prepareÂ forÂ theÂ 2006Â hurricaneÂ season.Â Â Â ContraflowÂ hasÂ beenÂ usedÂ byÂ hurricaneâproneÂ areasÂ forÂ emergencyÂ evacuations.Â ContraflowÂ isÂ describedÂ asÂ âaÂ formÂ ofÂ reversibleÂ trafficÂ operationÂ inÂ whichÂ oneÂ orÂ moreÂ travelÂ lanesÂ ofÂ aÂ dividedÂ highwayÂ areÂ usedÂ forÂ theÂ movementÂ ofÂ trafficÂ inÂ theÂ opposingÂ direction.âÂ (NCHRPÂ ReportÂ 740)Â Â ExerciseÂ resultsÂ alongÂ withÂ resultsÂ ofÂ simulationsÂ andÂ trafficÂ analysesÂ areÂ usedÂ toÂ fineÂ tuneÂ contraflowÂ operationsÂ plans.Â Â TrafficÂ ControlÂ andÂ ManagementÂ TrafficÂ controlÂ duringÂ emergenciesÂ requiresÂ trafficÂ managementÂ teamsÂ ableÂ toÂ manageÂ andÂ directÂ trafficÂ onÂ highwaysÂ andÂ criticalÂ intersectionsÂ lackingÂ activeÂ signalizationÂ andÂ duringÂ contraflowÂ operations.Â TheÂ ManualÂ onÂ UniformÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ DevicesÂ (MUTCD),Â TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ (TIM),Â workÂ zoneÂ safetyÂ practices,Â andÂ TMCsÂ andÂ ITSÂ technologiesÂ areÂ importantÂ elementsÂ inÂ effectiveÂ trafficÂ controlÂ andÂ management.Â HazmatÂ protocolsÂ andÂ OSHAÂ guidanceÂ mayÂ beÂ helpfulÂ inÂ incidentÂ involvingÂ HazMatÂ andÂ otherÂ incidentÂ typesÂ asÂ well.Â Â ManualÂ onÂ UniformÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ DevicesÂ (MUTCD)Â Â TheÂ FHWAâsÂ MUTCDÂ Â (availableÂ atÂ http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/serâpubs.htm)Â isÂ aÂ nationalÂ standardÂ onÂ trafficÂ controlÂ devicesÂ onÂ allÂ roadwaysÂ andÂ bikewaysÂ openÂ toÂ publicÂ traffic.Â Â MUTCDÂ alsoÂ containsÂ standardsÂ onÂ temporaryÂ trafficÂ controlÂ (TTC)Â andÂ trafficÂ incidentÂ managementÂ activities.Â Â TTCÂ functionsÂ includeÂ theÂ movementÂ ofÂ roadÂ usersÂ aroundÂ anÂ incident,Â reducingÂ theÂ likelihoodÂ ofÂ secondaryÂ trafficÂ crashes,Â andÂ
118Â Â Â precludingÂ unnecessaryÂ useÂ ofÂ localÂ roadways.Â NonâcomplianceÂ withÂ theÂ MUTCDÂ canÂ resultÂ inÂ theÂ lossÂ ofÂ federalâaidÂ fundsÂ andÂ tortÂ liability.Â BecauseÂ theÂ MUTCDÂ isÂ detailedÂ andÂ comprehensive,Â sufficientÂ trainingÂ inÂ theÂ standardÂ isÂ requiredÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ providers.Â InÂ particular,Â respondersÂ shouldÂ beÂ trainedÂ inÂ safeÂ practicesÂ aroundÂ trafficÂ incidentÂ managementÂ areasÂ toÂ ensureÂ theirÂ safetyÂ andÂ theÂ safetyÂ ofÂ motorists.Â TheÂ ITEÂ TrafficÂ EngineeringÂ HandbookÂ recommendsÂ periodicÂ trainingÂ updatesÂ toÂ trainÂ personnelÂ onÂ newÂ MUTCDÂ policiesÂ orÂ standards,Â industryÂ practices,Â orÂ DOTÂ policiesÂ andÂ procedures.Â Â Â TheÂ MUTCDÂ isÂ publishedÂ byÂ FHWAÂ underÂ 23Â CodeÂ ofÂ FederalÂ RegulationsÂ (CFR),Â PartÂ 655,Â SubpartÂ F.Â Â TheÂ followingÂ partsÂ areÂ applicableÂ duringÂ emergencyÂ trafficÂ management:Â ï· PartÂ 4Â âÂ HighwayÂ TrafficÂ SignalsÂ ï· PartÂ 5Â âÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ DevicesÂ forÂ LowâVolumeÂ RoadsÂ ï· PartÂ 6Â âÂ TemporaryÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ ï· PartÂ 7Â âÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ forÂ SchoolÂ AreasÂ ï· PartÂ 8Â âÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ forÂ RailroadÂ andÂ LightÂ RailÂ TransitÂ GradeÂ CrossingsÂ ï· PartÂ 9Â âÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ forÂ BicycleÂ FacilitiesÂ TrafficÂ incidentsÂ areÂ classifiedÂ intoÂ theÂ followingÂ threeÂ classesÂ ofÂ durationÂ forÂ theÂ purposeÂ ofÂ determiningÂ trafficÂ controlÂ needs.Â TheseÂ classesÂ are:Â ï· MajorâexpectedÂ durationÂ >Â 2Â hours;Â ï· IntermediateâexpectedÂ durationÂ 30Â minutesâ2Â hours;Â Â ï· MinorâexpectedÂ durationÂ <Â 30Â minutes.Â InÂ additionÂ toÂ theÂ FHWAâsÂ MUTCDÂ webpage,Â MUTCDÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ResourcesÂ areÂ alsoÂ availableÂ fromÂ aÂ numberÂ ofÂ organizations.Â ï· LocalÂ TechnicalÂ AssistanceÂ ProgramÂ (LTAP)Â OfficesÂ ï· AmericanÂ TrafficÂ SafetyÂ ServicesÂ AssociationÂ (ATSSA)Â ï· InstituteÂ ofÂ TransportationÂ EngineersÂ (ITE)Â ï· AmericanÂ AssociationÂ ofÂ StateÂ HighwaysÂ andÂ TransportationÂ OfficialsÂ (AASHTO)Â ï· NationalÂ HighwayÂ InstituteÂ (NHI)Â ï· InternationalÂ MunicipalÂ SignalÂ AssociationÂ (IMSA)Â ï· NationalÂ WorkÂ ZoneÂ SafetyÂ InformationÂ ClearinghouseÂ TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ (TIM)Â TrainingÂ StateÂ DOTs,Â tribalÂ andÂ localÂ publicÂ worksÂ agenciesÂ alongÂ withÂ safety/serviceÂ patrolsÂ addressÂ andÂ manageÂ trafficÂ incidentsÂ onÂ aÂ dailyÂ basis.Â FieldÂ personnelÂ alsoÂ performÂ TIMÂ activitiesÂ duringÂ emergenciesÂ andÂ disasters.Â TheÂ TIMÂ SelfâAssessmentÂ inquiresÂ whetherÂ theÂ agencyÂ heldÂ atÂ leastÂ oneÂ multiâagencyÂ trainingÂ sessionÂ onÂ theÂ followingÂ topics:Â ï· NIMS/ICSÂ 100Â ï· TrainingÂ ofÂ midâlevelÂ managersÂ onÂ theÂ NationalÂ UnifiedÂ GoalÂ ï· TrafficÂ controlÂ ï· WorkÂ zoneÂ safetyÂ ï· SafeÂ parkingÂ
119Â Â Â AlsoÂ includedÂ isÂ aÂ questionÂ onÂ whetherÂ allÂ respondersÂ haveÂ beenÂ trainedÂ inÂ trafficÂ controlÂ followingÂ MUTCDÂ guidelines.Â Â AfterÂ theÂ introductionÂ ofÂ NIMS,Â NIMSÂ conceptsÂ andÂ elementsÂ wereÂ incorporatedÂ intoÂ TIM.Â Â TheÂ NTIMCÂ NationalÂ UnifiedÂ GoalÂ StrategyÂ concerningÂ MultidisciplinaryÂ NIMSÂ andÂ TIMÂ TrainingÂ âensuresÂ thatÂ incidentÂ respondersÂ areÂ crossâtrainedÂ onÂ sceneÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ andÂ haveÂ aÂ thoroughÂ understandingÂ ofÂ theÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ SystemÂ (ICS)Â asÂ requiredÂ inÂ theÂ NationalÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ SystemÂ (NIMS).Â âÂ (pageÂ 5Â âÂ 2010Â TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ HandbookÂ Update)Â Furthermore,Â theÂ 2010Â TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ HandbookÂ UpdateÂ statesÂ thatÂ TIMÂ programsÂ âatÂ allÂ stagesÂ ofÂ developmentÂ canÂ andÂ shouldÂ tapÂ intoÂ NIMSÂ resourcesÂ toÂ achieveÂ âPreparedness.âÂ Â ThisÂ integrationÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ intoÂ TIMÂ practicesÂ providesÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ withÂ frequentÂ onâtheâjobÂ trainingÂ ofÂ NIMSÂ throughÂ theÂ responseÂ toÂ actualÂ incidents.Â Â Â TrafficÂ ManagementÂ CentersÂ (TMCs)Â andÂ TechnologiesÂ BecauseÂ TMCsÂ playÂ anÂ importantÂ roleÂ inÂ trafficÂ andÂ incidentÂ managementÂ andÂ emergencyÂ support,Â TMCÂ staffÂ shouldÂ beÂ appropriatelyÂ trained.Â TMCsÂ shouldÂ conductÂ taskâspecificÂ needsÂ assessmentÂ andÂ crosscuttingÂ needsÂ assessment.Â TheseÂ assessmentsÂ mayÂ resultÂ inÂ theÂ identificationÂ ofÂ specificÂ responseÂ scenarios,Â andÂ developmentÂ ofÂ interagencyÂ trainingÂ programsÂ andÂ exercises.Â AccordingÂ toÂ theÂ FHWA,Â twoÂ trainingÂ relatedÂ strategicÂ actionsÂ thatÂ shouldÂ beÂ takenÂ byÂ TMCsÂ focusÂ onÂ trainingÂ andÂ discussionâbasedÂ exercisesÂ toÂ trainÂ personnelÂ onÂ plansÂ andÂ procedures,Â andÂ theÂ certificationÂ ofÂ requiredÂ personnelÂ andÂ equipmentÂ toÂ ensureÂ theirÂ preparedness.Â Â Â TMCsÂ monitorÂ andÂ manageÂ transportationÂ systemsÂ andÂ supportÂ incidentÂ managementÂ throughÂ theÂ deploymentÂ ofÂ ITSÂ andÂ otherÂ transportationÂ technologies.Â TMCsÂ areÂ oftenÂ coâlocatedÂ withÂ EOCsÂ andÂ workÂ closelyÂ withÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ personnelÂ fromÂ theirÂ DOT,Â fromÂ stateÂ andÂ localÂ policeÂ andÂ fireÂ departments,Â andÂ otherÂ state,Â local,Â regionalÂ agencies,Â privateÂ contractors,Â towingÂ companiesÂ andÂ otherÂ organizationsÂ toÂ manageÂ trafficÂ incidentsÂ ofÂ allÂ sizesÂ andÂ types.Â Â WorkÂ ZoneÂ SafetyÂ andÂ MobilityÂ RuleÂ TheÂ WorkÂ ZoneÂ SafetyÂ andÂ MobilityÂ RuleÂ whichÂ wentÂ intoÂ effectÂ inÂ 2007Â requiresÂ trainingÂ asÂ wellÂ asÂ periodicÂ refresherÂ trainingÂ forÂ allÂ personnelÂ inÂ workÂ zoneÂ transportationÂ managementÂ andÂ trafficÂ control.Â NoteÂ thatÂ theÂ RuleÂ requiresÂ TransportationÂ ManagementÂ PlansÂ (TMPs)Â forÂ allÂ federalâaidÂ projectsÂ andÂ recommendsÂ TMPsÂ forÂ nonâfederalâaidÂ projectsÂ asÂ well.Â ForÂ significantÂ projects,Â TMPsÂ mustÂ haveÂ aÂ TemporaryÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ (TTC)Â PlanÂ andÂ addressÂ TrafficÂ OperationsÂ andÂ PublicÂ InformationÂ andÂ Outreach.Â Â TheÂ NationalÂ WorkÂ ZoneÂ SafetyÂ InformationÂ ClearinghouseÂ (www.workzonesafety.org)Â suppliesÂ informationÂ onÂ relevantÂ training.Â OtherÂ sourcesÂ includeÂ theÂ NationalÂ HighwayÂ InstituteÂ andÂ professionalÂ organizationsÂ suchÂ asÂ theÂ ITE,Â theÂ AmericanÂ TrafficÂ SafetyÂ ServicesÂ Association,Â andÂ theÂ InternationalÂ MunicipalÂ SignalÂ Association.Â TheÂ 2013Â FHWAÂ WorkÂ ZoneÂ OperationsÂ BestÂ PracticesÂ GuidebookÂ describesÂ bestÂ practicesÂ byÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ suchÂ asÂ aÂ TMPÂ peerÂ reviewÂ processÂ byÂ MichiganÂ DOT,Â NewÂ JerseyÂ DOTâsÂ SafetyÂ ProgramÂ (includingÂ emergencyÂ plansÂ andÂ training)Â specificationÂ asÂ aÂ contractorÂ requirementÂ andÂ itsÂ onâsiteÂ TrafficÂ ControlÂ CoordinatorÂ (TCC)Â training,Â andÂ VirginiaÂ DOTâsÂ FlaggerÂ CertificationÂ Program.Â OccupationalÂ SafetyÂ andÂ HealthÂ AdministrationÂ (OSHA)Â Â AsÂ describedÂ onÂ itsÂ websiteÂ (www.osha.gov),Â theÂ OccupationalÂ SafetyÂ andÂ HealthÂ ActÂ ofÂ 1970Â createdÂ theÂ OccupationalÂ SafetyÂ andÂ HealthÂ AdministrationÂ (OSHA)Â âtoÂ assureÂ safeÂ andÂ healthfulÂ workingÂ conditionsÂ
120Â Â Â forÂ workingÂ menÂ andÂ womenÂ byÂ settingÂ andÂ enforcingÂ standardsÂ andÂ byÂ providingÂ training,Â outreach,Â educationÂ andÂ assistance.âÂ Â WhileÂ notÂ allÂ DOTsÂ areÂ requiredÂ toÂ followÂ OSHAÂ regulations,Â OSHAÂ hasÂ aÂ comprehensiveÂ setÂ ofÂ usefulÂ standardsÂ coveringÂ workplaceÂ hazards.Â TheÂ OSHAÂ standardsÂ addressÂ manyÂ workplaceÂ hazardsÂ andÂ hazardÂ communicationÂ includingÂ workingÂ withÂ hazardousÂ materials,Â personalÂ protectiveÂ equipment,Â fireÂ protection,Â andÂ fallÂ protection;Â construction,Â maintenanceÂ andÂ otherÂ roadwayÂ activities;Â bloodborneÂ pathogensÂ andÂ emergencyÂ response.Â VariousÂ trainingÂ resourcesÂ includingÂ theÂ HazardousÂ WasteÂ OperationsÂ andÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ trainingÂ canÂ beÂ foundÂ onÂ theÂ OSHAÂ website.Â Â ForÂ specificÂ OSHAÂ guidance,Â consultÂ yourÂ complianceÂ unit.Â Â HazmatÂ WorkersÂ handlingÂ orÂ transportingÂ hazmatÂ requireÂ specializedÂ training,Â whileÂ allÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ wouldÂ benefitÂ fromÂ basicÂ awarenessÂ andÂ communicationsÂ training.Â AÂ usefulÂ resourceÂ isÂ theÂ 2011Â HMCRPÂ Report,Â AÂ GuideÂ forÂ AssessingÂ CommunityÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ NeedsÂ andÂ CapabilitiesÂ forÂ HazardousÂ MaterialsÂ Releases.Â Â Disclaimer:Â ComplexÂ federalÂ environmental,Â safety,Â andÂ healthÂ regulationsÂ includingÂ OSHAÂ regulationsÂ needÂ toÂ beÂ followedÂ byÂ stateÂ transportationÂ agencies.Â Â ForÂ specificÂ guidance,Â consultÂ yourÂ complianceÂ unit.Â Â PhysicalÂ SecurityÂ andÂ CybersecurityÂ TheÂ 2013Â NationalÂ InfrastructureÂ ProtectionÂ PlanÂ (NIPP)Â callsÂ forÂ theÂ strengtheningÂ ofÂ CriticalÂ InfrastructureÂ SecurityÂ andÂ ResilienceÂ throughÂ theÂ coordinatedÂ developmentÂ andÂ deliveryÂ ofÂ technicalÂ assistance,Â training,Â andÂ education.Â AnotherÂ ofÂ NIPPâsÂ goalsÂ isÂ promotingÂ âlearningÂ andÂ adaptationÂ duringÂ andÂ afterÂ exercisesÂ andÂ incidents.âÂ TheÂ 2013Â NIPPÂ alsoÂ encouragesÂ broadÂ participationÂ inÂ exercisesÂ toÂ addressÂ diverseÂ needsÂ andÂ purposes,Â andÂ addressingÂ âcascadingÂ effectsÂ involvingÂ theÂ lifelineÂ functionsâÂ andÂ determinationÂ ofÂ infrastructureÂ prioritiesÂ duringÂ responseÂ andÂ recovery.Â (p.Â 24,Â 2013Â NIPP)Â Â PhysicalÂ securityÂ andÂ cybersecurityÂ trainingÂ issuesÂ willÂ beÂ coveredÂ inÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ 20â59Â 51AÂ projectÂ whichÂ isÂ expectedÂ toÂ resultÂ inÂ anÂ updatedÂ SecurityÂ 101Â guide.Â Â PlannedÂ EventsÂ PlannedÂ EventsÂ presentÂ goodÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ assessÂ plansÂ andÂ provideÂ personnelÂ withÂ additionalÂ opportunityÂ toÂ practiceÂ theirÂ training.Â AsÂ describedÂ inÂ NCHRPÂ ReportÂ 777,Â WMATAÂ evaluatesÂ theÂ movementÂ ofÂ driversÂ andÂ ridersÂ duringÂ theÂ annualÂ FourthÂ ofÂ JulyÂ fireworksÂ onÂ theÂ nationalÂ mallÂ Washington,Â D.C.Â Also,Â largeâscaleÂ plannedÂ eventsÂ (e.g.,Â Superbowl,Â PresidentialÂ Inaugurations)Â requireÂ substantialÂ preparationÂ includingÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ andÂ requireÂ theÂ participationÂ ofÂ manyÂ agenciesÂ includingÂ DOTsÂ andÂ jurisdictions.Â Â TechnologiesÂ EffectiveÂ mobilizationÂ ofÂ technologiesÂ andÂ equipmentÂ usedÂ inÂ emergenciesÂ isÂ importantÂ inÂ emergencyÂ response.Â Â TheyÂ shouldÂ thereforeÂ beÂ incorporatedÂ intoÂ exercisesÂ whenÂ possible.Â Â AllÂ technologiesÂ toÂ beÂ usedÂ inÂ emergencyÂ situationsÂ shouldÂ beÂ usedÂ inÂ dailyÂ operationsÂ asÂ wellÂ toÂ ensureÂ thatÂ personnelÂ areÂ ableÂ toÂ useÂ them.Â IfÂ aÂ technologyÂ isÂ complex,Â appropriateÂ trainingÂ shouldÂ beÂ providedÂ priorÂ toÂ use.Â InÂ addition,Â ifÂ aÂ technologyÂ cannotÂ beÂ usedÂ inÂ dailyÂ operations,Â personnelÂ shouldÂ receiveÂ appropriateÂ trainingÂ andÂ theÂ opportunityÂ toÂ useÂ itÂ inÂ exercises.Â Â HazardâSpecificÂ TrainingÂ SinceÂ likelyÂ hazardsÂ andÂ threatsÂ varyÂ byÂ stateÂ andÂ region,Â specificÂ stateÂ DOTÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ needsÂ willÂ dependÂ onÂ theÂ likelihoodÂ ofÂ particularÂ hazardsÂ andÂ threatsÂ inÂ theÂ stateÂ orÂ region.Â ForÂ instanceÂ coastalÂ
121Â Â Â regionsÂ areÂ adverselyÂ affectedÂ byÂ hurricanesÂ whileÂ regionsÂ withÂ nuclearÂ powerÂ plantsÂ needÂ radiologicalÂ responseÂ plans.Â Â Â ExercisesÂ Â TrainingÂ aloneÂ isÂ notÂ sufficientÂ toÂ achieveÂ qualificationÂ inÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ functions.Â ExperienceÂ andÂ practiceÂ throughÂ exercisesÂ andÂ actualÂ eventsÂ orÂ incidentsÂ areÂ essential.Â ExercisesÂ areÂ beneficialÂ forÂ multipleÂ purposesÂ includingÂ theÂ evaluationÂ ofÂ personnel,Â plans,Â procedures,Â equipment,Â andÂ facilities.Â NIPPÂ 2013Â emphasizesÂ âcontinuousÂ learningÂ andÂ adaptationâÂ throughÂ aÂ callÂ toÂ actionÂ toÂ learnÂ andÂ adaptÂ duringÂ andÂ afterÂ exercisesÂ andÂ incidents,Â andÂ rapidlyÂ incorporatingÂ lessonsÂ learnedÂ intoÂ technicalÂ assistance,Â training,Â andÂ educationÂ programs.Â Â DrillsÂ areÂ aÂ commonÂ formÂ ofÂ exerciseÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ andÂ areÂ usedÂ toÂ provideÂ trainingÂ onÂ specializedÂ equipmentÂ orÂ aÂ specificÂ functionÂ orÂ procedure.Â TennesseeÂ DOTâsÂ ComprehensiveÂ ExerciseÂ ProgramÂ documentÂ listsÂ tenÂ purposesÂ forÂ theÂ program.Â Â 1)Â ExerciseÂ theÂ TransportationÂ EmergencyÂ PreparednessÂ Plan,Â supportingÂ plans,Â catastrophicÂ annexesÂ andÂ specificÂ policiesÂ andÂ proceduresÂ toÂ ensureÂ TDOTâsÂ abilityÂ toÂ respondÂ effectivelyÂ toÂ theÂ needsÂ ofÂ theÂ citizensÂ andÂ localÂ jurisdictionsÂ duringÂ emergencies,Â Â 2)Â ExerciseÂ theÂ EmergencyÂ SupportÂ FunctionsÂ assignedÂ toÂ TDOTÂ underÂ theÂ TennesseeÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ PlanÂ toÂ respondÂ effectivelyÂ toÂ theÂ needsÂ ofÂ theÂ citizensÂ andÂ localÂ jurisdictionsÂ duringÂ emergenciesÂ thereÂ byÂ improvingÂ individualÂ andÂ teamÂ performance,Â strengtheningÂ professionalÂ relationships,Â retainingÂ skills,Â abilities,Â experiencesÂ andÂ practicingÂ orÂ clarifyingÂ responseÂ organizationÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilities,Â Â 3)Â InstitutionalizeÂ andÂ documentÂ theÂ TDOTÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ exerciseÂ programÂ andÂ itsÂ principlesÂ toÂ regularlyÂ testÂ orÂ practiceÂ theÂ skills,Â abilities,Â andÂ experiencesÂ withinÂ theÂ communityÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ forÂ theÂ StateÂ ofÂ Tennessee.Â Â TheÂ CEPÂ willÂ alsoÂ validateÂ orÂ testÂ theÂ capabilitiesÂ ofÂ TDOTÂ policies,Â plans,Â procedures,Â organization,Â equipment,Â facilities,Â personnel,Â trainingÂ andÂ agreementsÂ forÂ theÂ responseÂ andÂ recoveryÂ phasesÂ thatÂ willÂ allowÂ forÂ theÂ returnÂ ofÂ TDOTÂ andÂ theÂ transportationÂ infrastructureÂ systemÂ toÂ aÂ normalÂ statusÂ asÂ soonÂ asÂ possible;Â andÂ toÂ establishÂ exerciseÂ programÂ processes,Â practices,Â goalsÂ andÂ objectivesÂ forÂ TDOTÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ stakeholdersÂ acrossÂ theÂ State.Â 4)Â FollowÂ theÂ StateÂ andÂ agencyÂ policyÂ andÂ planÂ reviewÂ cycleÂ inÂ orderÂ toÂ validateÂ theÂ newÂ orÂ updatedÂ documents.Â 5)Â EstablishÂ aÂ documentedÂ correctiveÂ actionÂ processÂ /Â planÂ (CAP)Â andÂ improvementÂ planÂ (IP)Â thatÂ willÂ ensureÂ constantÂ improvementÂ inÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ capabilitiesÂ inÂ TDOT.Â Â Â 6)Â ToÂ complyÂ withÂ TEMAÂ andÂ FederalÂ homelandÂ securityÂ requirementsÂ andÂ knownÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ bestÂ practices.Â Â 7)Â ToÂ exerciseÂ responseÂ operationsÂ andÂ planningÂ effortsÂ accordingÂ toÂ contractualÂ obligations.Â 8)Â ToÂ exerciseÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ operationalÂ plansÂ forÂ allÂ PROBABLEÂ andÂ theÂ moreÂ likelyÂ POSSIBLEÂ hazardsÂ andÂ threatsÂ toÂ Tennessee.Â Â
122Â Â Â 9)Â ToÂ exerciseÂ theÂ capabilitiesÂ andÂ legalÂ guidelinesÂ toÂ provideÂ theÂ service,Â assistance,Â coordination,Â andÂ expertiseÂ toÂ theÂ citizensÂ ofÂ TennesseeÂ asÂ describedÂ byÂ theÂ TEMP;Â andÂ Â 10)Â ToÂ supportÂ localÂ jurisdictionalÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ programsÂ asÂ bestÂ asÂ isÂ possible.Â TheÂ 2013Â HomelandÂ SecurityÂ ExerciseÂ andÂ EvaluationÂ ProgramÂ (HSEEP)Â offersÂ substantialÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ guidance.Â ManyÂ preparednessÂ andÂ homelandÂ securityÂ grantsÂ requireÂ exercisesÂ andÂ theÂ developmentÂ ofÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ Reports/ImprovementÂ PlansÂ conformingÂ toÂ theÂ HSEEP.Â TheÂ HSEEPÂ documentÂ providesÂ aÂ setÂ ofÂ guidingÂ principlesÂ andÂ aÂ commonÂ approachÂ toÂ exerciseÂ programÂ management,Â designÂ andÂ development,Â conduct,Â evaluation,Â andÂ improvementÂ planning.Â DesignedÂ toÂ beÂ flexibleÂ andÂ adaptable,Â HSEEPÂ isÂ applicableÂ forÂ exercisesÂ ofÂ allÂ types.Â Â TheÂ fundamentalÂ principlesÂ ofÂ HSEEPÂ includeÂ aÂ focusÂ onÂ capabilityâbasedÂ objectivesÂ andÂ exerciseÂ prioritiesÂ informedÂ byÂ risk,Â guidanceÂ ofÂ theÂ exerciseÂ programÂ andÂ individualÂ exercisesÂ byÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials,Â integrationÂ ofÂ theÂ wholeÂ communityÂ whereÂ appropriate,Â andÂ useÂ ofÂ commonÂ methodology.Â Â HSEEPÂ principlesÂ alsoÂ includeÂ aÂ progressiveÂ planningÂ approachÂ withÂ exercisesÂ temporallyÂ increasingÂ inÂ complexity,Â andÂ alignmentÂ ofÂ exercisesÂ usingÂ aÂ commonÂ setÂ ofÂ prioritiesÂ andÂ objectives.Â InÂ addition,Â HSEEPÂ emphasizesÂ theÂ developmentÂ ofÂ aÂ MultiâyearÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ PlanÂ (TEP)Â toÂ scheduleÂ andÂ coordinateÂ theÂ deliveryÂ ofÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ activities.Â TheÂ TEPÂ takesÂ aÂ progressiveÂ approachÂ withÂ exercisesÂ andÂ trainingÂ becomingÂ increasinglyÂ complexÂ whileÂ adheringÂ toÂ theÂ exerciseÂ programÂ priorities.Â TheÂ trainingÂ isÂ designedÂ toÂ prepareÂ participantsÂ forÂ futureÂ exercises.Â ExamplesÂ ofÂ MultiyearÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ PlansÂ areÂ includedÂ inÂ theÂ CaltransÂ andÂ TennesseeÂ DOTÂ caseÂ studies.Â CloseÂ coordinationÂ withÂ theÂ stateÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ AgencyÂ (EMA)Â ensuresÂ thatÂ DOTÂ exerciseÂ andÂ trainingÂ activitiesÂ supportÂ stateÂ prioritiesÂ asÂ wellÂ asÂ DOTÂ priorities.Â RegionalÂ orÂ districtÂ officesÂ shouldÂ coordinateÂ withÂ regionalÂ EMAÂ officesÂ whichÂ canÂ offerÂ variousÂ typesÂ ofÂ assistanceÂ withÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ andÂ implementation.Â DOTsÂ canÂ alsoÂ leverageÂ limitedÂ resourcesÂ byÂ participatingÂ inÂ exercisesÂ orÂ trainingÂ sponsoredÂ byÂ EMAÂ orÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ includingÂ localÂ lawÂ enforcementÂ andÂ fireÂ departments.Â Â TheÂ TEPÂ resultsÂ fromÂ aÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ PlanningÂ WorkshopÂ (TEPW).Â TheÂ TEPWÂ determinesÂ theÂ strategyÂ andÂ formatÂ ofÂ anÂ exerciseÂ programÂ andÂ programÂ prioritiesÂ basedÂ onÂ inputÂ fromÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials.Â TEPWÂ participantsÂ shouldÂ include:Â â¢Â ElectedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officialsÂ â¢Â RepresentativesÂ fromÂ relevantÂ disciplinesÂ (federal,Â state,Â regional,Â local)Â â¢Â PersonnelÂ responsibleÂ forÂ exerciseÂ managementÂ andÂ conductÂ includingÂ facilitators,Â controllers,Â andÂ evaluatorsÂ CPGÂ 101Â v.Â 2Â emphasizesÂ theÂ importanceÂ ofÂ consideringÂ theÂ wholeÂ communityÂ includingÂ specialÂ needsÂ populationsÂ andÂ theÂ privateÂ sectorÂ inÂ theÂ planningÂ processÂ andÂ inÂ exercises.Â Â Â PrioritiesÂ areÂ basedÂ onÂ jurisdictionâspecificÂ threatsÂ andÂ hazardsÂ whichÂ mayÂ beÂ basedÂ onÂ THIRAÂ andÂ otherÂ riskÂ assessments,Â correctiveÂ actionsÂ fromÂ actualÂ eventsÂ andÂ exercises,Â externalÂ requirementsÂ (notedÂ earlierÂ inÂ thisÂ Chapter),Â andÂ accreditationÂ standardsÂ (e.g.,Â EMAP),Â regulationsÂ andÂ legislativeÂ requirementsÂ (e.g.,Â OSHA,Â MUTCD,Â NRC).Â Â
123Â Â Â OnceÂ theÂ programÂ isÂ underway,Â aÂ rollingÂ summaryÂ ofÂ outcomesÂ providesÂ anÂ analysisÂ ofÂ trendsÂ toÂ informÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials,Â supportÂ reportingÂ requirements,Â andÂ modifyÂ exerciseÂ scheduleÂ andÂ objectivesÂ asÂ appropriate.Â Â Â ExerciseÂ CycleÂ TheÂ HSEEPÂ ExerciseÂ CycleÂ containsÂ theÂ followingÂ fourÂ elements:Â 1)Â exerciseÂ designÂ andÂ development,Â 2)Â conduct,Â 3)Â evaluation,Â andÂ 4)Â improvementÂ planning.Â KeyÂ activitiesÂ inÂ eachÂ elementÂ areÂ listedÂ below:Â Â Â 1. ExerciseÂ designÂ andÂ developmentÂ âÂ identifyÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ team;Â assignÂ teamÂ membersÂ toÂ scheduleÂ meetings,Â identify/developÂ objectives,Â designÂ theÂ scenario,Â createÂ documentation,Â planÂ exerciseÂ conductÂ andÂ evaluation,Â andÂ coordinateÂ logistics.Â SeekÂ inputÂ fromÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials.Â Â 2. ConductÂ âÂ prepareÂ forÂ exerciseÂ play,Â manageÂ theÂ exercise,Â andÂ wrapâupÂ activities.Â Â 3. EvaluationÂ âÂ planningÂ forÂ evaluationÂ beginsÂ atÂ theÂ startÂ ofÂ theÂ exerciseÂ cycle.Â PerformanceÂ ofÂ personnel,Â plans,Â procedures,Â equipment,Â andÂ facilitiesÂ (perÂ 2016Â EMAP)Â isÂ evaluatedÂ againstÂ exerciseÂ objectives,Â andÂ strengthsÂ andÂ weaknessesÂ areÂ identifiedÂ duringÂ theÂ evaluationÂ process.Â Â 4. ImprovementÂ planningÂ âÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ areÂ trackedÂ toÂ completion.Â TheÂ 2016Â EMAPÂ requiresÂ thatÂ theÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ areÂ prioritizedÂ asÂ well.Â TheÂ 2016Â EMAPÂ alsoÂ requiresÂ thatÂ theÂ productsÂ ofÂ evaluationsÂ ofÂ notÂ justÂ exercisesÂ butÂ periodicÂ reviews,Â testing,Â postâincidentÂ reports,Â realâworldÂ events,Â andÂ postâincidentÂ reportsÂ beÂ documentedÂ andÂ distributed.Â ExerciseÂ TypesÂ ThereÂ areÂ twoÂ categoriesÂ ofÂ exercises:Â DiscussionâbasedÂ andÂ Operationsâbased.Â Â DiscussionâbasedÂ exercisesÂ âÂ seminars,Â workshops,Â tabletopÂ exercisesÂ (TTXs),Â andÂ gamesÂ âÂ areÂ lessÂ costlyÂ andÂ timeâconsumingÂ thanÂ OperationsâbasedÂ exercises.Â DiscussionâbasedÂ exercisesÂ useÂ aÂ facilitatorÂ toÂ directÂ discussions.Â TheyÂ helpÂ familiarizeÂ and/orÂ trainÂ participantsÂ onÂ orÂ developÂ plansÂ policies,Â agreementsÂ andÂ proceduresÂ suchÂ asÂ developmentÂ ofÂ operationalÂ conceptsÂ andÂ procedures,Â transportationÂ EOPs,Â publicÂ informationÂ disseminationÂ strategies,Â andÂ coordinationÂ ofÂ response/evacuationÂ plans.Â Discussionâ basedÂ exercisesÂ canÂ alsoÂ helpÂ inÂ theÂ creationÂ ofÂ training.Â Â OperationsâbasedÂ exercisesÂ âÂ drills,Â FEs,Â andÂ FSEsÂ âÂ areÂ moreÂ realisticÂ andÂ conductedÂ inÂ realâtime.Â OperationsâbasedÂ exercisesÂ provideÂ personnelÂ withÂ theÂ opportunityÂ toÂ practiceÂ whatÂ theyÂ haveÂ learnedÂ andÂ areÂ usefulÂ forÂ assessingÂ emergencyÂ plans,Â procedures,Â personnel,Â technologies,Â andÂ equipment.Â Â NoteÂ thatÂ FSEsÂ areÂ consideredÂ havingÂ theÂ highestÂ realismÂ andÂ requireÂ theÂ mostÂ resourcesÂ andÂ timeÂ inÂ bothÂ exerciseÂ durationÂ andÂ planning.Â Â TableÂ 13Â Â containsÂ briefÂ descriptionsÂ ofÂ eachÂ exerciseÂ type,Â andÂ Table14Â providesÂ advantagesÂ andÂ disadvantagesÂ byÂ exerciseÂ type.Â Â TableÂ Â Â 13:Â DiscussionâbasedÂ ExercisesÂ andÂ OperationsâbasedÂ ExercisesÂ DiscussionâbasedÂ ExercisesÂ
124Â Â Â SeminarsÂ SeminarsÂ provideÂ anÂ overviewÂ ofÂ authorities,Â strategies,Â plans,Â policies,Â procedures,Â protocols,Â resources,Â concepts,Â andÂ ideas.Â TheyÂ helpÂ to:Â âdevelopÂ orÂ changeÂ plansÂ orÂ procedures;Â âassessÂ theÂ capabilitiesÂ ofÂ interagencyÂ orÂ interâ jurisdictionalÂ operations.Â WorkshopsÂ SimilarÂ toÂ Seminars,Â butÂ participantÂ interactionÂ isÂ increased,Â andÂ theÂ focusÂ isÂ placedÂ onÂ achievingÂ orÂ buildingÂ aÂ product.Â SuccessfulÂ workshopsÂ clearlyÂ defineÂ objectivesÂ andÂ haveÂ theÂ broadestÂ possibleÂ stakeholderÂ attendance.Â Â TabletopÂ ExercisesÂ (TTXs)Â HeldÂ inÂ anÂ informalÂ setting,Â generatesÂ discussionÂ ofÂ variousÂ issuesÂ regardingÂ aÂ hypotheticalÂ emergency.Â TTXsÂ areÂ usedÂ to:Â âenhanceÂ generalÂ awareness,Â validateÂ plansÂ andÂ procedures,Â rehearseÂ concepts,Â and/orÂ assessÂ theÂ systemsÂ toÂ guideÂ theÂ preventionÂ of,Â protectionÂ from,Â mitigationÂ of,Â responseÂ to,Â andÂ recoveryÂ fromÂ aÂ definedÂ incident.Â Â Â GamesÂ SimulatesÂ operationsÂ inÂ aÂ competitionÂ toÂ âexploreÂ theÂ consequencesÂ ofÂ playerÂ decisionsÂ andÂ actionsÂ Â âhelpsÂ validateÂ orÂ reinforceÂ plansÂ andÂ proceduresÂ orÂ evaluateÂ resourceÂ requirements.Â OperationsâbasedÂ ExercisesÂ DrillsÂ AÂ coordinated,Â supervisedÂ activityÂ to:Â âvalidateÂ aÂ specificÂ operationÂ orÂ functionÂ inÂ aÂ singleÂ agencyÂ orÂ organization;Â âtrainÂ onÂ newÂ equipment;Â developÂ orÂ validateÂ newÂ policiesÂ orÂ procedures;Â orÂ practiceÂ andÂ maintainÂ currentÂ skills.Â Â FunctionalÂ ExercisesÂ (FEs)Â UsesÂ exerciseÂ scenarioÂ withÂ eventÂ updatesÂ thatÂ driveÂ activityÂ atÂ theÂ managementÂ level,Â conductedÂ inÂ aÂ realistic,Â realâtimeÂ environmentÂ toÂ validateÂ andÂ evaluate:Â âcapabilities,Â multipleÂ functionsÂ and/orÂ subâfunctions,Â orÂ interdependentÂ groupsÂ ofÂ functionsÂ âÂ plans,Â policies,Â procedures,Â andÂ staffÂ membersÂ inÂ management,Â direction,Â command,Â andÂ controlÂ functionÂ ActualÂ movementÂ ofÂ peopleÂ andÂ equipmentÂ mayÂ notÂ occur.Â Â FullâScaleÂ ExercisesÂ (FSEs)Â TheÂ mostÂ complexÂ andÂ resourceâintensiveÂ typeÂ ofÂ
125Â Â Â Exercise,Â involvesÂ multipleÂ agencies,Â organizations,Â andÂ jurisdictions.Â Â FSEsÂ validateÂ manyÂ facetsÂ ofÂ preparedness.Â Â Â (DerivedÂ fromÂ HSEEPÂ Glossary,Â 2013)Â TableÂ 14:Â AdvantagesÂ andÂ DisadvantagesÂ DiscussionâbasedÂ ExercisesÂ AdvantagesÂ âConductedÂ inÂ aÂ safe,Â nonâstressfulÂ environmentÂ atÂ aÂ lowerÂ costÂ thanÂ Operationsâ basedÂ exercises.Â InteractionÂ amongÂ peersÂ fostersÂ learning.Â âCanÂ assistÂ inÂ theÂ identificationÂ ofÂ additionalÂ trainingÂ needs.Â âMayÂ beÂ helpfulÂ inÂ developingÂ futureÂ trainingÂ contentÂ andÂ scenarios.Â DisadvantagesÂ âCostÂ mayÂ becomeÂ anÂ issueÂ ifÂ theÂ exerciseÂ isÂ heldÂ atÂ aÂ locationÂ difficultÂ toÂ accessÂ forÂ someÂ orÂ allÂ ofÂ theÂ participants.Â âDiscussionâbasedÂ exercisesÂ doÂ notÂ provideÂ theÂ realismÂ thatÂ operationsâbasedÂ methodsÂ canÂ provide.Â OperationsâbasedÂ Exercises,Â DrillsÂ AdvantagesÂ âProvideÂ handsâonÂ experientialÂ learningÂ withÂ respectÂ toÂ functions,Â activity,Â orÂ equipment.Â âProvidesÂ aÂ senseÂ ofÂ urgencyÂ withoutÂ theÂ possibilityÂ ofÂ seriousÂ consequences.Â âCanÂ helpÂ identifyÂ proceduralÂ andÂ policyÂ gaps.Â âMayÂ avoidÂ comprehensionÂ problemsÂ relatedÂ toÂ literacy/languageÂ deficienciesÂ DisadvantagesÂ âProvidingÂ handsâonÂ trainingÂ toÂ aÂ largeÂ numberÂ ofÂ individualsÂ canÂ beÂ timeâconsumingÂ andÂ costly.Â âSchedulingÂ drillsÂ canÂ beÂ difficultÂ dueÂ toÂ schedulingÂ issuesÂ ofÂ theÂ fieldÂ personnel,Â theÂ instructor,Â andÂ theÂ facilityÂ orÂ equipment.Â âVariablesÂ differÂ basedÂ onÂ theÂ individual,Â soÂ consistentÂ outcomesÂ areÂ notÂ assured.Â âPersonalityÂ differencesÂ betweenÂ theÂ instructorÂ orÂ mentorÂ andÂ theÂ workerÂ mayÂ causeÂ issues.Â OperationsâbasedÂ Exercises,Â FunctionalÂ ExercisesÂ (FEs)Â AdvantagesÂ -Offers experiential learning in a realistic setting. -Facilitates the retention of knowledge and skills. -Helps identify units and individuals that would benefit from additional training. -Can help develop future training content and scenarios.Â DisadvantagesÂ âArrangingÂ andÂ schedulingÂ FEsÂ canÂ beÂ difficultÂ andÂ timeâconsuming.Â OperationsâbasedÂ Exercises,Â FullâScaleÂ ExercisesÂ (FSEs)Â AdvantagesÂ âOffersÂ veryÂ highÂ realism,Â complexÂ situations.Â âHelpsÂ identifyÂ unitsÂ andÂ individualsÂ thatÂ wouldÂ benefitÂ fromÂ additionalÂ training.Â âCanÂ helpÂ developÂ futureÂ trainingÂ contentÂ andÂ Scenarios.Â DisadvantagesÂ -SignificantÂ coordination,Â preparation,Â resources,Â andÂ timeÂ areÂ required.Â (AdaptedÂ fromÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â
126Â Â Â EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ DrillsÂ Â AccordingÂ toÂ 2013Â NCHRPÂ ReportÂ 740,Â thereÂ areÂ fourÂ typesÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ drillsÂ usefulÂ forÂ assessmentÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ evacuationÂ plans:Â âPlanÂ walkâthrough:Â introducesÂ theÂ emergencyÂ plan,Â procedures,Â communicationsÂ pathways,Â etc.;Â yieldsÂ ideas,Â commentsÂ onÂ plansÂ andÂ canÂ alsoÂ beÂ usedÂ asÂ refresherÂ training;Â âTableâtoÂ exercisesÂ (TTX)Â requiringÂ participantsÂ toÂ respondÂ toÂ aÂ hypotheticalÂ crisis;Â durationÂ ofÂ playÂ canÂ reachÂ severalÂ hours;Â âEventÂ simulationsÂ whichÂ provideÂ enhancedÂ realismÂ (e.g.,Â usingÂ victimsÂ withÂ fakeÂ blood,Â usingÂ actualÂ membersÂ ofÂ specialÂ populations);Â durationÂ rangesÂ fromÂ twoÂ toÂ eightÂ hours;Â âAÂ fullÂ deploymentÂ drill,Â extremelyÂ realisticÂ andÂ involvesÂ multipleÂ agenciesÂ andÂ jurisdictions;Â thisÂ typeÂ ofÂ drillÂ canÂ lastÂ severalÂ days.Â FacilitatedÂ ExerciseÂ 2010Â MTIÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExercisesÂ forÂ TransportationÂ AgencyÂ OperationsÂ describesÂ anotherÂ typeÂ ofÂ exercise,Â theÂ FacilitatedÂ Exercise.Â TheÂ SanÂ JoseÂ MetropolitanÂ MedicalÂ TaskÂ ForceÂ exerciseÂ chairÂ createdÂ aÂ formatÂ thatÂ dividedÂ aÂ fullâscaleÂ exerciseÂ intoÂ segmentsÂ andÂ incorporatedÂ refresherÂ training.Â TheÂ facilitatorÂ guidesÂ theÂ exerciseÂ playÂ inÂ eachÂ segmentÂ andÂ ensuresÂ thatÂ noÂ significantÂ mistakeÂ hasÂ beenÂ madeÂ byÂ theÂ players.Â ForÂ example,Â ifÂ anÂ importantÂ topicÂ isÂ leftÂ outÂ ofÂ theÂ IncidentÂ ActionÂ Plan,Â theÂ facilitatorÂ willÂ informÂ theÂ playersÂ regardingÂ itsÂ significanceÂ andÂ willÂ ensureÂ thatÂ itÂ isÂ includedÂ inÂ theÂ Plan.Â TheÂ thinkingÂ behindÂ thisÂ isÂ basedÂ onÂ adultÂ andragogyÂ âÂ learnersÂ rememberÂ whatÂ theyÂ doÂ andÂ notÂ whatÂ theyÂ hear.Â Therefore,Â insteadÂ ofÂ allowingÂ playersÂ toÂ engageÂ inÂ incorrectÂ behaviorsÂ orÂ makeÂ theÂ wrongÂ decisions,Â theÂ facilitatorÂ takesÂ stepsÂ toÂ directÂ theÂ exerciseÂ playÂ inÂ theÂ appropriateÂ direction.Â Â RefresherÂ TrainingÂ RefresherÂ trainingÂ forÂ NIMS/ICSÂ coursesÂ isÂ notÂ availableÂ throughÂ FEMAÂ EMIÂ andÂ isÂ veryÂ limitedÂ inÂ availableÂ throughÂ otherÂ sources.Â TennesseeÂ DOT,Â however,Â doesÂ provideÂ aÂ fourâhourÂ refresherÂ NIMS/ICSÂ courseÂ everyÂ fiveÂ years.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â InÂ addition,Â exercisesÂ andÂ realâlifeÂ incidentsÂ provideÂ personnelÂ withÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ practiceÂ NIMSÂ andÂ ICS.Â Â SandboxesÂ SandboxesÂ canÂ helpÂ participantsÂ envisionÂ actionsÂ andÂ facilitateÂ operationsâbasedÂ exercisesÂ byÂ simulatingÂ certainÂ actionsÂ andÂ scenes.Â TheÂ sandboxÂ canÂ includeÂ modelÂ vehicles,Â buildings,Â trafficÂ signals,Â etc.Â (2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ Handbook)Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ regardingÂ ExerciseÂ ProgramsÂ (BasedÂ onÂ theÂ TennesseeÂ DOTÂ caseÂ study)Â ï· EstablishÂ relationshipsÂ withÂ membersÂ ofÂ state,Â local,Â andÂ federalÂ governmentÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ communities,Â volunteerÂ agencies,Â andÂ privateÂ industryÂ ï· BuildÂ onÂ existingÂ relationshipsÂ throughÂ regionalÂ personnelÂ withÂ keyÂ stakeholdersÂ ï· EmphasizeÂ jointÂ stateÂ andÂ localÂ exercisesÂ
127Â Â Â ï· DesignÂ shorterÂ durationÂ exercisesÂ ï· ConsolidateÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ andÂ requirementsÂ toÂ enhanceÂ efficiencyÂ DesignÂ andÂ DevelopmentÂ TheÂ 2013Â NIPPÂ recommendsÂ theÂ followingÂ regardingÂ exerciseÂ design:Â âDesignÂ exercisesÂ toÂ reflectÂ lessonsÂ learnedÂ andÂ testÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ fromÂ previousÂ exercisesÂ andÂ incidents,Â addressÂ bothÂ physicalÂ andÂ cyberÂ threatsÂ andÂ vulnerabilities,Â andÂ evaluateÂ theÂ transitionÂ fromÂ steadyÂ stateÂ toÂ incidentÂ responseÂ andÂ recoveryÂ efforts.âÂ (p.Â 26,Â 2013Â NIPP)Â Â ForÂ designÂ andÂ developmentÂ ofÂ individualÂ exercises,Â exerciseÂ programÂ managersÂ willÂ needÂ toÂ manageÂ multipleÂ elementsÂ includingÂ theÂ exerciseÂ budgetÂ andÂ staffÂ alongÂ withÂ ITÂ requirements,Â exerciseÂ toolsÂ andÂ resources,Â MOUsÂ andÂ otherÂ agreements,Â technicalÂ assistance,Â equipmentÂ andÂ supplies,Â andÂ documentationÂ fromÂ previousÂ exercises.Â Â DesignÂ andÂ DevelopmentÂ StepsÂ ExerciseÂ designÂ andÂ developmentÂ stepsÂ include:Â Â 1. ReviewÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officialsâÂ guidance,Â theÂ TEP,Â andÂ otherÂ factors.Â Â 2. SelectÂ participantsÂ forÂ anÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ andÂ developingÂ anÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ timelineÂ withÂ milestones.Â 3. SelectÂ objectivesÂ andÂ coreÂ capabilities.Â 4. IdentifyÂ evaluationÂ requirements.Â 5. DevelopÂ theÂ exerciseÂ scenario.Â 6. CreateÂ documentationÂ 7. CoordinateÂ logisticsÂ 8. PlanÂ forÂ exerciseÂ controlÂ andÂ evaluation.Â KeyÂ MeetingsÂ TheÂ followingÂ meetingsÂ areÂ usuallyÂ heldÂ toÂ helpÂ moveÂ theÂ designÂ andÂ developmentÂ processÂ forward.Â OfÂ theseÂ meetings,Â theÂ HSEEPÂ notesÂ thatÂ theÂ followingÂ areÂ consideredÂ essentialÂ meetings:Â InitialÂ PlanningÂ MeetingÂ (IPM)Â andÂ FinalÂ PlanningÂ MeetingÂ (FPM)Â PriorÂ toÂ theseÂ meetings,Â itÂ isÂ helpfulÂ toÂ haveÂ identifiedÂ theÂ leadÂ agency,Â fundingÂ sources,Â anyÂ laborÂ restrictions,Â andÂ HSEEPÂ complianceÂ issues.Â (2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ Handbook).Â ï· ConceptÂ andÂ ObjectivesÂ (C&O)Â MeetingÂ âÂ identifiesÂ theÂ scopeÂ andÂ objectivesÂ ofÂ theÂ exercise.Â ParticipantsÂ includeÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials,Â representativesÂ fromÂ theÂ sponsoringÂ andÂ participatingÂ organizations,Â andÂ theÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ leader.Â TheÂ ConceptÂ andÂ ObjectivesÂ (C&O)Â MeetingÂ canÂ beÂ heldÂ withÂ theÂ InitialÂ PlanningÂ MeetingÂ (IPM).Â ï· InitialÂ PlanningÂ MeetingÂ (IPM)Â âÂ determinesÂ exerciseÂ scopeÂ andÂ identifiesÂ exerciseÂ designÂ requirementsÂ andÂ conditionsÂ suchÂ asÂ assumptionsÂ andÂ artificialities.Â ExerciseÂ documentationÂ responsibilitiesÂ andÂ exerciseÂ detailsÂ areÂ determined;Â theyÂ includeÂ exerciseÂ objectives,Â location,Â schedule,Â duration,Â participantÂ extentÂ ofÂ play,Â andÂ scenarioÂ variablesÂ (e.g.,Â time,Â location,Â hazardÂ selection).Â Â Â
128Â Â Â ï· MasterÂ ScenarioÂ EventsÂ ListÂ (MSEL)Â MeetingÂ âÂ focusesÂ onÂ developingÂ theÂ MSEL.Â TheÂ meetingÂ mayÂ beÂ combinedÂ withÂ theÂ MPMÂ orÂ FPM.Â Â ï· MidtermÂ PlanningÂ MeetingsÂ (MPMs)Â âÂ providesÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ discussÂ exerciseÂ organizationÂ andÂ staffingÂ concepts,Â scenarioÂ andÂ timelineÂ development,Â scheduling,Â logistics,Â administrativeÂ requirementsÂ andÂ reviewÂ draftÂ documentation,Â andÂ anyÂ otherÂ issues.Â AlsoÂ providesÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ engageÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials.Â Â Â ï· FinalÂ PlanningÂ MeetingÂ (FPM)Â âÂ ensuresÂ theÂ readinessÂ ofÂ allÂ componentsÂ andÂ resolutionÂ ofÂ anyÂ outstandingÂ issues.Â NoÂ significantÂ changesÂ shouldÂ beÂ madeÂ duringÂ orÂ afterÂ thisÂ FPM.Â Â Â ExerciseÂ PlanningÂ TeamÂ TheÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ isÂ ledÂ byÂ aÂ teamÂ leader.Â TheÂ teamÂ determinesÂ exerciseÂ objectives,Â designsÂ theÂ scenario,Â ensuresÂ theirÂ activitiesÂ areÂ alignedÂ withÂ theÂ overallÂ multiyearÂ plan,Â andÂ createsÂ theÂ exerciseÂ plan.Â ExerciseÂ plansÂ haveÂ clearÂ objectives,Â defineÂ exerciseÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ andÂ managementÂ structureÂ basedÂ onÂ NIMS/ICS,Â andÂ proceduresÂ forÂ debriefings/hotÂ wash,Â andÂ AAR/IPÂ orÂ CorrectiveÂ ActionÂ PlanÂ development.Â TheÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ alsoÂ createsÂ otherÂ neededÂ documentationÂ andÂ coordinatesÂ logisticsÂ includingÂ safetyÂ ofÂ participants.Â Â Â ForÂ evacuations,Â whileÂ agenciesÂ canÂ andÂ doÂ conductÂ exercisesÂ suchÂ asÂ TTXsÂ andÂ FEsÂ toÂ testÂ plansÂ andÂ mobilizationÂ capabilities,Â thereÂ willÂ beÂ noÂ opportunityÂ toÂ exerciseÂ anÂ actualÂ evacuation.Â Â TheÂ 2013Â NCHRPÂ REPORTÂ 740:Â AÂ TRANSPORTATIONÂ GUIDEÂ FORÂ ALLâHAZARDSÂ EMERGENCYÂ EVACUATIONÂ stressesÂ theÂ importanceÂ ofÂ includingÂ asÂ manyÂ agenciesÂ asÂ possibleÂ andÂ representativesÂ ofÂ populationsÂ withÂ specialÂ needsÂ inÂ theÂ planningÂ process.Â Â Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ forÂ theÂ ExerciseÂ PlanningÂ TeamÂ TheseÂ andÂ theÂ remainderÂ ofÂ theÂ helpfulÂ tipsÂ inÂ thisÂ sectionÂ areÂ basedÂ onÂ theÂ followingÂ sources:Â 2013Â HSEEP,Â 2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ Handbook,Â 2014Â NCHRPÂ ReportÂ 777;Â 2015Â TDOTÂ ComprehensiveÂ ExerciseÂ Plan,Â 2013Â NIPP.Â ï· InÂ exercisesÂ andÂ drillsÂ managedÂ byÂ anotherÂ agency,Â participateÂ inÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ toÂ ensureÂ theÂ DOTÂ roleÂ isÂ realisticÂ toÂ operations.Â Â ï· InÂ exercisesÂ andÂ drillsÂ managedÂ byÂ yourÂ DOT,Â ensureÂ allÂ keyÂ stakeholdersÂ participate.Â Â ï· PlanÂ forÂ highâprobabilityÂ andÂ lowâprobabilityÂ events.Â Â ï· ConsiderÂ specialÂ needsÂ populationsÂ andÂ pets.Â Â ï· ExerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ shouldÂ keepÂ keyÂ officials,Â stateÂ EMA,Â andÂ otherÂ stakeholdersÂ inÂ theÂ loop.Â ï· SafetyÂ shouldÂ alwaysÂ beÂ topÂ ofÂ mind.Â Â ï· HaveÂ aÂ clearÂ organizationalÂ structureÂ basedÂ onÂ ICSÂ structureÂ Â Â ï· UseÂ projectÂ managementÂ toolsÂ andÂ processesÂ ï· StartÂ evaluationÂ planningÂ andÂ fillÂ keyÂ evaluationÂ rolesÂ atÂ theÂ startÂ ofÂ thisÂ processÂ ï· ReviewÂ theÂ detailedÂ checklistsÂ forÂ discussionâbasedÂ exercises,Â operationsâbasedÂ exercises,Â andÂ facilitatedÂ exercisesÂ areÂ availableÂ inÂ theÂ 2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ Handbook.Â Â ï· InsureÂ adequateÂ playÂ forÂ allÂ participantsÂ ï· ExerciseÂ focusÂ shouldÂ beÂ drivenÂ byÂ objectives,Â notÂ byÂ theÂ scenarioÂ ï· TheÂ numberÂ ofÂ objectivesÂ shouldÂ beÂ limitedÂ (fewÂ ratherÂ thanÂ many)Â ï· UseÂ theÂ SMARTÂ guidelinesÂ toÂ developÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ
129Â Â Â ExerciseÂ ObjectivesÂ TheÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ selectedÂ forÂ theÂ exerciseÂ willÂ driveÂ scenarioÂ selection,Â evaluation,Â andÂ allÂ otherÂ aspectsÂ ofÂ exerciseÂ development.Â Therefore,Â exerciseÂ objectivesÂ shouldÂ beÂ prudentlyÂ chosenÂ withÂ inputÂ fromÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials.Â FollowingÂ SMARTÂ guidelinesÂ assistÂ planningÂ teamsÂ inÂ identifyingÂ andÂ developingÂ relevantÂ exerciseÂ objectives:Â ï· SpecificÂ âÂ objectivesÂ addressÂ who,Â what,Â when,Â where,Â why.Â Â ï· MeasurableÂ âÂ measuresÂ shouldÂ defineÂ quantity,Â quality,Â etc.Â withÂ aÂ focusÂ onÂ concreteÂ outcomes/actions.Â Â ï· AchievableÂ âÂ objectivesÂ shouldÂ beÂ feasibleÂ forÂ playersÂ ï· RelevantÂ âÂ objectivesÂ shouldÂ beÂ pertinentÂ toÂ theÂ agencyâsÂ mission,Â goals,Â orÂ strategicÂ intentÂ ï· TimeframeÂ âÂ reasonableÂ timeframeÂ shouldÂ accompanyÂ eachÂ objectiveÂ InÂ addition,Â keepÂ theÂ numberÂ ofÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ toÂ aÂ feasibleÂ number,Â andÂ focusÂ onÂ exercisingÂ emergencyÂ functionsÂ assignedÂ toÂ theÂ DOTÂ byÂ theÂ state.Â Â TheÂ followingÂ areÂ sampleÂ exerciseÂ objectives:Â DemonstrateÂ capabilityÂ toÂ Â ï· MobilizeÂ resourcesÂ forÂ contraflowÂ operationsÂ ï· TrackÂ andÂ documentÂ resourcesÂ ï· ConductÂ effectiveÂ situationalÂ assessmentÂ ï· IdentifyÂ alternativeÂ transportationÂ solutionsÂ Â ï· RespondÂ toÂ anÂ ActiveÂ ShooterÂ eventÂ TheÂ 2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ HandbookÂ (p.Â 128,Â TableÂ 13)Â presentsÂ aÂ listÂ ofÂ exampleÂ objectivesÂ basedÂ onÂ WisconsinÂ EmergencyÂ Management,Â 2004.Â TheyÂ include:Â Â ï· Communications:Â âToÂ determineÂ theÂ abilityÂ toÂ establishÂ andÂ maintainÂ communicationsÂ essentialÂ toÂ supportÂ responseÂ toÂ anÂ incident/accidentÂ andÂ theÂ immediateÂ recovery,Â includingÂ establishingÂ interoperableÂ communicationsÂ withÂ firstÂ responderÂ agencies.âÂ ï· DamageÂ Assessment:Â âToÂ demonstrateÂ theÂ abilityÂ toÂ organizeÂ andÂ conductÂ damageÂ assessment,Â includingÂ theÂ collectionÂ ofÂ informationÂ toÂ facilitateÂ responseÂ byÂ firstÂ responderÂ organizations,Â supportÂ ofÂ overâÂ weightÂ permits,Â andÂ recoveryÂ activities.âÂ ï· EmergencyÂ PublicÂ Information:Â âToÂ determineÂ theÂ capabilityÂ ofÂ theÂ emergencyÂ publicÂ informationÂ systemÂ toÂ disseminateÂ timelyÂ andÂ accurateÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ informationÂ inÂ languagesÂ andÂ methodsÂ appropriateÂ toÂ theÂ community;Â evaluateÂ theÂ abilityÂ toÂ workÂ withÂ theÂ mediaÂ andÂ maintainÂ mediaÂ monitoringÂ andÂ rumorÂ control;Â evaluateÂ theÂ adequacyÂ ofÂ theÂ electronicÂ signboards,Â travelÂ informationÂ radio,Â 5â1â1Â system,Â andÂ agencyÂ websiteÂ forÂ maintainingÂ timelyÂ travelÂ informationÂ toÂ theÂ public.âÂ ï· EmergencyÂ Evacuation:Â âToÂ determineÂ theÂ adequacyÂ ofÂ theÂ evacuationÂ planÂ forÂ theÂ jurisdictionÂ andÂ theÂ abilityÂ ofÂ officialsÂ toÂ effectivelyÂ coordinateÂ anÂ evacuation.Â DemonstrateÂ theÂ capabilityÂ andÂ proceduresÂ toÂ provideÂ access,Â egressÂ andÂ emergencyÂ routingÂ (includingÂ contraflowÂ whereÂ appropriate)Â toÂ supportÂ massÂ careÂ forÂ personsÂ displacedÂ byÂ aÂ disasterÂ inÂ anotherÂ community.âÂ RolesÂ andÂ ResponsibilitiesÂ
130Â Â Â KeyÂ exerciseÂ rolesÂ areÂ notedÂ inÂ 2013Â HSEEP,Â TableÂ 4.1.Â TheÂ rolesÂ include:Â ï· ExerciseÂ directorÂ âÂ overseesÂ allÂ exerciseÂ functionsÂ ï· EvaluatorÂ âÂ observes,Â documents,Â andÂ analyzesÂ theÂ exercise;Â hasÂ expertiseÂ inÂ functionalÂ areasÂ theyÂ observeÂ Â ï· LeadÂ EvaluatorÂ âÂ overseesÂ teamÂ ofÂ evaluators;Â isÂ familiarÂ withÂ allÂ issuesÂ concerningÂ theÂ exercise;Â and,Â isÂ ableÂ toÂ analyzeÂ capabilitiesÂ ï· FacilitatorÂ âÂ forÂ DiscussionâbasedÂ exercises,Â keepsÂ discussionsÂ alignedÂ withÂ exerciseÂ objectives;Â ensuresÂ allÂ issuesÂ andÂ objectivesÂ areÂ coveredÂ ï· ControllerÂ âÂ forÂ OperationsâbasedÂ exercisesÂ andÂ someÂ games,Â plansÂ andÂ managesÂ exerciseÂ playÂ andÂ timeline,Â setsÂ upÂ andÂ operatesÂ exercise,Â directsÂ paceÂ ofÂ theÂ playÂ byÂ providingÂ injectsÂ andÂ otherÂ information,Â andÂ ensuresÂ safetyÂ ofÂ participants.Â Â ï· SeniorÂ ControllerÂ âÂ overseesÂ exerciseÂ organizationÂ includingÂ allÂ controllers,Â managesÂ exerciseÂ progress,Â overseesÂ exerciseÂ setupÂ andÂ takedown,Â andÂ debriefsÂ controllersÂ andÂ evaluators.Â Â Â ï· SafetyÂ ControllerÂ âÂ monitorsÂ exerciseÂ safetyÂ duringÂ exerciseÂ setup,Â conduct,Â andÂ cleanupÂ ScenariosÂ AÂ scenarioÂ isÂ aÂ narrativeÂ orÂ timelineÂ usedÂ inÂ OperationsâbasedÂ exercisesÂ andÂ TTXsÂ thatÂ âdrivesÂ anÂ exerciseÂ toÂ testÂ objectivesâÂ andÂ âinformedÂ byÂ actualÂ threatsÂ andÂ hazardsâ¦.âÂ (2013Â HSEEPÂ Glossary)Â ScenariosÂ shouldÂ include:Â Â â(1)Â theÂ generalÂ contextÂ orÂ comprehensiveÂ story;Â (2)Â theÂ requiredÂ conditionsÂ thatÂ willÂ allowÂ playersÂ toÂ demonstrateÂ proficiencyÂ andÂ competencyÂ inÂ conductingÂ criticalÂ tasks,Â demonstratingÂ coreÂ capabilities,Â andÂ meetingÂ objectives;Â andÂ (3)Â theÂ technicalÂ detailsÂ necessaryÂ toÂ accuratelyÂ depictÂ scenarioÂ conditionsÂ andÂ eventsâÂ (HSEEPÂ 2013,Â p.Â 3â12).Â TheÂ MasterÂ ScenarioÂ EventsÂ ListÂ (MSEL)Â supplementsÂ theÂ exerciseÂ scenarioÂ withÂ aÂ chronologicalÂ listÂ ofÂ eventÂ synopsesÂ orÂ injects,Â expectedÂ responsesÂ andÂ responsibleÂ players,Â andÂ objectivesÂ andÂ coreÂ capabilitiesÂ toÂ beÂ addressed,Â andÂ isÂ usefulÂ forÂ moreÂ complexÂ exercises.Â SourcesÂ ofÂ scenariosÂ includeÂ NationalÂ PlanningÂ Scenarios,Â PublicÂ TransportationÂ SystemÂ SecurityÂ andÂ EmergencyÂ PreparednessÂ PlanningÂ Guide,Â andÂ TCRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 60/NCHRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 200Â (availableÂ at:Â http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_w60.pdf)Â whichÂ describesÂ scenariosÂ addressedÂ inÂ theÂ TransitÂ CooperativeÂ ResearchÂ ProgramÂ (TCRP)Â ProjectÂ Aâ36,Â âCommandÂ LevelÂ DecisionÂ MakingÂ forÂ TransitÂ EmergencyÂ Managersâ:Â flood,Â hurricane,Â earthquake,Â powerÂ outage,Â hazardousÂ materials,Â andÂ activeÂ shooter.Â NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468Â providesÂ aÂ BlizzardÂ EmergencyÂ ScenarioÂ andÂ aÂ FloodÂ Scenario.Â TheÂ 2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ HandbookÂ notesÂ theÂ benefitsÂ ofÂ basingÂ theÂ scenarioÂ onÂ anÂ actualÂ event.Â AccordingÂ toÂ theÂ authors,Â EdwardsÂ andÂ Goodrich,Â âAnÂ actualÂ occurrenceÂ increasesÂ believability.Â TheoreticallyÂ basedÂ scenariosÂ decreaseÂ believability.Â TheÂ moreÂ artificialitiesÂ thatÂ areÂ used,Â theÂ higherÂ theÂ likelihoodÂ ofÂ misunderstandingÂ andÂ rejectionÂ byÂ participants.âÂ Â ForÂ instance,Â WashingtonÂ DOTÂ usedÂ theÂ 50âvehicleÂ pileupÂ onÂ SnoqualmieÂ PassÂ thatÂ occurredÂ inÂ February,Â 2007Â toÂ createÂ aÂ scenarioÂ forÂ aÂ TTXÂ heldÂ inÂ MayÂ 2007.Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ regardingÂ ScenarioÂ DevelopmentÂ ï· ScenariosÂ shouldÂ beÂ realisticÂ andÂ challengingÂ butÂ notÂ overwhelmingÂ Â ï· ScenariosÂ shouldÂ focusÂ onÂ localÂ threatsÂ andÂ hazardsÂ ï· UseÂ subjectâmatterÂ expertsÂ (SMEs)Â toÂ createÂ realismÂ
131Â Â Â ï· UseÂ capabilitiesÂ ofÂ MPOsÂ (e.g.,Â GISÂ mapping,Â extensiveÂ databases,Â stakeholderÂ connections)Â ï· InvolveÂ aÂ broad,Â diverseÂ teamÂ forÂ scenarioÂ developmentÂ ï· LinkÂ MSELÂ entriesÂ toÂ theÂ ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ GuideÂ (EEG)Â criticalÂ tasksÂ toÂ ensureÂ theÂ criticalÂ tasksÂ andÂ coreÂ capabilitiesÂ canÂ beÂ demonstrated.Â Â Â Â ï· SelectÂ threeÂ recentÂ events;Â then,Â selectÂ theÂ scenarioÂ thatÂ bestÂ supportsÂ exerciseÂ objectives.Â Â ï· ScenariosÂ canÂ alsoÂ beÂ basedÂ on:Â o NationalÂ PlanningÂ ScenariosÂ o FindingsÂ ofÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ Reports/ImprovementÂ PlansÂ o ThreatÂ andÂ VulnerabilityÂ AssessmentsÂ o CurrentÂ orÂ HistoricalÂ EventsÂ (local,Â national,Â orÂ international)Â o ScenariosÂ DevelopedÂ forÂ ResearchÂ StudiesÂ (e.g.,Â TCRPÂ Aâ36Â project)Â ï· ConsiderÂ theÂ followingÂ whenÂ developingÂ aÂ scenarioÂ o CascadingÂ effectsÂ involvingÂ lifelineÂ functionsÂ o FlexibleÂ usesÂ ofÂ theÂ transportationÂ systemÂ o ResourceÂ prioritizationÂ strategiesÂ o MobilityÂ optionsÂ andÂ needsÂ ofÂ allÂ travelersÂ includingÂ disadvantagedÂ populationsÂ o ChainÂ ofÂ authorityÂ whenÂ keyÂ personnel/decisionâmakerÂ isÂ unavailableÂ o CriticalÂ informationÂ collectionÂ andÂ disseminationÂ o IdentificationÂ ofÂ infrastructureÂ prioritiesÂ inÂ responseÂ andÂ recoveryÂ ExampleÂ ScenariosÂ forÂ discussionâbasedÂ transportationÂ sectorÂ exercisesÂ areÂ providedÂ inÂ theÂ 2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ Handbook.Â Â InÂ addition,Â DOTsÂ mayÂ considerÂ seekingÂ assistanceÂ fromÂ theÂ stateÂ EMAÂ andÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ andÂ resourcesÂ fromÂ theÂ HomelandÂ SecurityÂ DigitalÂ LibraryÂ (HSDL)Â HSDL.orgÂ whichÂ nowÂ includesÂ contentÂ fromÂ theÂ LessonsÂ LearnedÂ InformationÂ SharingÂ (LLIS)Â program.Â TheÂ HomelandÂ SecurityÂ DigitalÂ LibraryÂ (HSDL)Â containsÂ aÂ troveÂ ofÂ informationÂ andÂ caseÂ studiesÂ onÂ lessonsÂ learned.Â HSDLÂ isÂ jointlyÂ sponsoredÂ byÂ FEMAÂ andÂ theÂ NavalÂ PostgraduateÂ SchoolâsÂ CenterÂ forÂ HomelandÂ DefenseÂ andÂ Security.Â HSDLÂ containsÂ lessonsÂ learned,Â AfterÂ ActionÂ Reports,Â caseÂ studies,Â innovativeÂ practicesÂ andÂ otherÂ materialÂ formerlyÂ containedÂ inÂ theÂ LessonsÂ LearnedÂ InformationÂ SharingÂ programÂ inÂ additionÂ toÂ manyÂ otherÂ documentsÂ onÂ homelandÂ security.Â Available:Â HSDL.org.Â HelpfulÂ transportationâspecificÂ resourcesÂ includeÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468Â report,Â theÂ 2014Â MTIÂ ExerciseÂ Handbook:Â WhatÂ TransportationÂ SecurityÂ andÂ EmergencyÂ PreparednessÂ LeadersÂ NeedÂ toÂ KnowÂ toÂ ImproveÂ EmergencyÂ Preparedness,Â 2010Â MTIÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExercisesÂ forÂ TransportationÂ AgencyÂ Operations,Â 2014Â NCHRPÂ ReportÂ 777:Â ,Â andÂ theÂ AASHTOÂ CatastrophicÂ Guide.Â ExerciseÂ DocumentationÂ ExerciseÂ documentationÂ isÂ extremelyÂ important.Â IdentificationÂ ofÂ strengthsÂ andÂ areasÂ ofÂ improvementÂ canÂ beÂ accomplishedÂ withoutÂ accurateÂ andÂ thoroughÂ documentation.Â TheÂ typesÂ ofÂ documentsÂ requiredÂ forÂ eachÂ exerciseÂ typeÂ areÂ providedÂ inÂ TableÂ 3.2Â ofÂ theÂ 2013Â HSEEP:Â ï· SituationÂ ManualÂ forÂ TTXsÂ andÂ GamesÂ forÂ allÂ ParticipantsÂ ï· FacilitatorÂ GuideÂ forÂ TTXÂ andÂ GameÂ FacilitatorsÂ ï· MultimediaÂ PresentationÂ forÂ TTXÂ andÂ GameÂ forÂ allÂ ParticipantsÂ ï· ExerciseÂ PlanÂ forÂ Drill,Â FE,Â andÂ FSEÂ forÂ PlayersÂ andÂ ObserversÂ ï· ControllerÂ andÂ EvaluatorÂ HandbookÂ forÂ Drill,Â FE,Â andÂ FSEÂ forÂ ControllersÂ andÂ EvaluatorsÂ ï· MasterÂ ScenarioÂ EventsÂ ListÂ forÂ Drill,Â FE,Â FSEÂ forÂ Controllers,Â Evaluators,Â andÂ SimulatorsÂ ï· ExtentÂ ofÂ PlayÂ AgreementÂ forÂ FEÂ andÂ FSEÂ forÂ ExerciseÂ PlanningÂ TeamÂ ï· ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ GuidesÂ forÂ TTX,Â Game,Â Drill,Â FE,Â andÂ FSEÂ forÂ EvaluatorsÂ
132Â Â Â ï· ParticipantÂ FeedbackÂ FormÂ forÂ allÂ ExercisesÂ forÂ allÂ ParticipantsÂ NoteÂ thatÂ TennesseeÂ DOTÂ followsÂ HSEEP,Â EMAP,Â andÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ PerformanceÂ GrantÂ (EMPG)Â exerciseÂ documentationÂ guidance.Â ExerciseÂ ConductÂ ExerciseÂ ConductÂ involvesÂ theÂ followingÂ keyÂ steps:Â StepÂ 1:Â PreparingÂ forÂ exerciseÂ playÂ Generally,Â discussionâbasedÂ exercisesÂ requireÂ lessÂ preparationÂ thanÂ operationsâbasedÂ exercises.Â Â BothÂ requireÂ roomÂ orÂ siteÂ andÂ seatingÂ setâup,Â equipmentÂ checks,Â multimediaÂ presentationÂ andÂ handouts,Â signâinÂ sheets,Â andÂ feedbackÂ forms.Â AlsoÂ beforeÂ anÂ exercise,Â separateÂ briefingsÂ areÂ heldÂ forÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officials,Â facilitators/controllers/evaluators,Â players,Â observers,Â andÂ actors.Â StepÂ 2:Â ManagingÂ exerciseÂ playÂ Â ForÂ DiscussionâbasedÂ exercises,Â theÂ facilitatorÂ givesÂ aÂ multimediaÂ presentation,Â andÂ participantÂ discussionÂ willÂ ensure.Â TheseÂ discussionsÂ canÂ beÂ facilitatedÂ orÂ moderated.Â FacilitatedÂ discussionsÂ occurÂ inÂ aÂ plenaryÂ sessionÂ orÂ breakoutÂ sessions.Â BreakoutÂ groupÂ discussionsÂ areÂ heldÂ beforeÂ theÂ moderatedÂ discussionÂ inÂ whichÂ aÂ spokespersonÂ fromÂ eachÂ groupÂ summarizesÂ theÂ keyÂ findingsÂ ofÂ theÂ discussion.Â EvaluatorsÂ observeÂ andÂ documentÂ theseÂ sessions.Â ForÂ OperationsâbasedÂ exercises,Â itÂ isÂ importantÂ toÂ clearlyÂ defineÂ andÂ markÂ exerciseÂ areasÂ andÂ exerciseÂ materialsÂ toÂ avoidÂ confusion.Â ControllersÂ controlÂ exerciseÂ flowÂ andÂ provideÂ necessaryÂ dataÂ andÂ injectsÂ toÂ players.Â Â ActivityÂ andÂ staffÂ notÂ inÂ theÂ exerciseÂ areasÂ areÂ simulatedÂ byÂ theÂ SimCellÂ staff.Â EvaluatorsÂ areÂ preâ positionedÂ atÂ strategicÂ locationsÂ toÂ allowÂ observationÂ andÂ documentationÂ ofÂ exerciseÂ playÂ andÂ playerÂ response.Â EvaluatorsÂ captureÂ bothÂ quantitativeÂ andÂ qualitativeÂ dataÂ usingÂ ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ GuidesÂ (EEGs).Â EEGsÂ facilitateÂ theÂ exerciseÂ evaluationÂ processÂ byÂ clearlyÂ delineatingÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ andÂ associatedÂ coreÂ capabilities,Â capabilityÂ targets,Â andÂ criticalÂ tasks.Â DocumentationÂ ofÂ theÂ exerciseÂ playÂ throughÂ photosÂ andÂ videoÂ recordingsÂ canÂ helpÂ trainÂ personnel,Â briefÂ seniorÂ management,Â andÂ improveÂ futureÂ exercises.Â StepÂ 3:Â WrapâupÂ activitiesÂ Â WrapâupÂ activitiesÂ includingÂ debriefingsÂ andÂ aÂ âHotÂ WashâÂ whichÂ isÂ aÂ debriefingÂ conductedÂ immediatelyÂ afterÂ theÂ exercise.Â Â o DebriefingsÂ ofÂ exerciseÂ planningÂ teamÂ membersÂ gatherÂ informationÂ aboutÂ theirÂ satisfactionÂ withÂ theÂ exercise,Â issues,Â andÂ possibleÂ improvements.Â ParticipantÂ FeedbackÂ FormsÂ areÂ usedÂ toÂ collectÂ participantÂ feedbackÂ andÂ helpÂ developÂ debriefingÂ notes.Â TheÂ controller/evaluatorÂ debriefingÂ providesÂ anÂ opportunityÂ forÂ controllersÂ andÂ evaluatorsÂ toÂ shareÂ theirÂ observationsÂ andÂ keyÂ insightsÂ intoÂ strengthsÂ andÂ areasÂ forÂ improvement.Â Â Â o AÂ HotÂ Wash,Â aÂ forumÂ forÂ exerciseÂ participantsÂ toÂ discussÂ exerciseÂ strengthsÂ andÂ areasÂ forÂ improvement,Â isÂ ledÂ byÂ anÂ experiencedÂ facilitator.Â Â ParticipantÂ FeedbackÂ FormsÂ canÂ beÂ distributedÂ duringÂ theÂ HotÂ Wash.Â ForÂ OperationsâbasedÂ exercises,Â aÂ HotÂ WashÂ forÂ eachÂ functionalÂ areaÂ isÂ conducted.Â Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ regardingÂ ExerciseÂ ConductÂ
133Â Â Â ï· EstablishÂ aÂ contingencyÂ processÂ toÂ endÂ theÂ exerciseÂ inÂ caseÂ ofÂ aÂ realâworldÂ event.Â ï· DocumentÂ theÂ exerciseÂ playÂ throughÂ photosÂ andÂ videoÂ recordingsÂ whichÂ canÂ beÂ usedÂ toÂ trainÂ personnel,Â briefÂ seniorÂ management,Â andÂ improveÂ futureÂ exercises.Â ï· RememberÂ toÂ documentÂ theÂ debriefings.Â Â ï· ConsiderÂ providingÂ psychologicalÂ supportÂ duringÂ debriefings.Â ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ Â ToÂ createÂ standardizedÂ evaluationÂ mechanismsÂ forÂ theÂ exerciseÂ andÂ abilityÂ toÂ trackÂ progressÂ acrossÂ multipleÂ exercises,Â andÂ meetÂ fundingÂ orÂ reportingÂ requirements,Â onceÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ haveÂ beenÂ selected,Â identifyÂ coreÂ capabilitiesÂ forÂ eachÂ exerciseÂ objective.Â Next,Â identifyÂ capabilityÂ targetsÂ (performanceÂ thresholds)Â forÂ eachÂ ofÂ theÂ coreÂ capabilities.Â InformationÂ regardingÂ capabilityÂ targetsÂ mayÂ beÂ availableÂ fromÂ resultsÂ ofÂ theÂ THIRAÂ orÂ otherÂ riskÂ assessments.Â Finally,Â identifyÂ theÂ criticalÂ tasksÂ neededÂ toÂ accomplishÂ aÂ coreÂ capability.Â CriticalÂ tasksÂ areÂ foundÂ inÂ theÂ EOP,Â SOPs,Â MissionÂ AreaÂ Frameworks,Â orÂ otherÂ sources.Â Â TheÂ fourÂ keyÂ stepsÂ forÂ ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ areÂ discussedÂ below:Â StepÂ 1:Â PlanningÂ forÂ ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ TheÂ firstÂ stepÂ inÂ exerciseÂ evaluationÂ isÂ planningÂ whichÂ shouldÂ startÂ duringÂ theÂ ExerciseÂ DesignÂ andÂ DevelopmentÂ stage.Â ActionsÂ thatÂ shouldÂ beÂ takenÂ include:Â ï· SelectÂ leadÂ evaluatorÂ ï· DefineÂ evaluationÂ teamÂ requirementsÂ andÂ structureÂ ï· DevelopÂ ExerciseÂ EvaluationÂ GuidesÂ whichÂ includeÂ objectives,Â coreÂ capabilities,Â targets,Â andÂ criticalÂ tasksÂ ï· Recruit,Â train,Â andÂ assignÂ evaluatorsÂ ï· DevelopÂ evaluationÂ documentationÂ includingÂ exerciseâspecificÂ details,Â evaluatorÂ teamÂ organization/assignments/locations,Â evaluatorÂ instructions,Â andÂ evaluationÂ toolsÂ ï· ConductÂ aÂ preâexerciseÂ C/EÂ briefingÂ toÂ confirmÂ roles,Â responsibilities,Â andÂ assignmentsÂ andÂ anyÂ changesÂ ForÂ evaluationÂ ofÂ plans,Â CPGÂ 101Â v.Â 2Â (pageÂ câ4)Â recommendsÂ askingÂ theÂ followingÂ questions:Â ï· âDidÂ anÂ action,Â process,Â decision,Â orÂ theÂ operationalÂ timingÂ identifiedÂ inÂ theÂ planÂ makeÂ theÂ situationÂ worseÂ orÂ better?Â ï· WereÂ newÂ alternateÂ coursesÂ ofÂ actionÂ identified?Â ï· WereÂ theÂ requirementsÂ ofÂ children,Â individualsÂ withÂ disabilities,Â andÂ othersÂ withÂ accessÂ andÂ functionalÂ needsÂ fullyÂ addressedÂ andÂ integratedÂ intoÂ allÂ appropriateÂ aspectsÂ ofÂ theÂ plan?Â ï· WhatÂ aspectsÂ ofÂ theÂ action,Â process,Â decision,Â orÂ operationalÂ timingÂ makeÂ itÂ somethingÂ toÂ keepÂ inÂ theÂ plan?Â ï· WhatÂ aspectsÂ ofÂ theÂ action,Â process,Â decision,Â orÂ operationalÂ timingÂ makeÂ itÂ somethingÂ toÂ avoidÂ orÂ removeÂ fromÂ theÂ plan?Â ï· WhatÂ specificÂ changesÂ toÂ plansÂ andÂ procedures,Â personnel,Â organizationalÂ structures,Â leadershipÂ orÂ managementÂ processes,Â facilities,Â orÂ equipmentÂ canÂ improveÂ operationalÂ performance?âÂ StepÂ 2:Â ObservingÂ theÂ exerciseÂ conductÂ andÂ dataÂ collectionÂ
134Â Â Â ForÂ discussionâbasedÂ exercises,Â theÂ evaluatorÂ orÂ noteâtakerÂ willÂ recordÂ dataÂ fromÂ participantÂ discussions.Â ForÂ operationsâbasedÂ exercises,Â theÂ focusÂ isÂ onÂ recordingÂ playerÂ actions.Â TheÂ dataÂ collectedÂ duringÂ thisÂ stepÂ willÂ beÂ essentialÂ inÂ developingÂ theÂ AAR.Â Â StepÂ 3:Â AnalyzingÂ dataÂ andÂ identifyingÂ strengthsÂ andÂ areasÂ forÂ improvementÂ DataÂ analysisÂ willÂ determineÂ answersÂ toÂ theÂ questions:Â Â ï· WereÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ met?Â ï· WereÂ theÂ capabilityÂ targetsÂ met?Â IfÂ not,Â whyÂ not?Â ï· WereÂ playersÂ ableÂ toÂ performÂ coreÂ capabilities?Â DidÂ theyÂ executeÂ theÂ criticalÂ tasksÂ toÂ meetÂ capabilityÂ targets?Â IfÂ not,Â whatÂ wereÂ theÂ impactsÂ and/orÂ consequences?Â Â ï· DoÂ currentÂ plans,Â policies,Â andÂ proceduresÂ supportÂ criticalÂ tasksÂ andÂ capabilityÂ targets?Â WereÂ participantsÂ familiarÂ withÂ theseÂ documents?Â Â ToÂ determineÂ theÂ rootÂ causesÂ ofÂ deficiencies,Â evaluatorsÂ willÂ closelyÂ reviewÂ criticalÂ tasksÂ notÂ completedÂ andÂ targetsÂ notÂ met.Â Â Â StepÂ 4:Â ReportingÂ exerciseÂ outcomesÂ Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ onÂ EvaluationsÂ ï· SelectÂ facilitatorsÂ andÂ evaluatorsÂ thatÂ knowÂ andÂ areÂ knownÂ byÂ yourÂ agencyÂ Â ï· EvaluatorsÂ shouldÂ evaluateÂ onlyÂ theirÂ ownÂ agencyÂ andÂ professionÂ andÂ jurisdictionÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ ReportÂ (AAR)/ImprovementÂ PlanÂ (IP)/CorrectiveÂ ActionsÂ LessonsÂ learnedÂ leadÂ toÂ helpfulÂ feedbackÂ forÂ theÂ DOT,Â personnel,Â andÂ teams.Â TheyÂ areÂ reviewed,Â analyzed,Â andÂ compiledÂ intoÂ anÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ ReportÂ (AAR).Â TheÂ AARÂ providesÂ documentationÂ regardingÂ strengthsÂ andÂ weaknessesÂ identifiedÂ duringÂ theÂ event.Â AfterÂ anÂ initialÂ analysisÂ step,Â aÂ qualitativeÂ assessmentÂ isÂ recommendedÂ especiallyÂ forÂ exercises,Â incidents,Â andÂ plannedÂ eventsÂ toÂ developÂ anÂ initialÂ listÂ ofÂ correctiveÂ actions.Â AnÂ ImprovementÂ PlanÂ (IP)Â containsÂ aÂ listÂ ofÂ correctiveÂ actionsÂ addressingÂ capabilityÂ gapsÂ alongÂ withÂ responsibilityÂ forÂ eachÂ CorrectiveÂ Action,Â targetÂ dates,Â andÂ trackingÂ mechanism.Â TheÂ IPÂ shouldÂ includeÂ sourceÂ ofÂ fundsÂ forÂ CorrectiveÂ Actions,Â andÂ howÂ andÂ whenÂ overseeingÂ agencyÂ willÂ beÂ notifiedÂ uponÂ completionÂ ofÂ aÂ CorrectiveÂ Action.Â TheÂ IPÂ isÂ basedÂ onÂ theÂ AARÂ andÂ lessonsÂ learnedÂ alongÂ withÂ relevantÂ informationÂ fromÂ selfâassessments,Â audits,Â andÂ administrativeÂ reviews.Â Â ToÂ developÂ aÂ draftÂ listÂ ofÂ improvementÂ areasÂ andÂ CorrectiveÂ Actions,Â theÂ reviewerÂ asksÂ theÂ followingÂ questions:Â WhatÂ areÂ theÂ lessonsÂ learnedÂ forÂ similarÂ problemsÂ orÂ scenarios?Â Â WhatÂ changesÂ needÂ toÂ beÂ madeÂ to:Â Â o training,Â plansÂ andÂ proceduresÂ Â o organizationalÂ structures,Â resources,Â systemsÂ o managementÂ processesÂ â¦toÂ improveÂ performance?Â Â Â
135Â Â Â (AdaptedÂ fromÂ HSEEP,Â 2013)Â TheÂ AARÂ containsÂ evaluationÂ information,Â overviewÂ ofÂ performanceÂ withÂ aÂ focusÂ onÂ exerciseÂ objectivesÂ andÂ theÂ analysisÂ ofÂ coreÂ capabilities.Â Â AccordingÂ toÂ CPGÂ 101Â v.Â 2,Â theÂ AARÂ should:Â ï· DescribeÂ theÂ reasonsÂ andÂ needÂ toÂ conductÂ anÂ AARÂ (e.g.,Â reviewÂ actionsÂ taken,Â identifyÂ equipmentÂ shortcomings,Â improveÂ operationalÂ readiness,Â highlightÂ strengths/initiatives)Â ï· DescribeÂ theÂ methodsÂ andÂ agenciesÂ usedÂ toÂ organizeÂ andÂ conductÂ aÂ reviewÂ ofÂ theÂ disaster,Â includingÂ howÂ recommendationsÂ areÂ documentedÂ toÂ improveÂ localÂ readinessÂ (e.g.,Â changeÂ plans/procedures,Â acquireÂ newÂ orÂ replaceÂ outdatedÂ resources,Â retrainÂ personnel)Â ï· DescribeÂ theÂ linksÂ andÂ connectionsÂ betweenÂ theÂ processesÂ usedÂ toÂ critiqueÂ theÂ responseÂ toÂ anÂ emergency/disasterÂ andÂ theÂ processesÂ usedÂ toÂ documentÂ recommendationsÂ forÂ theÂ jurisdictionâsÂ exerciseÂ programÂ ï· DescribeÂ howÂ theÂ jurisdictionÂ ensuresÂ thatÂ theÂ deficienciesÂ andÂ recommendationsÂ identifiedÂ inÂ theÂ AARÂ areÂ corrected/completed.Â p.Â câ10Â AppendixÂ C,Â CPGÂ 101Â v.Â 2Â AARÂ templatesÂ shouldÂ beÂ reviewedÂ andÂ usedÂ toÂ ensureÂ thatÂ importantÂ informationÂ isÂ notÂ leftÂ outÂ ofÂ theÂ document.Â Â TheÂ exerciseÂ sponsorÂ sendsÂ theÂ draftÂ AARÂ toÂ exerciseÂ participantsÂ andÂ electedÂ andÂ appointedÂ officialsÂ willÂ confirmÂ conclusionsÂ inÂ theÂ AARÂ andÂ areasÂ forÂ improvement.Â Â AfterÂ aÂ draftÂ AARÂ andÂ IPÂ haveÂ beenÂ developed,Â electedÂ officialsÂ andÂ keyÂ decisionÂ makersÂ areÂ providedÂ anÂ opportunityÂ toÂ reviewÂ themÂ andÂ provideÂ comments.Â AnÂ AfterâActionÂ MeetingÂ (AAM)Â isÂ thenÂ heldÂ forÂ personnelÂ toÂ reviewÂ theÂ updatedÂ AARÂ andÂ theÂ draftÂ IP.Â Â TheÂ AAMÂ facilitatorÂ shouldÂ leadÂ focusedÂ discussions,Â presentÂ theÂ eventÂ timelineÂ andÂ responsesÂ toÂ assistÂ inÂ eventÂ recall,Â andÂ distributeÂ aÂ feedbackÂ formÂ toÂ gatherÂ additionalÂ commentsÂ andÂ input.Â TheÂ finalÂ AARÂ andÂ IP/CorrectiveÂ ActionsÂ shouldÂ beÂ disseminatedÂ toÂ allÂ trainingÂ andÂ exerciseÂ participantsÂ andÂ othersÂ affectedÂ byÂ them.Â ImprovementÂ planningÂ canÂ beÂ usedÂ toÂ supportÂ continuousÂ improvementÂ throughoutÂ theÂ DOTÂ byÂ takingÂ aÂ consistentÂ approachÂ toÂ relatedÂ activitiesÂ includingÂ issueÂ resolutionÂ andÂ informationÂ sharing,Â dataÂ collectionÂ fromÂ andÂ analysisÂ ofÂ exercisesÂ andÂ events,Â andÂ longerâtermÂ trendÂ analysis.Â RegardingÂ theÂ maintenanceÂ ofÂ plans,Â eachÂ componentÂ ofÂ theÂ planÂ shouldÂ beÂ reviewedÂ andÂ revisedÂ onÂ aÂ regularÂ basis,Â ANDÂ afterÂ specificÂ eventsÂ suchÂ asÂ keyÂ changesÂ inÂ resources,Â changesÂ inÂ guidanceÂ orÂ standards,Â aÂ majorÂ exerciseÂ orÂ incident,Â orÂ aÂ changeÂ inÂ officials.Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ onÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ Report/ImprovementÂ Plan/CorrectiveÂ ActionsÂ ï· CorrectiveÂ actionsÂ shouldÂ beÂ clear,Â specific,Â andÂ actionable.Â Â ï· CorrectiveÂ actionsÂ shouldÂ beÂ withinÂ theÂ DOTâsÂ responsibility.Â ï· EnsureÂ supportÂ forÂ theÂ IPÂ andÂ CorrectiveÂ Actions.Â Â ï· DonâtÂ forgetÂ toÂ properlyÂ documentÂ theÂ AARÂ process.Â Â ï· TaskedÂ individuals/entitiesÂ mayÂ needÂ toÂ developÂ implementingÂ documents.Â ï· ShareÂ improvementÂ recommendationsÂ relatedÂ toÂ NIMS,Â NIMSÂ plansÂ andÂ trainingÂ withÂ theÂ NIMSÂ nationalÂ coordinationÂ process.Â Â
136Â Â Â ï· 2014Â MTIÂ EXERCISEÂ HANDBOOKÂ (AnnexÂ B)Â containsÂ aÂ sampleÂ ParticipantÂ FeedbackÂ formÂ andÂ sampleÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ Report.Â Â ï· TheÂ HSEEPÂ websiteÂ providesÂ helpfulÂ templatesÂ includingÂ AAR/IPÂ templates.Â TrainingÂ ImplementationÂ SolutionsÂ NCHRPÂ SYNTHESISÂ 468:Â INTERACTIVEÂ TRAININGÂ FORÂ ALLâHAZARDSÂ EMERGENCYÂ PLANNING,Â PREPARATION,Â ANDÂ RESPONSEÂ FORÂ MAINTENANCEÂ ANDÂ OPERATIONSÂ FIELDÂ PERSONNELÂ identifiedÂ andÂ describedÂ trainingÂ implementationÂ challenges,Â andÂ trainingÂ needsÂ andÂ solutions.Â KeyÂ challengesÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ identifiedÂ wereÂ schedulingÂ difficultiesÂ andÂ limitedÂ budgets.Â AdditionalÂ challengesÂ includedÂ lackÂ ofÂ qualifiedÂ trainingÂ staff,Â personnelÂ turnover,Â distanceÂ issues,Â seniorÂ managementÂ issues,Â inadequateÂ facilitiesÂ andÂ otherÂ resources,Â insufficientÂ informationÂ aboutÂ availableÂ training,Â andÂ infrequentÂ needÂ forÂ training.Â TrainingÂ deliveryÂ solutionsÂ includedÂ inÂ TableÂ 15Â :Â Â TableÂ Â 15:Â TrainingÂ DeliveryÂ SolutionsÂ FieldÂ CrewÂ MeetingsÂ AdvantagesÂ MeetingsÂ areÂ briefÂ andÂ areÂ heldÂ onÂ aÂ regularÂ basisÂ atÂ aÂ location/timeÂ convenientÂ toÂ fieldÂ personnel.Â MeetingsÂ areÂ alsoÂ focusedÂ andÂ veryÂ relevantÂ toÂ fieldÂ crew.Â HandsâonÂ trainingÂ isÂ possible.Â FieldÂ personnelÂ canÂ practiceÂ aÂ procedureÂ orÂ skill.Â DisadvantagesÂ NoneÂ JustâinâTimeÂ TrainingÂ AdvantagesÂ HighÂ retentionÂ ofÂ trainingÂ contentÂ Â CostâeffectiveÂ DisadvantagesÂ PersonnelÂ areÂ notÂ providedÂ theÂ opportunityÂ toÂ practiceÂ aÂ skillÂ orÂ processÂ beforeÂ itsÂ realâlifeÂ application.Â Â Â TakingÂ theÂ timeÂ toÂ trainÂ personnelÂ mayÂ delayÂ theÂ responseÂ effort.Â TrainingÂ personnelÂ inÂ anÂ emergencyÂ situationÂ whenÂ theirÂ levelÂ ofÂ stressÂ isÂ highÂ mayÂ hinderÂ theÂ learningÂ process.Â Â InterjurisdictionalÂ andÂ InteragencyÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExercisesÂ AdvantagesÂ OpportunityÂ forÂ faceâtoâfaceÂ interactionsÂ withÂ peersÂ fromÂ otherÂ responseÂ agenciesÂ throughÂ theseÂ exercisesÂ isÂ essentialÂ preparationÂ forÂ largerÂ andÂ moreÂ complexÂ events.Â TheyÂ willÂ alsoÂ helpÂ prepareÂ agenciesÂ andÂ theirÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ understandÂ theÂ ICSÂ structure,Â theirÂ rolesÂ andÂ responsibilitiesÂ withinÂ theÂ structure,Â andÂ howÂ theyÂ shouldÂ integrateÂ withÂ DisadvantagesÂ SchedulingÂ difficultiesÂ mayÂ impedeÂ theÂ abilityÂ ofÂ aÂ largeÂ percentageÂ ofÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ toÂ attendÂ theseÂ sessions.Â Â
137Â Â Â personnelÂ fromÂ otherÂ entitiesÂ forÂ theseÂ eventsÂ JointÂ TrainingÂ AdvantagesÂ SchedulingÂ difficultiesÂ mayÂ beÂ mitigatedÂ byÂ deliveringÂ emergencyÂ trainingÂ inÂ conjunctionÂ withÂ anotherÂ relatedÂ topic.Â IntraâagencyÂ interactionÂ andÂ communicationsÂ mayÂ beÂ facilitated.Â Â DisadvantagesÂ EmergencyÂ componentÂ mayÂ needÂ toÂ beÂ shortenedÂ orÂ modified.Â AsynchronousÂ TrainingÂ âÂ ComputerâbasedÂ TrainingÂ withoutÂ LiveÂ InstructorsÂ AdvantagesÂ AlleviatesÂ theÂ needÂ toÂ scheduleÂ theÂ trainingÂ inÂ advance.Â AllowsÂ 24âhourÂ accessÂ toÂ theÂ material.Â Â SomeÂ onÂ demandÂ servicesÂ offerÂ automatedÂ recordÂ keepingÂ andÂ traineeÂ progressÂ tracking.Â Â Â DisadvantagesÂ LackÂ ofÂ abilityÂ toÂ interactÂ withÂ otherÂ studentsÂ andÂ instructorÂ limitsÂ learningÂ Â Â StudentÂ distractionÂ mayÂ beÂ moreÂ likelyÂ Â Â SelfâdirectionÂ isÂ needed.Â AsynchronousÂ TrainingÂ âÂ PrepackagedÂ DVDsÂ andÂ CDsÂ AdvantagesÂ AllowsÂ trainersÂ toÂ selectÂ appropriateÂ trainingÂ videosÂ orÂ CDÂ orÂ DVDÂ trainingÂ packagesÂ thatÂ isÂ theÂ bestÂ valueÂ forÂ theirÂ needs.Â Â TheÂ packagesÂ usuallyÂ focusÂ onÂ aÂ particularÂ topicÂ andÂ containÂ aÂ varietyÂ ofÂ tools.Â CostâeffectiveÂ becauseÂ manyÂ traineesÂ mayÂ viewÂ theÂ contentÂ typicallyÂ forÂ aÂ fixedÂ cost.Â OnlineÂ onâdemandÂ trainingÂ mayÂ chargeÂ theÂ agencyÂ perÂ trainee.Â WithÂ VTC,Â CCTV,Â orÂ SKYPEÂ technology,Â itÂ isÂ possibleÂ toÂ presentÂ theÂ contentÂ toÂ multipleÂ locationsÂ Â Â DisadvantagesÂ WhenÂ VTC,Â CCTV,Â orÂ SKYPEÂ technologyÂ isÂ used,Â technologyÂ relatedÂ issuesÂ canÂ ariseÂ andÂ connectivityÂ andÂ qualityÂ ofÂ theÂ transmissionÂ mayÂ beÂ inconsistent.Â Â TrainingÂ videosÂ andÂ packagesÂ onÂ CDÂ ROMsÂ andÂ DVDsÂ areÂ notÂ âonâdemand;âÂ theÂ trainingÂ needsÂ toÂ beÂ scheduled.Â InteractionÂ withÂ instructorsÂ andÂ otherÂ traineesÂ isÂ limited.Â Â TrainâtheâTrainerÂ AdvantagesÂ CostâeffectiveÂ wayÂ toÂ leverageÂ limitedÂ resources.Â AlleviatesÂ havingÂ toÂ hireÂ additionalÂ trainingÂ staffÂ orÂ consultants.Â Â DisadvantagesÂ ContentÂ dilutionÂ couldÂ beÂ possibleÂ asÂ additionalÂ trainingÂ tiersÂ areÂ added.Â PlannedÂ Events,Â IncidentsÂ AdvantagesÂ BothÂ plannedÂ eventsÂ andÂ incidentsÂ areÂ goodÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ practiceÂ coordination,Â communications,Â resourceÂ mobilization,Â andÂ trafficÂ management/controlÂ strategies.Â TrafficÂ incidentsÂ happenÂ dailyÂ andÂ provideÂ manyÂ opportunitiesÂ forÂ practice.Â DisadvantagesÂ (Incidents)Â ThereÂ isÂ noÂ guaranteeÂ thatÂ aÂ seriesÂ ofÂ minorÂ incidents,Â asideÂ fromÂ trafficÂ accidents,Â willÂ occurÂ priorÂ toÂ aÂ disaster.Â Incidents,Â evenÂ minorÂ ones,Â haveÂ moreÂ riskÂ associatedÂ withÂ them;Â forÂ instance,Â aÂ minorÂ trafficÂ
138Â Â Â Â accidentÂ couldÂ becomeÂ aÂ multicarÂ crashÂ withÂ manyÂ fatalitiesÂ andÂ injuries.Â ComputerâAssistedÂ SimulationsÂ AdvantagesÂ AÂ large,Â geographicallyÂ dispersedÂ audienceÂ canÂ beÂ reached.Â AllowsÂ identificationÂ ofÂ weaknessesÂ orÂ resourceÂ deficienciesÂ inÂ training,Â plans,Â procedures,Â andÂ policies.Â AllowsÂ theÂ participation/interactionÂ ofÂ keyÂ personnelÂ inÂ differentÂ geographicÂ regions.Â Â ImprovesÂ individualÂ performance,Â organizationalÂ communication,Â andÂ coordination.Â DangerousÂ scenariosÂ mayÂ beÂ simulatedÂ safely.Â MayÂ orÂ mayÂ notÂ beÂ webâbased.Â Â DisadvantagesÂ GoodÂ PCÂ andÂ InternetÂ skillsÂ necessaryÂ forÂ learnersÂ toÂ gainÂ fullÂ advantageÂ ofÂ training.Â InÂ remoteÂ locationsÂ orÂ otherÂ areasÂ badÂ orÂ noÂ InternetÂ accessÂ canÂ hinderÂ training.Â UnforeseenÂ connectionÂ problemsÂ mayÂ ariseÂ duringÂ training.Â IfÂ onÂ theÂ hostâsÂ end,Â trainingÂ mayÂ beÂ interrupted.Â Â Â BandwidthÂ issuesÂ mayÂ causeÂ delayÂ orÂ disruption.Â Â MayÂ lackÂ realism,Â andÂ mayÂ notÂ provideÂ aÂ trueÂ testÂ ofÂ capabilitiesÂ inÂ anÂ emergencyÂ situation.Â ForÂ synchronousÂ simulations,Â schedulingÂ canÂ beÂ aÂ problem.Â ClassroomÂ TrainingÂ AdvantagesÂ CanÂ presentÂ upâtoâdateÂ information.Â Â SummarizesÂ materialsÂ fromÂ variousÂ sources.Â CanÂ adaptÂ theÂ materialÂ toÂ studentÂ backgroundsÂ andÂ interests.Â HighlightsÂ importantÂ conceptsÂ andÂ materials.Â InstructorÂ enthusiasmÂ canÂ motivateÂ studentsÂ andÂ enhanceÂ learningÂ (McKeachieÂ andÂ SvinickiÂ 2013)Â Â DisadvantagesÂ ReducedÂ developmentÂ ofÂ problemâsolvingÂ skillsÂ andÂ interactionÂ amongÂ studentsÂ ifÂ sufficientÂ interactionÂ opportunitiesÂ areÂ notÂ provided.Â SchedulingÂ difficultiesÂ CostÂ ofÂ theÂ trainingÂ andÂ travel,Â includingÂ time.Â (SchedulingÂ andÂ travelÂ issuesÂ mayÂ beÂ alleviatedÂ throughÂ theÂ useÂ ofÂ VTC,Â VoIP,Â orÂ similarÂ technology.)Â Â OnlineÂ TrainingÂ withÂ LiveÂ InstructorsÂ AdvantagesÂ CostÂ isÂ lowerÂ vs.Â classroomÂ training.Â TrainingÂ isÂ standardized.Â Â TrainingÂ canÂ beÂ providedÂ anywhereÂ withÂ webÂ access.Â DisadvantagesÂ TrainingÂ mustÂ beÂ scheduledÂ inÂ advance.Â TraineesÂ mayÂ beÂ distracted.Â AbilityÂ toÂ monitorÂ studentÂ progressÂ mayÂ beÂ limited.Â AccessÂ toÂ aÂ PCÂ andÂ InternetÂ areÂ required.Â FamiliarityÂ withÂ theÂ InternetÂ andÂ basicÂ PCÂ skillsÂ areÂ required.Â Â
139Â Â Â InÂ additionÂ toÂ theseÂ methods,Â BlendedÂ TrainingÂ allowsÂ agenciesÂ toÂ combineÂ multipleÂ methods,Â andÂ chooseÂ desiredÂ aspectsÂ ofÂ eachÂ method.Â CrossâTrainingÂ personnelÂ canÂ provideÂ contingenciesÂ forÂ situationsÂ thatÂ resultÂ inÂ significantÂ absenteeism.Â Â Â HelpfulÂ TipsÂ onÂ TrainingÂ ï· DetermineÂ whoÂ (whatÂ positions)Â needÂ whatÂ typeÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ trainingÂ includingÂ NIMSÂ CoreÂ CurriculumÂ training.Â Â ï· InÂ general,Â trainingÂ shouldÂ progressÂ fromÂ individualsÂ toÂ intraâagencyÂ teamsÂ toÂ interagencyÂ andÂ interjurisdictionalÂ exercises.Â Â ï· EstablishÂ professionalÂ qualifications,Â certifications,Â and/orÂ performanceÂ standardsÂ forÂ individualsÂ andÂ teams,Â whetherÂ paidÂ orÂ volunteerÂ withÂ theÂ assistanceÂ ofÂ theÂ NICÂ andÂ theÂ stateÂ EMA.Â Â ï· EnsureÂ thatÂ contentÂ andÂ trainingÂ methodsÂ complyÂ withÂ applicableÂ standardsÂ andÂ produceÂ requiredÂ skillsÂ andÂ measurableÂ proficiency.Â Â ï· EnsureÂ thatÂ allÂ personnelÂ withÂ aÂ directÂ roleÂ inÂ emergencyÂ preparednessÂ andÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ completeÂ theÂ designatedÂ FEMAÂ training.Â Â ï· EstablishÂ orÂ leverageÂ partnershipsÂ withÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ andÂ organizationsÂ toÂ coordinateÂ andÂ deliverÂ NIMSÂ trainingÂ requirementsÂ inÂ conformanceÂ withÂ NIMS.Â Â ï· IncorporateÂ NIMS/ICSÂ intoÂ allÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercises.Â Â ï· IdentifyÂ whatÂ additionalÂ trainingÂ resourcesÂ mayÂ beÂ neededÂ inÂ theÂ communityÂ toÂ supportÂ responseÂ andÂ evacuation/shelterâinâplace/quarantineÂ activities.Â Â ï· StriveÂ toÂ makeÂ theÂ trainingÂ interactive.Â MuchÂ learningÂ canÂ occurÂ throughÂ instructorâstudentÂ andÂ studentâstudentÂ interactions.Â Â ï· MakeÂ theÂ trainingÂ relevantÂ andÂ specificÂ toÂ realâworldÂ problems.Â Â ï· ProvideÂ aÂ chanceÂ forÂ learnersÂ toÂ reflectÂ onÂ theirÂ training.Â Then,Â provideÂ opportunitiesÂ toÂ applyÂ theirÂ newÂ learningÂ shortlyÂ thereafter.Â ï· AcknowledgeÂ experienceÂ andÂ knowledgeÂ byÂ providingÂ opportunitiesÂ forÂ participantsÂ toÂ shareÂ informationÂ andÂ practices.Â Â ï· MaintainÂ comprehensiveÂ trainingÂ records,Â followingÂ EMAPÂ standardsÂ andÂ anyÂ applicableÂ stateÂ orÂ agencyÂ policy.Â ï· ConnectÂ withÂ theÂ NICÂ forÂ guidanceÂ onÂ NIMS/ICSÂ personnelÂ trainingÂ needsÂ andÂ qualificationsÂ forÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ positions.Â ï· TheÂ FHWAÂ PeerâtoâPeerÂ (P2P)Â programÂ offersÂ technicalÂ assistanceÂ includingÂ trainingÂ andÂ educationÂ onÂ trafficÂ incidentÂ management/plannedÂ specialÂ eventÂ planning,Â procurement,Â deployment,Â andÂ operations.Â Â Â ï· MembershipsÂ inÂ professionalÂ organizationsÂ canÂ beÂ leveragedÂ toÂ takeÂ advantageÂ ofÂ theirÂ trainingÂ andÂ certificationÂ programs.Â OrganizationsÂ includeÂ AmericanÂ PublicÂ WorksÂ Association,Â AmericanÂ RoadÂ andÂ TransportationÂ BuildersÂ Association,Â theÂ AmericanÂ TrafficÂ SafetyÂ ServicesÂ Association,Â AASHTOâsÂ TransportationÂ CurriculumÂ CoordinationÂ Council,Â InternationalÂ MunicipalÂ SignalÂ Association.Â ï· JobÂ aidsÂ andÂ onâtheâjobÂ learningÂ canÂ helpÂ withÂ trainingÂ retentionÂ andÂ recall.Â Â Â ï· TechnologiesÂ suchÂ asÂ VOIPÂ andÂ VTCÂ canÂ broadcastÂ classroomÂ instructionÂ toÂ otherÂ districtsÂ orÂ regionalÂ offices.Â Â ï· MinorÂ incidentsÂ provideÂ anÂ opportunityÂ forÂ personnelÂ toÂ honeÂ theirÂ abilitiesÂ andÂ skillsÂ andÂ identifyÂ gapsÂ inÂ training.Â Â UsefulÂ trainingÂ sourcesÂ forÂ NIMS/ICSÂ include:Â Â
140Â Â Â ï· FEMAÂ NIMSÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ ï· FEMAÂ ICSÂ TrainingÂ ProgramÂ andÂ ResourceÂ CenterÂ ï· FEMAÂ NationalÂ ResponseÂ FrameworkÂ ResourcesÂ ï· FEMAÂ NationalÂ TrainingÂ andÂ EducationÂ DivisionÂ Â Â ï· FEMAÂ NationalÂ FireÂ Academy.Â ï· FEMAÂ CenterÂ forÂ DomesticÂ PreparednessÂ ï· FEMAÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ InstituteÂ (EMI)Â Â ï· FEMAÂ IndependentÂ StudyÂ ProgramÂ ï· FHWAÂ NationalÂ HighwayÂ InstituteÂ ï· FTAÂ NationalÂ TransitÂ InstituteÂ ï· FEMAÂ NationalÂ TrainingÂ andÂ EducationÂ DivisionÂ ï· StateÂ EMAÂ ï· StateÂ andÂ localÂ policeÂ andÂ fireÂ departmentsÂ ï· FHWAÂ NationalÂ HighwayÂ InstituteÂ (NHI)Â ï· LTAP/TTAPÂ centersÂ ï· UniversitiesÂ orÂ colleges.Â Â ï· SHRPÂ 2Â NationalÂ TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ ResponderÂ TrainingÂ ï· U.S.DOTÂ ResearchÂ andÂ InnovativeÂ TechnologyÂ AdministrationÂ TransportationÂ SafetyÂ InstituteÂ ThereÂ areÂ alsoÂ manyÂ otherÂ sourcesÂ ofÂ trainingÂ onÂ NIMS/ICSÂ andÂ otherÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ topicsÂ includingÂ regionalÂ coalitions,Â associations,Â memberÂ organizations,Â etc.Â TheseÂ sourcesÂ areÂ notedÂ inÂ ChapterÂ 2Â ofÂ thisÂ GuideÂ andÂ inÂ ChapterÂ 5Â ofÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468Â report.Â Â Â Â StateÂ DOTÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ ImplementationÂ PracticesÂ DuringÂ interviewsÂ withÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ andÂ caseÂ exampleÂ agenciesÂ forÂ theÂ NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 44â12Â project,Â theÂ followingÂ coursesÂ wereÂ commonÂ elementsÂ inÂ manyÂ ofÂ theirÂ trainingÂ programs:Â ï· ISâ15.b:Â SpecialÂ EventsÂ ContingencyÂ PlanningÂ forÂ PublicÂ SafetyÂ AgenciesÂ ï· ISâ100:Â IntroductionÂ toÂ theÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ SystemÂ ï· ISâ200:Â ICSÂ forÂ SingleÂ ResourcesÂ andÂ InitialÂ ActionÂ IncidentsÂ ï· ICSâ300:Â IntermediateÂ ICSÂ forÂ ExpandingÂ IncidentsÂ ï· ICSâ400:Â AdvancedÂ ICSÂ ï· ISâ552:Â TheÂ PublicÂ WorksÂ RoleÂ inÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ554:Â EmergencyÂ PlanningÂ forÂ PublicÂ WorksÂ ï· ISâ556:Â DamageÂ AssessmentÂ forÂ PublicÂ WorksÂ ï· ISâ558:Â PublicÂ WorksÂ andÂ DisasterÂ RecoveryÂ ï· ISâ559:Â LocalÂ DamageÂ AssessmentÂ ï· ISâ632:Â IntroductionÂ toÂ DebrisÂ OperationsÂ Â ï· ISâ700:Â IntroductionÂ toÂ theÂ NationalÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ SystemÂ ï· ISâ701.a:Â NIMSÂ MultiagencyÂ CoordinationÂ SystemÂ (MACS)Â ï· ISâ703.a:Â NIMSÂ ResourceÂ ManagementÂ ï· ISâ706:Â NIMSÂ IntrastateÂ MutualÂ AidâAnÂ IntroductionÂ ï· ISâ800:Â IntroductionÂ toÂ theÂ NationalÂ ResponseÂ FrameworkÂ ï· SHRPÂ 2Â NationalÂ TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ ResponderÂ Training.Â
141Â Â Â NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468Â containsÂ theÂ fullÂ trainingÂ matricesÂ forÂ ArizonaÂ DOTâsÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ TrainingÂ forÂ itsÂ MaintenanceÂ andÂ Landscaping/NaturalÂ ResourcesÂ personnel.Â PortionsÂ ofÂ theÂ matricesÂ thatÂ includeÂ NIMSÂ andÂ ICSÂ forÂ variousÂ rolesÂ andÂ functionsÂ areÂ shownÂ below.Â Â Â Â Â Â MaintenanceÂ Roadway,Â Signing,Â andÂ StripingÂ PersonnelÂ HighwayÂ OperationsÂ WorkerÂ Â ï· BasicÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ ISâ100Â ï· NationalÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ SystemÂ ISâ700Â TechÂ 1Â ï· TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ ï· ControlÂ ofÂ HazardousÂ EnergyÂ SupervisorÂ ï· ICSÂ forÂ ExpandingÂ IncidentsÂ ISâ200Â ï· NationalÂ ResponseÂ FrameworkÂ ISâ800Â SuperintendentÂ ï· IntermediateÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ ISâ300Â ï· AdvancedÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ ISâ400Â Landscape/NaturalÂ ResourcesÂ PersonnelÂ HighwayÂ OperationsÂ WorkerÂ Â ï· BasicÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ SystemÂ ISâ100Â ï· NationalÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ SystemÂ ISâ700Â ï· HazardÂ CommunicationÂ Â ï· OSHA/DOTÂ HazardousÂ MaterialsÂ Â ï· TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ TechÂ 1Â ï· TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ ï· ControlÂ ofÂ HazardousÂ EnergyÂ ï· IntroductionÂ toÂ WildlandÂ FirefightingÂ Â Â SupervisorÂ ï· ICSÂ forÂ ExpandingÂ IncidentsÂ ISâ200Â ï· NationalÂ ResponseÂ FrameworkÂ ISâ800Â SuperintendentÂ
142Â Â Â ï· IntermediateÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ ISâ300Â ï· AdvancedÂ IncidentÂ CommandÂ ISâ400Â InÂ additionÂ toÂ thisÂ training,Â ArizonaÂ DOTâsÂ HighwayÂ OperationsÂ WorkerÂ undergoesÂ almostÂ 40Â additionalÂ trainingÂ coursesÂ rangingÂ fromÂ fireÂ safetyÂ toÂ flaggerÂ ATSSAÂ certificationÂ toÂ computerÂ securityÂ awareness.Â TechÂ 1Â takesÂ aboutÂ 10Â additionalÂ coursesÂ includingÂ advancedÂ workÂ zoneÂ trafficÂ controlÂ andÂ maintenanceÂ communications.Â SupervisorsÂ mustÂ alsoÂ takeÂ aboutÂ 10Â additionalÂ coursesÂ suchÂ asÂ OnÂ BoardingÂ NewÂ EmployeesÂ andÂ ManagingÂ ResourcesÂ Effectively.Â SuperintendentsÂ takeÂ 6Â additionalÂ coursesÂ includingÂ theÂ NHIÂ MaintenanceÂ LeadershipÂ AcademyÂ andÂ PerformanceÂ Measurement.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â TheÂ followingÂ isÂ aÂ portionÂ ofÂ TennesseeÂ DOTâsÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ trainingÂ basedÂ onÂ theÂ DOTâsÂ trainingÂ needsÂ assessment.Â Â ï· NIMS/ICSÂ training;Â requiredÂ coursesÂ varyÂ basedÂ onÂ workerÂ functionÂ ï· ICSÂ TrainâtheâTrainerÂ CourseÂ ï· TIMÂ trainingÂ forÂ allÂ respondersÂ ï· ProtectÂ theÂ QueueÂ trainingÂ forÂ allÂ fieldÂ employeesÂ ï· HazardousÂ MaterialsÂ AwarenessÂ trainingÂ forÂ allÂ fieldÂ employeesÂ ï· HazardousÂ MaterialsÂ forÂ OperationalÂ LevelÂ ResponseÂ ï· ActiveÂ ShooterÂ TrainingÂ forÂ allÂ employeesÂ ï· TVAÂ FixedÂ NuclearÂ FacilitiesÂ EmergencyÂ WorkerÂ TrainingÂ ï· OakÂ RidgeÂ EmergencyÂ WorkerÂ TrainingÂ ï· StormÂ SpotterÂ TrainingÂ ï· EmergencyÂ RadioÂ CommunicationsÂ TrainingÂ ï· EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ SupportÂ TeamÂ TrainingÂ ï· DamageÂ AssessmentÂ WorkshopÂ ï· BasicÂ PublicÂ InformationÂ ï· TEMAÂ 101Â ï· InstructorÂ MethodologyÂ ï· PrinciplesÂ ofÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ ï· ExerciseÂ DevelopmentÂ ï· CommunicationsÂ LeaderÂ CourseÂ ï· SearchÂ andÂ NavigationÂ CoursesÂ o TEMAÂ SearchÂ OperationsÂ o GPSÂ LandÂ NavigationÂ CourseÂ o BasicÂ VisualÂ TrackingÂ o ManagingÂ SearchÂ OperationsÂ ï· NationalÂ DomesticÂ PreparednessÂ ConsortiumÂ (NDPC)Â âÂ DHSâfundedÂ coursesÂ ï· FEMAÂ NationalÂ EmergencyÂ TrainingÂ CenterÂ (TennesseeÂ DOTÂ CaseÂ Study)Â StateÂ DOTsÂ useÂ aÂ numberÂ ofÂ differentÂ methodsÂ fromÂ fieldÂ crewÂ meetingsÂ toÂ trainâtheâtrainerÂ toÂ interagencyÂ trainingÂ andÂ exercisesÂ toÂ deliverÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ trainingÂ toÂ theirÂ fieldÂ personnel.Â ExamplesÂ ofÂ theseÂ methodsÂ includeÂ theÂ following:Â Â FieldÂ CrewÂ MeetingsÂ
143Â Â Â ï· CaltransÂ âÂ tailgateÂ meetingsÂ areÂ usedÂ toÂ shareÂ informationÂ andÂ toÂ trainÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ onÂ newÂ procedures,Â technologies,Â equipment,Â andÂ safetyÂ issues.Â TheÂ meetingsÂ areÂ heldÂ everyÂ 10Â daysÂ atÂ everyÂ maintenanceÂ yard.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· MissouriÂ DOTÂ âÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ areÂ trainedÂ onÂ specificÂ tasksÂ duringÂ fieldÂ crewÂ meetings.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â CrossÂ TrainingÂ ï· TennesseeÂ DOTÂ âÂ TDOTÂ crossâtrainsÂ fourÂ toÂ fiveÂ additionalÂ personsÂ toÂ performÂ aÂ particularÂ functionÂ thatÂ hasÂ beenÂ designatedÂ asÂ anÂ âEssentialÂ FunctionâÂ ofÂ theÂ DOT.Â EssentialÂ FunctionsÂ areÂ definedÂ inÂ theÂ TDOTÂ COOP.Â Â TheÂ trainingÂ needÂ dependsÂ onÂ theÂ gapÂ betweenÂ theÂ numberÂ ofÂ peopleÂ thatÂ alreadyÂ haveÂ theÂ capacityÂ toÂ performÂ theÂ functionÂ andÂ theÂ numberÂ thatÂ isÂ required.Â TheÂ actualÂ amountÂ ofÂ requiredÂ trainingÂ dependsÂ onÂ functionÂ andÂ systemÂ complexity.Â (TennesseeÂ DOTÂ CaseÂ Study)Â JointÂ TrainingÂ ï· TheÂ SecondÂ StrategicÂ HighwayÂ ResearchÂ ProgramâsÂ (SHRPÂ 2)Â NationalÂ TrafficÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ ResponderÂ TrainingÂ CourseÂ isÂ multidisciplinaryÂ andÂ interjurisdictionalÂ andÂ hasÂ beenÂ deliveredÂ toÂ manyÂ stateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ alongÂ withÂ police,Â fire,Â andÂ otherÂ responders.Â TheÂ SHRPÂ 2Â programÂ hasÂ alsoÂ createdÂ aÂ TrainâtheâTrainerÂ CourseÂ forÂ incidentÂ respondersÂ andÂ managersÂ asÂ wellÂ asÂ anÂ eâLearningÂ trainingÂ courseÂ beingÂ implementedÂ throughÂ theÂ NationalÂ HighwayÂ Institute.Â Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· ArizonaÂ DOTÂ âÂ TIMÂ trainingÂ isÂ conductedÂ byÂ theÂ ArizonaÂ DepartmentÂ ofÂ PublicÂ SafetyÂ usingÂ theÂ trainâtheâtrainerÂ versionÂ ofÂ theÂ SHRPÂ 2Â NationalÂ TIMÂ ResponderÂ TrainingÂ course.Â ItÂ containsÂ aÂ strongÂ ICSÂ elementÂ andÂ promotesÂ aÂ sharedÂ understandingÂ ofÂ TIMÂ requirements.Â SHRPÂ 2âsÂ twoâdayÂ TTTÂ courseÂ facilitatesÂ widespreadÂ useÂ ofÂ theÂ multidisciplinaryÂ training;Â theÂ trainingÂ wasÂ shortenedÂ toÂ aÂ fourâhourÂ formatÂ byÂ theÂ ArizonaÂ DepartmentÂ ofÂ PublicÂ Safety.Â TheÂ trainingÂ participantsÂ includeÂ stateÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ andÂ federal,Â state,Â county,Â andÂ localÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ providers,Â andÂ towÂ truckÂ operatorsÂ andÂ contractors.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â Â InterjurisdictionalÂ andÂ InteragencyÂ TrainingÂ andÂ ExercisesÂ ï· ArizonaÂ âÂ ArizonaÂ DivisionÂ ofÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ (ADEM)Â TrainingÂ andÂ ExerciseÂ OfficeÂ offersÂ aÂ wideÂ varietyÂ ofÂ trainingÂ coursesÂ thatÂ coverÂ emergencyÂ planning,Â mitigation,Â awareness,Â operations,Â incidentÂ command,Â andÂ domesticÂ preparedness.Â ADEMÂ alsoÂ offersÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ trainingÂ toÂ ADOTÂ andÂ otherÂ agenciesÂ forÂ anÂ unlikelyÂ accidentÂ atÂ theÂ PaloÂ VerdeÂ NuclearÂ GeneratingÂ Station.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· BlueÂ CascadesÂ ExercisesÂ âÂ PacificÂ NorthwestÂ EconomicÂ RegionÂ andÂ theÂ CenterÂ forÂ regionalÂ DisasterÂ ResilienceÂ bringÂ publicÂ andÂ privateÂ partnersÂ fromÂ theÂ U.S.Â andÂ CanadaÂ inÂ theÂ PacificÂ NorthwestÂ toÂ holdÂ aÂ seriesÂ ofÂ scenarioâbasedÂ TTXsÂ âÂ CaltransÂ isÂ oneÂ ofÂ theÂ stateÂ DOTÂ participants.Â TheÂ goalsÂ ofÂ theÂ TTXsÂ areÂ toÂ âraiseÂ awarenessÂ ofÂ infrastructureÂ interdependenciesÂ andÂ associatedÂ vulnerabilities,Â impacts,Â andÂ preparednessÂ gaps,Â identifyingÂ potentialÂ solutionsÂ toÂ makeÂ neededÂ improvements.âÂ (http://www.regionalresilience.org/interdependencies.html)Â TheÂ exerciseÂ sequenceÂ involvedÂ 1)Â conceptÂ identification,Â 2)Â workshop,Â 3)Â developmentÂ ofÂ materialsÂ andÂ scenarios,Â 4)Â TTX,Â 5)Â AfterâActionÂ Conference,Â andÂ 6)Â FinalÂ Report.Â ScenariosÂ haveÂ includedÂ aÂ majorÂ earthquake,Â floodÂ andÂ pandemic,Â physicalÂ attack,Â andÂ cyberâattack.Â TheÂ exercisesÂ resultÂ inÂ
144Â Â Â RegionalÂ ActionÂ PlansÂ forÂ stakeholders.Â TheseÂ plansÂ haveÂ includedÂ projectsÂ andÂ actionsÂ in:Â interdependencies,Â coordination,Â rolesÂ andÂ responsibilities,Â response,Â logisticsÂ andÂ distribution,Â informationÂ sharing,Â trainingÂ andÂ education,Â publicÂ information,Â andÂ economicÂ continuityÂ andÂ recovery.Â (CaltransÂ caseÂ study,Â NCHRPÂ ReportÂ 777)Â ï· TennesseeÂ âÂ TDOTÂ hasÂ anÂ arrangementÂ withÂ theÂ TennesseeÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ AgencyÂ (TEMA)Â toÂ âexchangeâÂ trainingÂ inÂ whichÂ trainingÂ deliveredÂ byÂ TEMAÂ isÂ complimentaryÂ toÂ TDOTÂ personnelÂ andÂ viceÂ versa.Â InterdisciplinaryÂ trainingÂ withÂ theÂ CivilÂ AirÂ PatrolÂ isÂ organizedÂ atÂ leastÂ onceÂ yearly.Â TEMA'sÂ TechnicalÂ HazardsÂ BranchÂ providesÂ multipleÂ trainingÂ andÂ trainingÂ exercisesÂ onÂ radiologicalÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ forÂ TennesseeâsÂ twoÂ nuclearÂ plantsÂ onÂ anÂ annualÂ basisÂ toÂ federal,Â state,Â andÂ localÂ responders.Â PlansÂ areÂ exercisedÂ onÂ anÂ annualÂ basis;Â aÂ federalÂ exerciseÂ isÂ alsoÂ conductedÂ byÂ FEMAÂ andÂ theÂ NuclearÂ RegulatoryÂ CommissionÂ yearlyÂ atÂ oneÂ ofÂ theÂ twoÂ plants.Â (TennesseeÂ CaseÂ Study,Â NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· TexasÂ âÂ TexasÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ participateÂ inÂ ICSâ300Â (IntermediateÂ ICS)Â andÂ ICSâ400Â (AdvancedÂ ICS)Â trainingÂ coursesÂ hostedÂ byÂ localÂ fireÂ departmentsÂ andÂ policeÂ departments.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â TrainâtheâTrainerÂ (TTT)Â Â ï· ArizonaÂ DOTÂ âÂ inÂ itsÂ firstÂ NIMS/ICSÂ rollout,Â ArizonaÂ DOTÂ trainedÂ 10Â instructorsÂ toÂ teachÂ IntroductionÂ toÂ ICSÂ andÂ IntroductionÂ toÂ NIMSÂ toÂ 4,600Â districtÂ personnelÂ inÂ aÂ classroomÂ setting.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· IowaÂ DOTÂ âÂ IowaÂ DOTÂ usedÂ TTTÂ forÂ theÂ ISâ100Â andÂ ISâ200Â (ICSÂ forÂ SingleÂ Resources)Â courses.Â DistrictÂ officeÂ andÂ DMVÂ enforcementÂ trainersÂ wereÂ trainedÂ first;Â theyÂ thenÂ trainedÂ moreÂ thanÂ 1,600Â personnelÂ overÂ theÂ courseÂ ofÂ aÂ year.Â Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â Â ComputerÂ SimulationÂ ï· Iâ95Â CorridorÂ CoalitionâsÂ threeâdimensional,Â multiplayerÂ computerÂ gamingÂ simulationÂ technologyÂ (www.i95vim.com)Â providesÂ scenarioâbased,Â interactive,Â andÂ realâtimeÂ incidentÂ managementÂ trainingÂ (VirtualÂ IncidentÂ ManagementÂ Training,Â Iâ95Â CorridorÂ CoalitionÂ n.d.).Â ï· ONâlineÂ eXerciseÂ SystemÂ isÂ aÂ webâbasedÂ trainingÂ systemÂ forÂ disasterÂ professionalsÂ andÂ communities.Â TheÂ systemÂ canÂ implementÂ TTX,Â FE,Â andÂ FSEÂ usingÂ theÂ Internet.Â ï· FEMAâsÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ InstituteÂ (EMI)Â offersÂ aÂ seriesÂ ofÂ virtualÂ tabletopÂ exercisesÂ focusedÂ onÂ disasterÂ training.Â Â ï· TheÂ TransportationÂ EmergencyÂ ResponseÂ ApplicationÂ (TERA)Â isÂ aÂ free,Â webâbasedÂ exerciseÂ systemÂ forÂ theÂ transportation,Â transit,Â rail,Â andÂ airportÂ domainsÂ andÂ isÂ compliantÂ withÂ NIMS/ICSÂ andÂ HSEEP.Â InitiallyÂ focusedÂ onÂ transitÂ scenariosÂ andÂ developedÂ andÂ fieldâtestedÂ underÂ theÂ TransitÂ CooperativeÂ ResearchÂ ProgramÂ (TCRP)Â ProjectÂ Aâ36,Â CommandâLevelÂ DecisionÂ MakingÂ forÂ TransitÂ EmergencyÂ Managers,Â TERAÂ initialÂ transitÂ scenariosÂ areÂ beingÂ modifiedÂ andÂ expandedÂ withÂ NCHRPÂ fundsÂ toÂ includeÂ stateÂ DOTÂ roles.Â AdditionalÂ informationÂ regardingÂ TERAÂ andÂ theÂ Aâ36Â projectÂ canÂ beÂ foundÂ atÂ www.tera.trainâemst.comÂ andÂ inÂ TCRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 60/NCHRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 200,Â availableÂ onlineÂ at:Â http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_w60.pdfÂ (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â Â ClassroomÂ TrainingÂ
145Â Â Â ï· ArizonaÂ DOTÂ âÂ ArizonaÂ DivisionÂ ofÂ EmergencyÂ ManagementÂ andÂ TexasÂ A&MÂ provideÂ emergencyÂ managementÂ classroomÂ trainingÂ toÂ ADOTÂ fieldÂ personnel.Â Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· CaliforniaÂ âÂ CaltransÂ providesÂ classroomÂ trainingÂ includingÂ monthlyÂ NIMS/SEMS/ICSÂ andÂ FirstÂ ObserverÂ trainingÂ atÂ itsÂ MaintenanceÂ TrainingÂ AcademyÂ toÂ newÂ andÂ existingÂ maintenanceÂ personnel.Â Â (CaltransÂ CaseÂ Study)Â Â ï· TennesseeÂ DOTÂ âÂ SupervisorsÂ areÂ requiredÂ toÂ takeÂ ISâ200Â (ICSÂ forÂ SingleÂ Resources)Â andÂ ISâ800Â (IntroductionÂ toÂ theÂ NRF)Â inÂ aÂ classroomÂ setting.Â ManagersÂ areÂ requiredÂ toÂ takeÂ ICSâ300Â (IntermediateÂ ICS)Â andÂ ICSâ400Â (AdvancedÂ ICS)Â deliveredÂ throughÂ classroomÂ trainingÂ asÂ well.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ExamplesÂ ofÂ exerciseÂ implementationÂ byÂ exerciseÂ typeÂ areÂ providedÂ inÂ theÂ followingÂ section:Â Â Workshops/SeminarsÂ ï· CaliforniaÂ âÂ CaltransÂ usesÂ workshopsÂ toÂ deliverÂ allâhazardsÂ trainingÂ andÂ COOP/COGÂ training:Â eachÂ year,Â CaltransÂ holdsÂ fourÂ AllâHazardsÂ TrainingÂ WorkshopsÂ (oneÂ perÂ quarter)Â andÂ threeÂ COOP/COGÂ Workshops.Â (CaltransÂ CaseÂ Study)Â ï· TexasÂ âÂ TexasÂ DOTâsÂ emergencyÂ responseÂ providersÂ andÂ keyÂ districtÂ staffÂ membersÂ includingÂ districtÂ engineersÂ andÂ M&OÂ directorsÂ participateÂ inÂ variousÂ workshopsÂ andÂ seminarsÂ includingÂ anÂ annualÂ hurricaneÂ preparednessÂ workshop.Â TheÂ 2013Â workshopÂ coveredÂ evacuation,Â reâentry,Â cleanup,Â andÂ responseÂ techniques.Â TheÂ followingÂ wereÂ alsoÂ covered:Â protocolsÂ forÂ theÂ suspensionÂ ofÂ constructionÂ schedules,Â radioÂ communicationsÂ andÂ interoperability,Â debrisÂ andÂ environmentalÂ contracts,Â MAPâ21,Â FHWAÂ EmergencyÂ ReliefÂ andÂ FEMAÂ PublicÂ AssistanceÂ reimbursement,Â volunteerÂ management,Â andÂ theÂ MaintenanceÂ ManagementÂ SystemÂ (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· VermontÂ âÂ SixÂ discussionâbasedÂ exercisesÂ (seminarsÂ orÂ workshops)Â aÂ yearÂ focusingÂ onÂ VTransÂ specificÂ threatsÂ andÂ hazardsÂ areÂ attendedÂ byÂ VTransÂ fieldÂ personnel.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â Â TableâTopÂ ExerciseÂ (TTX)Â ï· CaliforniaÂ âÂ CaltransÂ participatesÂ inÂ theÂ annualÂ CalEMAÂ GoldenÂ GuardianÂ ExecutiveÂ TableÂ TopÂ ExerciseÂ (TTX)Â whichÂ isÂ heldÂ oneÂ monthÂ priorÂ toÂ theÂ actualÂ CalEMAÂ GoldenÂ GuardianÂ FSE.Â (CaltransÂ CaseÂ Study)Â ï· ArizonaÂ âÂ TheÂ ArizonaÂ DOTâsÂ districtsÂ holdÂ TTXsÂ thatÂ relateÂ toÂ ADOTâsÂ statewideÂ exercises.Â Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· TennesseeÂ âÂ TDOTÂ conductsÂ TTXsÂ withÂ representativesÂ ofÂ taskedÂ organizationsÂ toÂ helpÂ validateÂ itsÂ EOP.Â Â ï· MultipleÂ DOTsÂ âÂ TheÂ IâSTEPÂ HighwayÂ andÂ MotorÂ CarrierÂ AASHTOÂ PeerÂ ExchangeÂ TabletopÂ ExerciseÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ heldÂ atÂ theÂ 2012Â TransportationÂ HazardsÂ andÂ SecurityÂ SummitÂ andÂ PeerÂ ExchangeÂ highlightedÂ regionalÂ prevention,Â protection,Â andÂ responseÂ practices.Â TheÂ TTXÂ scenarioÂ wasÂ aÂ terroristÂ attackÂ againstÂ criticalÂ infrastructureÂ andÂ anÂ attackÂ againstÂ aÂ criticalÂ bridgeÂ coincidingÂ withÂ aÂ naturalÂ disaster.Â Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â Â DrillsÂ
146Â Â Â ï· CaliforniaÂ âÂ CaltransÂ holdsÂ drillsÂ toÂ evaluateÂ personnel,Â technologies,Â andÂ equipment;Â andÂ forÂ theÂ developmentÂ ofÂ plansÂ andÂ procedures.Â CaltransâÂ personnelÂ undergoÂ monthlyÂ drillsÂ toÂ ensureÂ thatÂ theyÂ canÂ mobilizeÂ theÂ technologiesÂ andÂ equipment;Â duringÂ theÂ drills,Â anyÂ issuesÂ withÂ theÂ systemsÂ willÂ beÂ flaggedÂ asÂ well.Â Â MonthlyÂ drillsÂ areÂ heldÂ onÂ CaltransÂ MicrowaveÂ TelephoneÂ andÂ FixedÂ SatelliteÂ TelephoneÂ andÂ SatÂ ComÂ AuxiliaryÂ RadioÂ SystemsÂ whichÂ isÂ aÂ satelliteÂ communicationsÂ systemÂ owned,Â managed,Â andÂ operatedÂ byÂ CaltransÂ forÂ theÂ purposeÂ ofÂ emergencyÂ communicationsÂ withinÂ CaltransÂ andÂ withÂ otherÂ agencies.Â (CaltransÂ CaseÂ Study)Â FunctionalÂ ExercisesÂ (FEs)Â ï· IowaÂ âÂ TheÂ IowaÂ DOTÂ holdsÂ threeÂ toÂ fourÂ regionalÂ TTXsÂ annually.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· MissouriÂ âÂ HalfÂ ofÂ MissouriÂ DOTâsÂ exercisesÂ areÂ FEs;Â typically,Â 10Â percentÂ orÂ moreÂ ofÂ theÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ areÂ involvedÂ inÂ theseÂ exercises.Â ScenariosÂ haveÂ includedÂ earthquakes;Â severeÂ weather,Â includingÂ snow,Â ice,Â andÂ tornados;Â andÂ situationsÂ involvingÂ nuclearÂ powerÂ plantsÂ andÂ terrorism.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â FullâScaleÂ ExercisesÂ (FSEs)Â ï· ArizonaÂ âÂ ArizonaÂ DOTÂ personnelÂ includingÂ fieldÂ personnel,Â emergencyÂ preparednessÂ andÂ management,Â andÂ communicationsÂ personnelÂ participatedÂ inÂ aÂ 2011Â statewideÂ exerciseÂ onÂ anÂ improvisedÂ explosiveÂ deviceÂ explosion.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· CaliforniaÂ âÂ CaltransÂ participatesÂ inÂ theÂ statewideÂ GreatÂ CaliforniaÂ ShakeoutÂ InteragencyÂ ExerciseÂ organizedÂ byÂ theÂ EarthquakeÂ CountryÂ Alliance.Â (CaltransÂ CaseÂ Study)Â ï· CaltransÂ alsoÂ participatesÂ inÂ theÂ annualÂ CalEMAÂ GoldenÂ GuardianÂ FSE.Â TheÂ FSEÂ isÂ precededÂ byÂ planningÂ meetingsÂ andÂ aÂ TTXÂ andÂ aÂ HotÂ WashÂ andÂ AfterÂ ActionÂ ReportÂ meetingÂ isÂ heldÂ afterÂ theÂ meeting.Â (CaltransÂ CaseÂ Study)Â InÂ addition,Â CaltransÂ alsoÂ incorporatesÂ andÂ evaluatesÂ technologiesÂ suchÂ asÂ CaltransÂ MicrowaveÂ TelephoneÂ andÂ FixedÂ SatelliteÂ TelephoneÂ andÂ SatÂ ComÂ AuxiliaryÂ RadioÂ SystemsÂ intoÂ itsÂ FSEs.Â Â ï· TexasÂ âÂ TexasÂ DOTÂ organizesÂ andÂ hostsÂ atÂ leastÂ oneÂ FSEÂ eachÂ yearÂ usuallyÂ focusingÂ onÂ contraflowÂ evacuationsÂ inÂ whichÂ personnelÂ andÂ equipmentÂ areÂ mobilizedÂ andÂ theÂ processÂ timedÂ andÂ evaluated.Â AdditionalÂ participantsÂ haveÂ includedÂ theÂ TexasÂ DepartmentÂ ofÂ PublicÂ Safety,Â theÂ fireÂ marshal,Â andÂ localÂ lawÂ enforcementÂ agencies.Â Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â ï· VermontÂ âÂ VTransÂ fieldÂ personnelÂ undergoÂ 4â5Â dayÂ FSEsÂ organizedÂ byÂ theÂ stateÂ EOC.Â TheÂ scenariosÂ areÂ hurricanesÂ andÂ WMD.Â (NCHRPÂ SynthesisÂ 468)Â TrainingÂ EvaluationÂ U.S.Â OfficeÂ ofÂ PersonnelÂ ManagementÂ (OPM)Â regulationsÂ requireÂ federalÂ agenciesÂ toÂ createÂ andÂ demonstrateÂ theÂ valueÂ ofÂ theirÂ trainingÂ programsÂ toÂ theirÂ missionsÂ throughÂ trainingÂ evaluation.Â TheÂ regulationsÂ requireÂ theÂ implementationÂ ofÂ aÂ trainingÂ evaluationÂ systemÂ thatÂ helpsÂ theÂ agencyÂ determineÂ futureÂ investmentsÂ inÂ trainingÂ andÂ development.Â TheÂ evaluationsÂ shouldÂ determineÂ whetherÂ learningÂ hasÂ occurred;Â whetherÂ learningÂ wasÂ applicableÂ toÂ jobÂ performanceÂ orÂ otherÂ behaviorsÂ affectingÂ results;Â whetherÂ theÂ learningÂ wasÂ appliedÂ toÂ theÂ employeeâsÂ job;Â and,Â ifÂ heÂ orÂ sheÂ did,Â whetherÂ thereÂ wasÂ positiveÂ impactÂ onÂ performanceÂ orÂ otherÂ jobârelatedÂ behaviors.Â Â Â TheÂ 2011Â U.S.Â OfficeÂ ofÂ PersonnelÂ ManagementÂ (OPM)Â TrainingÂ EvaluationÂ FieldÂ GuideÂ usesÂ theÂ regulationsÂ asÂ aÂ foundationÂ forÂ theÂ guide.Â TheÂ 2011Â OPMÂ GuideÂ stressesÂ theÂ importanceÂ ofÂ ensuringÂ thatÂ trainingÂ positivelyÂ affectsÂ agencyÂ missionÂ andÂ outcomesÂ throughÂ evaluation.Â Â TheÂ GuideÂ usesÂ theÂ NewÂ WorldÂ KirkpatrickÂ FourÂ LevelsTMÂ toÂ offerÂ aÂ structuredÂ wayÂ inÂ whichÂ agenciesÂ canÂ evaluateÂ theirÂ trainingÂ andÂ trainingÂ programs.Â Â
147Â TheÂ originalÂ KirkpatrickÂ trainingÂ evaluationÂ methodÂ isÂ comprisedÂ ofÂ fourÂ levels:Â Â ï· LevelÂ 1:Â Reaction.Â TraineesÂ provideÂ theirÂ reactionsÂ toÂ theÂ instructorÂ orÂ facilitatorÂ regardingÂ training subject/content,Â facilities,Â andÂ schedule,Â andÂ improvementsÂ usingÂ aÂ feedbackÂ form.Â ThisÂ is probablyÂ theÂ easiestÂ levelÂ toÂ implement. ï· LevelÂ 2:Â Learning.Â DeterminesÂ theÂ extentÂ toÂ whichÂ traineesÂ haveÂ learnedÂ theÂ trainingÂ material. WhatÂ theÂ traineeÂ knewÂ beforeÂ theÂ trainingÂ (preâtest)Â isÂ comparedÂ toÂ whatÂ he/sheÂ hasÂ learned fromÂ theÂ trainingÂ (postâtest). ï· LevelÂ 3:Â Behavior.Â TraineeÂ applicationÂ ofÂ trainingÂ toÂ theirÂ jobsÂ isÂ evaluatedÂ byÂ observationÂ ofÂ the traineeÂ duringÂ workÂ orÂ duringÂ aÂ drill. ï· LevelÂ 4:Â Results.Â DemonstratesÂ whetherÂ theÂ trainingÂ isÂ havingÂ theÂ desiredÂ outcomeÂ (e.g.,Â faster responseÂ toÂ anÂ incident).Â ProvidesÂ informationÂ onÂ theÂ effectivenessÂ ofÂ aÂ trainingÂ program. OutcomesÂ needÂ toÂ beÂ measuredÂ beforeÂ andÂ afterÂ theÂ training. TheÂ newÂ KirkpatrickÂ methodÂ recommendsÂ usingÂ theÂ fourÂ levelsÂ inÂ reverse:Â startingÂ withÂ levelÂ 4Â andÂ proceedingÂ toÂ levelÂ 1.Â Also,Â toÂ helpÂ proveÂ valueÂ ofÂ training,Â itÂ isÂ necessaryÂ toÂ conductÂ bothÂ quantitativeÂ andÂ qualitativeÂ evaluationÂ forÂ eachÂ levelÂ andÂ toÂ provideÂ evidenceÂ ofÂ theÂ connectionÂ betweenÂ levelÂ 4Â andÂ levelsÂ 1,Â 2,Â andÂ 3.Â TheÂ newÂ KirkpatrickÂ methodÂ alsoÂ addsÂ theÂ followingÂ toÂ eachÂ ofÂ theÂ levels:Â Â ï· LevelÂ 1:Â EngagementÂ (toÂ whatÂ degreeÂ participantsÂ areÂ involvedÂ andÂ interestedÂ inÂ theÂ learning intervention)Â andÂ RelevanceÂ (toÂ whatÂ degreeÂ theÂ contentÂ ofÂ theÂ learningÂ interventionÂ isÂ applicable toÂ theÂ jobsÂ ofÂ theÂ participants). ï· LevelÂ 2:Â ConfidenceÂ (toÂ whatÂ degreeÂ trainingÂ participantsÂ feelÂ confidentÂ toÂ applyÂ theÂ newly obtainedÂ knowledgeÂ andÂ skillsÂ onÂ theÂ job)Â andÂ CommitmentÂ (toÂ whatÂ degreeÂ trainingÂ participants commitÂ thatÂ theyÂ willÂ applyÂ newlyÂ obtainedÂ knowledgeÂ andÂ skillsÂ onÂ theÂ job). ï· LevelÂ 3:Â RequiredÂ DriversÂ (processÂ andÂ systemsÂ thatÂ reinforce,Â monitor,Â encourageÂ andÂ reward performanceÂ ofÂ criticalÂ behaviorsÂ onÂ theÂ job)Â andÂ OnâtheâJobÂ LearningÂ (ongoingÂ selfâeducationÂ on theÂ jobÂ byÂ theÂ trainingÂ graduate) ï· LevelÂ 4:Â LeadingÂ IndicatorsÂ (shortÂ termÂ observationsÂ andÂ measurementsÂ thatÂ suggestÂ thatÂ critical behaviorsÂ areÂ onÂ trackÂ toÂ createÂ aÂ positiveÂ impactÂ onÂ theÂ desiredÂ results)Â TheÂ newÂ methodÂ stresses theÂ importanceÂ ofÂ monitoringÂ behaviorsÂ andÂ requiredÂ driversÂ toÂ ensureÂ theyÂ areÂ beingÂ appliedÂ on theÂ job;Â and,Â monitoringÂ leadingÂ indicatorsÂ toÂ determineÂ whetherÂ correctÂ behaviorsÂ haveÂ been chosen. TheÂ 2011Â OPMÂ GuideÂ notesÂ theÂ distinctionÂ betweenÂ effectiveÂ trainingÂ âÂ trainingÂ thatÂ fulfillsÂ LevelÂ 1Â andÂ 2Â expectationsÂ âÂ andÂ trainingÂ effectivenessÂ whichÂ relatesÂ toÂ LevelÂ 3Â andÂ 4Â âÂ applicationÂ ofÂ theÂ trainingÂ toÂ theÂ employeeâsÂ jobÂ whichÂ producesÂ resultsÂ thatÂ contributeÂ toÂ theÂ agencyâsÂ mission.Â Â StateÂ transportationÂ agenciesÂ shouldÂ referÂ toÂ theÂ 2011Â OPMÂ GuideÂ asÂ aÂ resourceÂ guideÂ whenÂ developingÂ trainingÂ evaluations.Â TheÂ GuideÂ containsÂ caseÂ studiesÂ andÂ sampleÂ toolsÂ includingÂ participantÂ surveysÂ appropriateÂ forÂ eachÂ ofÂ theÂ fourÂ LevelsÂ andÂ observationÂ checklistsÂ forÂ LevelsÂ 2Â andÂ 3.Â InÂ addition,Â theÂ GuideÂ providesÂ aÂ briefÂ summaryÂ ofÂ additionalÂ evaluationÂ toolsÂ thatÂ mayÂ beÂ consideredÂ forÂ use.Â Â
Appendix A1: Annotated Bibliography A. Institutional Context for Emergency Management Recent guidance at the national level has been reshaping the focus and long-term direction of transportation agencies. Since the publication of the Guide in 2010, four significant national level directives and executive orders have been issued, with an emerging focus on the complementary goals of infrastructure protection and system resiliency as part of security and emergency management. â¢ PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE 8: NATIONAL PREPAREDNESS (2011) strengthens security and resilience through five preparedness mission areas - Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery. â¢ PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE-21: CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AND RESILIENCE (2013) focuses on the need for secure critical infrastructure that is able to withstand and rapidly recover (resilient) from all hazards. â¢ 2013 NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION PLAN: PARTNERING FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AND RESILIENCE emphasizes the importance of resilience, the need to reduce all-hazards vulnerabilities and mitigate potential consequences of incidents or events that do occur. â¢ EXECUTIVE ORDER 13636: IMPROVING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE CYBERSECURITY (2013) provides a technology-neutral cybersecurity framework and means to promote and the adoption of cybersecurity practices. â¢ EXECUTIVE ORDER 13653, PREPARING THE UNITED STATES FOR THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE (2013) requires federal agencies to integrate considerations of the challenges posed by climate change effects into their programs, policies, rules and operations to ensure they continue to be effective, even as the climate changes. â¢ The MOVING AHEAD FOR PROGRESS IN THE 21ST CENTURY ACT (MAPâ21), the previous transportation reauthorization legislation, focused on performance management and established a series of national performance goals. The goals related to safety, congestion reduction, freight movement and economic vitality and environmental sustainability are of particular relevance to emergency management. MAP-21 also required incorporating performance goals, measures, and targets into transportation planning. â¢ The FIXING AMERICAâS SURFACE TRANSPORTATION (FAST) ACT, enacted in 2015, expands the focus on the resiliency of the transportation system. âIt is in the national interest to encourage and promote the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of resilient surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight and foster economic growth and development within and between States and urbanized areas through metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes.â It requires strategies to reduce the vulnerability of existing transportation infrastructure to natural disasters and expands the scope of consideration of the metropolitan planning process to include improving transportation system resiliency and reliability.
National Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466017528262- 73651ed433ccfe080bed88014ac397cf/InformationSheet_Recovery_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Disaster Recovery Framework describes âhow the whole community works together to restore, redevelop, and revitalize the health, social, economic, natural, and environmental fabric of the community.â The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. Additional changes made to the Framework include: âIncreased focus on Recoveryâs relationship with the other four mission areas. Updated Recovery Support Functions (RSFs) to reflect changes in Primary Agencies and Supporting Organizations. Additional language on science and technology capabilities and investments for the rebuilding and recovery efforts.â National Response Framework, Third Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Response Framework, Third Edition â Information Sheet,â Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library- data/1466014891281- 6e7f60ceaf0be5a937ab2ed0eae0672d/InformationSheet_Response_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The NRF is aligned with NIMS and provides capabilities to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs. Response activities occur before, during, and after an incident and can overlap with the start of Recovery activities. The following changes were made to the Framework: â¢ The addition of a new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression. â¢ Three revised core capability titles o Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. â¢ Three revised core capability definitions o Environmental Response/ Health and Safety; o Fatality Management Services; and o Logistics and Supply Chain Management. National Mitigation Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Mitigation Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466014552462- 1b78d1a577324a66c4eb84b936c68f16/InformationSheet_Mitigation_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Mitigation Framework covers the capabilities necessary to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the effects of disasters, and focuses on risk (understanding and reducing it),
resilience (helping communities recover quickly and effectively after disasters), and a culture of preparedness. The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned including a revised core capability title, Threats and Hazards Identification. In addition, the following changes have been made: âAdditional language on science and technology efforts to reduce risk and analyze vulnerabilities within the mitigation mission area. Updates on the Mitigation Framework Leadership Group (MitFLG), which is now operational. Updates to the Community Resilience core capability definition to promote preparedness activities among individuals, households and families.â National Protection Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Protection Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466013587164- 86696df20638bbf24e25d70070eda114/InformationSheet_Protection_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Protection Framework focuses on âactions to deter threats, reduce vulnerabilities, and minimize the consequences associated with an incident.â The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. In addition, the following changes have been made: âUpdated Cybersecurity Core Capability Critical Tasks to align with the Mitigation, Response, and Recovery Mission Areas. Additional language on science and technology investments to protect against emerging vulnerabilities are included within the protection mission area. Additional language on interagency coordination within the protection mission area to support the decision-making processes outlined within the framework.â National Prevention Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Prevention Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466011024787- 91b8e49bf7344dd6dadca441c26272ad/InformationSheet_Prevention_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Prevention Framework focuses on terrorism and addresses the capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop imminent threats or attacks. Some core capabilities overlap with the Protection mission area. The updates include edits to the Nation Preparedness Goal, and lessons learned. Other edits include: âUpdates to Coordinating Structure language on Joint Operations Centers and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative. Clarification on the relationship and differences between the Prevention and Protection mission areas. Updated language on the National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) as part of the Public Information and Warning core capability. Additional language on science and technology investments within the prevention mission area.â
National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Preparedness Goal, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2015, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1443624338930- 32e9ed3ac6cf8e95d7d463ed9b9685df/NationalPreparednessGoal_InformationSheet_2015.pdf Synopsis. The 2011 National Preparedness Goal was updated in 2015. The key changes are described in the National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition â Whatâs New Fact Sheet. The National Preparedness Goal itself has not changed: âA secure and resilient nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.â The following changes were made to the National Preparedness Goal document: â¢ Introduction: Language added to stress the importance of community preparedness and resilience. â¢ Risk and the Core Capabilities: Enhanced items on cybersecurity and climate change. â¢ Preliminary Targets: Updated preliminary targets. â¢ New Core Capability: A new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression, was added. â¢ Core Capability Titles: Revised the following core capability titles: o Threats and Hazard Identification (Mitigation) â revised to Threats and Hazards Identification; o Public and Private Services and Resources (Response) â revised to Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On- scene Security and Protection (Response) â revised to On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health and Medical Services (Response) â revised to Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. â¢ Core Capability Definitions: Several of the core capability definitions were revised. NIPP 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Citation. National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience, US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, 2013, [Online]. Available: https://www.dhs.gov/national-infrastructure-protection-plan Synopsis. From DHS.gov: âOur Nationâs well-being relies upon secure and resilient critical infrastructureâthe assets, systems, and networks that underpin American society. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) â NIPP 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience â outlines how government and private sector participants in the critical infrastructure community work together to manage risks and achieve security and resilience outcomes.â âNIPP 2013 represents an evolution from concepts introduced in the initial version of the NIPP released in 2006 and revised in 2009. The National Plan is streamlined and adaptable to the current risk, policy, and strategic environments. It provides the foundation for an integrated and collaborative approach to achieve the vision of: â[a] Nation in which physical and cyber critical infrastructure remain secure and resilient, with vulnerabilities reduced, consequences minimized, threats identified and disrupted, and
response and recovery hastened.â NIPP 2013 meets the requirements of Presidential Policy Directive-21: Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience, signed in February 2013. The Plan was developed through a collaborative process involving stakeholders from all 16 critical infrastructure sectors, all 50 states, and from all levels of government and industry. It provides a clear call to action to leverage partnerships, innovate for risk management, and focus on outcomes.â The NIPP 2013 has six chapters, two appendices, and four supplements. After an Executive Summary, the Introduction (Chapter 1) gives an overview of the NIPP 2013 and its evolution from the 2009 NIPP. Chapter 2 defines the Vision, Mission, and Goals of the NIPP 2013, while Chapter 3 describes the Critical Infrastructure Environment in terms of key concepts, risk, policy, operations, and partnership. Core Tenets are established in Chapter 4. Ways to collaborate to manage risk are given in Chapter 5. The final chapter is a Call to Action (âSteps to Advance the National Effortâ). The Sector-Specific Plans of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors are being updated to align with the NIPP 2013. The web page for NIPP 2013 also contains links to training courses, critical infrastructure partnership courses, security awareness courses, and the relevant authorities (i.e. laws, regulations, and guidance). NIPP Supplemental Tool: Incorporating Resilience into Critical Infrastructure Projects http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/NIPP%202013%20Supplement_Incorporating%20R esilience%20into%20CI%20Projects_508.pdf NIPP Supplemental Tool: Executing a Critical Infrastructure Risk Management Approach http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/NIPP%202013%20Supplement_Executing%20a%20 CI%20Risk%20Mgmt%20Approach_508.pdf
B. Nature and Degree of Hazards/Threats Hazards have continued to evolve since the First Edition was published. In more recent times transportation agencies have been experiencing more and more devastating events either due to natural causes (e.g., Superstorm Sandy, extensive Midwest flooding, powerful hurricanes), caused by unintentional human intervention (e.g., truck crashes and fires on the Oakland Bay Bridge and in the Boston tunnels, oil train derailments) or intentional acts (e.g. cyber-attacks and armed assault including active-shooter incidents). Because todayâs transportation systems are integrated cyber and physical systems, there are greater cyber risks than ever, including the risk of a cyber incident impacting not only data, but the control systems and physical infrastructure of transportation agencies. Risk-Based Transportation Asset Management: Building Resilience into Transportation Assets: Report 5: Managing External Threats Through Risk-Based Asset Management Citation. âReport 5: Managing External Threats Through Risk-Based Asset Managementâ, Risk-Based Transportation Asset Management: Building Resilience into Transportation Assets, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, March 2013, [Online]. Available: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/pubs/hif13018.pdf Synopsis. From the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database: âThis is the fifth of five reports examining how risk management complements asset management. This last report examines how physical, climatic, seismic and other external threats can be addressed in risk-based asset management programs. The first four reports and the literature review emphasized the definition of risk as the positive or negative effect of uncertainty or variability upon agency objectives. Those reports emphasized that risks could be positive in that some types of uncertainty can create opportunities. However, this report will focus more on negative risks, or threats. These risks generally are external, and while highly probable over a long period of time, are difficult to predict in the short term. Randomness and variability complicate planning for them. In August 2011, Hurricane Irene reached one of the nationâs most northern states, Vermont, and damaged 480 bridges out of a total network of 2717 bridges. In one day, more bridge deterioration occurred than normally would occur over many years. Accurate prediction of such events is nearly impossible. Such a significant storm had not struck Vermont for 83 years. In managing risks to assets from external threats, this report emphasizes the Three Rs, which are Redundancy, Robustness and Resiliency. These will be defined, described and illustrated through several agency examples. Asset management plays a critical role in each, particularly Robustness and Resiliency. Including the Three Rs in asset planning efforts can better prepare agencies to cope with an increasingly unpredictable world.â The report consists of five major sections. The first is an introductory section. The second section discusses Climate Change and Extreme Weather Risks. The FHWAâs Vulnerability Assessment Model is presented in the third section. The fourth section discusses Risked-Based Approaches to Protecting Assets. Summary and Conclusions make up the fifth section.
A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases Citation. A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases. HMCRP Report, Battelle Memorial Institute, Issue 5, 2011, 119p, [Online]. Available: http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165201.aspx Synopsis. From the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database: âThis Guide presents comprehensive, step-by-step guidance on assessing hazardous materials emergency response needs at state, regional, and local levels; matching state, regional, and local capabilities with potential emergencies involving different types of hazardous materials; and assessing how quickly resources can be brought to bear in an emergency. The methodology described in the Guide is designed to be scalable, allowing the implementation results to be aggregated at the local level up through regional, state, and national levels. Also, the Guide is designed to connect as many components as possible to already- established standards, guidelines, regulations, and laws, so that the Guide will remain current as these underlying components are updated. In addition, the Guide discusses appropriate means for maintaining currency of the information over time. The Guide and accompanying spreadsheet tool (on the attached CD-ROM), which leads planners through the assessment process, will be most useful for local jurisdictions that have limited resources and expertise in hazardous materials emergency response planning.â Protecting Americaâs Roads, Bridges, and Tunnels: The Role of State DOTs in Homeland Security Citation. âProtecting Americaâs Roads, Bridges, and Tunnels: The Role of State DOTs in Homeland Security,â The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, DC, Jan 2005, [Online]. Available: http://scotsem.transportation.org/Documents/Protecting_Americas_Roads.pdf Synopsis. According to AASHTOâs page on Bridge and Tunnel Security, this publication is an âAASHTO brochure providing an overview of the vital role that State DOTs â builders and operators of the nationâs busiest roads, tunnels, and bridges â often play when emergency situations occurâ. It explains âwhy the security of our roads, bridges, and tunnels is important, what DOTs are doing to improve it, and the keys to better partnership.â The document has four sections. The introductory section (âState Dotsâ Guardians of The Nationâs Transportation Infrastructureâ) argues that DOTsâ foremost expanded roles include all-hazards emergency management and critical asset protection. The two body sections explain DOTsâ expertise and needs in their respective domain. The first body section (âA Vital Support Role in Emergency Managementâ) notes that DOTsâ all-hazards emergency management expertise includes the key functions of: traveler information; traffic management; transportation facilities, personnel, and equipment; and infrastructure reconstruction capabilities. At the same time, resources are needed to address the enhancement of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capabilities; improvement of emergency response; and better communications. The second body section (âProtecting Critical Transportation Assetsâ) notes that DOTs have several available countermeasures: deterrence and detection, defense, and design and re-design. But to address critical asset protection, DOTs need resources to address: bridge retrofits, bridge reconstruction, tunnel protection costs.â
In its concluding section (âThe Road Ahead â Setting an Agenda for Partnership in Securityâ), this publication advocates that DOTs be âconsidered as first responders in terms of support from the Department of Homeland Security.â For strengthening this partnership, four cornerstones are proposed: â¢ recognition of vital role of DOT in emergency management and homeland security, â¢ responsiveness to road, bridge, and tunnel asset protection needs, â¢ additional resources for DOT to meet homeland security challenges, and â¢ support for transportation-related security research. NCHRP Report 750 â Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: Practitionerâs Guide and Research Report, 2014 Citation. Parsons Brinckerhoff, Cambridge Systematics, and Stratus Consulting, Strategic Issues Facing Transportation Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: A Practitionerâs Guide and Research Report, NCHRP Report 750, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2014, [Online]. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/169781.aspx Synopsis. From the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database: âThis report presents guidance on adaptation strategies to likely impacts of climate change through 2050 in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of infrastructure assets in the United States (and through 2100 for sea-level rise).In addition to the practitionerâs guide and research report, this project also developed the following items: 1. âa software tool that runs in common web browsers and provides specific, region-based information on incorporating climate change adaptation into the planning and design of bridges, culverts, stormwater infrastructure, slopes, walls, and pavements; 2. âtables that provide the same information as the previously mentioned software tool, but in a spreadsheet format that can be printed; and 3. âtwo spreadsheets that illustrate examples of the benefit-cost analysis of adaptation strategies discussed in Appendix B of Part I of NCHRP Report 750, Volume 2.â This report discusses physical countermeasures against storm surge, floods, extreme temperature, and permafrost instability. Storm surge countermeasures include shoreline revetments, elevated approach roadways, extended wingwalls, enhanced scour protection and strengthened deck tie-downs. Additional flood countermeasures include floodplain culverts, hardening the slopes of approach roadways, adding/raising spans, and protecting coatings. Countermeasures against extreme temperature include widening expansion joints, redesigning bearings, and strengthening beams and girders. Countermeasures against permafrost instability include mitigation techniques such as the use of reflective surfaces, air convection embankment, geosynthetic reinforcement, thermosyphons, berms, air ducts, insulation materials and lightweight fill materials. Hazard Data Sources and Tools Information on potential hazards, including probability and possible effects, can be obtained from the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA), State Emergency Management and Civil Defense Agencies, National Weather Service (NWS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of
the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Department of Natural Resources (DNR). FEMA 433: Using HAZUS-MH for Risk Assessment, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Available: http://www.fema.gov/fema-433-using-hazus-mh-risk-assessment FEMA Map Service Center Available: http://msc.fema.gov/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/FemaWelcomeView?storeId=10001&catalogId=10001 &langId=-1 This Federal Emergency Management Agency source provides map information for a variety of users affected by floods, including homeowners and renters, real estate and flood determination agents, insurance agents, engineers and surveyors, and federal and exempt customers. There are flood maps, databases, map viewers, documents and publications providing comprehensive information. Further aspects of the site include FEMA issued flood maps available for purchase, definitions of FEMA flood zone designations, and information about FIRMettes, a full-scale section of a FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) that users can create and print at no charge. FEMA Flood Map Service Center (MSC) Available: http://msc.fema.gov/portal/ The FEMA Flood Map Service Center is the official public source for flood hazard information produced in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The MSC contains official flood maps, access a range of other flood hazard products, and tools for better understanding flood risk. subsection of Interior Geospatial Emergency Management System (IGEMS) Available: http://igems.doi.gov/ The Department of Interior Geosciences and Environmental Change Science Center IGEMS, which replaced the Natural Hazards Support System (NHSS), provides online maps containing the latest available information on earthquakes, earthquake shakemaps, streamflow data, floods, volcanoes, wildfires, and weather hazards. National Weather Service GIS Data Portal (NOAA) Available: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/gis/shapepage.htm Current weather, forecasts and past weather data are available in Shapefile and other formats from the Data Portal. Hazards include tornados, hurricanes, rain, snowfall, floods and other weather related hazards. Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (NOAA) Available: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/oh/ahps/ The NOAA Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) is a web-based suite of forecast products that displays the magnitude and uncertainty of occurrence of floods or droughts, from hours to days and months, in advance. The majority of the observed water level data displayed on the AHPS web pages
originates from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Streamflow Information Program which maintains a national network of stream gauges. In addition, real-time water level information is collected from other federal, state, and local stream gauge networks. Climate Change & Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment Framework (2012) Available: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/climate_change/adaptation/publications/vulnerability_assessm ent_framework/page00.cfm#Toc345418472 The Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability to climate change and extreme weather events. It gives an overview of key steps in conducting vulnerability assessments and uses in-practice examples to demonstrate a variety of ways to gather and process information. Space Weather Over the last several years, both industry and the Federal government have played an active role in maintaining and advancing the Nationâs ability to forecast and mitigate the various impacts of space weather. These actions include taking steps to replace aging satellite assets essential to monitoring and forecasting space weather, proposing space-weather standards for both the national and international air space, developing regulations to ensure the continued operation of the electric grid during an extreme space weather event, proposing a new option for replacing crucial Extra High Voltage (EHV) transformers damaged by space weather, and developing domestic production sources for EHV transformers. NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Available: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/ The official U.S. government space weather bureau. SpaceWeather.com Available: spaceweather.com This website maintains all space weather information including current conditions. White House Workshop on Space Weather, 2015 The White House held a workshop titled âSpace Weather: Understanding Potential Impacts and Building Resilienceâ in October of 2015 and released the following supporting commitments to enhance Space- Weather Preparedness: â¢ Releasing New Space Environment Data. The U.S. Air Force (USAF), in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), will provide Space Environment Data from the current GPS constellation and other U.S. Government satellites. This data could be used to validate space-weather forecast models, potentially enhancing space-weather prediction capabilities. As a first step, USAF and NOAA will make data from January 2014 â a month characterized by a high level of solar activity â freely available on data.gov, providing an opportunity for users to explore the scientific value of the data. Within three months of this release, the Office of Science and Technology Policy will chair an interagency group to evaluate
the utility of the released data and to determine if the open data archive should be expanded to include additional historical and near real-time data. â¢ Launching a Space Weather Data Initiative. In accordance with President Obamaâs Executive Order on making open and machine-readable the new default for government information, as well as on demonstrated successes of unleashing innovation and technology for disaster response and recovery, the Administration will launch a Space Weather Data Initiative. The goals of this Initiative are to (1) make easily accessible and freely available on data.gov an unprecedented amount of space weather-related data; (2) engage with the private sector and the open-data community to leverage the open data and promote the development of data- driven tools, applications, and technology to enhance space-weather preparedness; and (3) expand U.S. Government capacity for using open data, innovation, and technology to support effective and efficient response to and recovery from space-weather events. â¢ Increasing International Collaboration. To strengthen international coordination and cooperation on space-weather preparedness, the Department of State will organize workshops and meetings in Washington, DC with embassy staff from a multitude of nations. These workshops and meetings will provide an opportunity for other countries to learn more about the purpose and goals of the National Space Weather Strategy and accompanying Action Plan; ensure that policymakers in and leaders of partner nations recognize space weather as a global challenge; and facilitate the sustained, coordinated participation of partner nations in relevant international space-weather initiatives. â¢ Including Space Weather in Transportation âFundamentalsâ Reports. Space weather can affect communication and navigation systems that are critical for safe and efficient transportation systems. By incorporating space-weather considerations into two reports that provide comprehensive and up-to-date guidance on the major elements of a stateâs all-hazards transportation security and emergency management program â Security 101: A Physical Security Primer for Transportation, and A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies âofficials will have the information they need to incorporate space-weather considerations into transportation-security guidelines and emergency-response plans. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) â a nonprofit association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico â will ensure that space weather is included in the next edition of these two AASHTO Special Committee on Transportation Security and Emergency Management âfundamentalsâ reports. â¢ Incorporating Space Weather into Emergency-Management Training and Activities. Space- weather events can, directly or indirectly, cause or exacerbate major disasters or emergencies, and can interfere with or impair disaster response, relief, and recovery efforts. The National Emergency Management Association (NEMA) â a professional association of and for emergency management directors, dedicated to enhancing public safety by improving the nationâs ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from all emergencies and disasters â will increase training and education related to space weather. Specifically, NEMA will: o Partner with the International Association of Emergency Managers to host a space- weather focused webinar for members of both groups, reaching up to 1200 state and local emergency managers, and others working in the emergency-management field; o Incorporate space weather into training and education opportunities for newly appointed state emergency management directors; and o Incorporate space weather into the NEMA Homeland Security Committeeâs policy focus on infrastructure resilience.
â¢ Raising Awareness of Space Weather in the Aviation Sector. As part of their commitment to promote safety, security and a healthy U.S. airline industry, Airlines for America â Americaâs largest airline trade association â will work with member carriers and their affiliates to educate the community on space weather and its effects on aviation, which include degradation or loss of satellite navigation signals and radio transmissions for communication. Fact Sheet: New Actions to Enhance National Space-Weather Preparedness https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/space_weather_fact_sheet_final.pdf National Space Weather Strategy and National Space Weather Action Plan National Space Weather Strategy Available: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/final_nationalspaceweatherstrategy_2 0151028.pdf National Space Weather Action Plan Available: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/final_nationalspaceweatheractionplan _20151028.pdf The newly released National Space Weather Strategy (Strategy) and Space Weather Action Plan (Action Plan) were developed by an interagency group of experts, with input from stakeholders outside of the Federal government, to clearly articulate how the Federal government will work to fill these gaps by coordinating, integrating, and expanding existing policy efforts; engaging a broad range of sectors; and collaborating with international counterparts. The Strategy identifies goals and establishes the guiding principles that will guide these efforts in both the near and long term, while the Action Plan identifies specific activities, outcomes, and timelines that the Federal government will pursue accordingly. The Action Plan broadly aligns with investments proposed in the Presidentâs Budget for Fiscal Year 2016 and will be reevaluated and updated within 3 years of the date of publication or as needed. Taken together, the Strategy and Action Plan will facilitate the integration of space-weather considerations into Federal planning and decision making to achieve preparedness levels consistent with national policies, and enhance the resilience of critical technologies infrastructures to the potentially debilitating effects of space weather on the people, economy, and security of the United States. Cybersecurity Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer Citation: Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer. NCHRP-TCRP Web- Only Document, Countermeasures Assessment and Security Experts, LLC; Western Management and Consulting, LLC, Issue NCHRP 221/TCRP 67, 2015, 183p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1408236 Synopsis: This primer, a joint product of two Transportation Research Board Cooperative Research Programs, provides transportation organizations basic reference material concerning cybersecurity concepts, guidelines, definitions and standards. The primer delivers fundamental strategic, management and planning information associated with cybersecurity and its applicability to transit and state
department of transportation operations. The primer presents fundamental definitions and rationales that describe the principles and practices that enable effective cybersecurity risk management. The goals of the primer are to: increase awareness of cybersecurity as it applies to highway and public transportation; plant the seeds of organizational culture change; address those situations where the greatest risks lie; and provide industry-specific approaches to monitoring, responding to and mitigating cyber threats. Individual chapters address: myths of cybersecurity; risk management, risk assessment and asset evaluation; plans and strategies, establishing priorities, organizing roles and responsibilities; transportation operations cyber systems; countermeasures; training; and security programs and support frameworks. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Agencies Need to Better Measure Cybersecurity Progress. Citation. Wilshusen, Gregory C. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Agencies Need to Better Measure Cybersecurity Progress. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2015, 82p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1375467 Synopsis: U. S. critical infrastructures, such as financial institutions, commercial buildings, and energy production and transmission facilities, are systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, vital to the nationâs security, economy, and public health and safety. To secure these systems and assets, federal policy and the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) establish responsibilities for federal agencies designated as sector-specific agencies (SSA), including leading, facilitating, or supporting the security and resilience programs and associated activities of their designated critical infrastructure sectors. The Government Accountability Office's (GAOâs) objectives were to determine the extent to which SSAs have (1) identified the significance of cyber risks to their respective sectorsâ networks and industrial control systems, (2) taken actions to mitigate cyber risks within their respective sectors, (3) collaborated across sectors to improve cybersecurity, and (4) established performance metrics to monitor improvements in their respective sectors. To conduct the review, GAO analyzed policy, plans, and other documentation and interviewed public and private sector officials for 8 of 9 SSAs with responsibility for 15 of 16 sectors. GAO recommends that certain SSAs collaborate with sector partners to develop performance metrics and determine how to overcome challenges to reporting the results of their cyber risk mitigation activities. Four of these agencies concurred with GAOâs recommendation, while two agencies did not comment on the recommendations. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Enhance Efforts to Address Port Cybersecurity Citation. Wilshusen, Gregory C. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Enhance Efforts to Address Port Cybersecurity. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2015, 14p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1371372 Synopsis: The nationâs maritime ports handle more than $1.3 trillion in cargo each year: a disruption at one of these ports could have a significant economic impact. Increasingly, port operations rely on computerized information and communications technologies, which can be vulnerable to cyber-based attacks. Federal entities, including the Department of Homeland Security's (DHSâs) Coast Guard and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), have responsibilities for protecting ports against cyber-related threats. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has designated the protection of federal information systems as a government-wide high-risk area since 1997, and in 2003 expanded this to include systems supporting the nationâs critical infrastructure. This statement by Gregory C.
Wilshusen, Director, Information Security Issues, addresses (1) cyber-related threats facing the maritime port environment and (2) steps DHS has taken to address cybersecurity in that environment. In preparing this statement, GAO relied on work supporting its June 2014 report on cybersecurity at ports. (GAO-14-459). In its June 2014 report on port cybersecurity, GAO recommended that the Coast Guard include cyber-risks in its updated risk assessment for the maritime environment, address cyber-risks in its guidance for port security plans, and consider reestablishing the sector coordinating council. GAO also recommended that FEMA ensure funding decisions for its port security grant program are informed by subject matter expertise and a comprehensive risk assessment. DHS has partially addressed two of these recommendations since GAOâs report was issued. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity Citation. Murphy, Randall J; Sukkarieh, Michael; Haass, Jon; Hriljac, Paul. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. ACRP Report, Issue 140, 2015, 162p. Available: Http://trid.trb.org/view/1360787 Synopsis: Cybersecurity is a growing issue for all organizations, including airports. While the risks to traditional information technology (IT) infrastructure are often highlighted, many airports also rely on industrial control systems that introduce risks that are less apparent. The increasing practice of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), whereby employees use their own personal devices for business purposes such as email and remote access to airport systems, brings its own risks that must be managed. These risks cannot be eliminated, but they can be reduced through implementation of industry standards, best practices, and awareness programs for employees. This report provides resources for airport managers and IT staff to reduce or mitigate inherent risks of cyberattacks on technology-based systems. Traditional IT infrastructure such as servers, desktops, and network devices are covered along with increasingly sophisticated and interconnected industrial control systems, such as baggage handling, temperature control, and airfield lighting systems. Accompanying this guidebook is a CD-ROM (CRP-CD- 171) of multimedia material that can be used to educate all staff at airports about the need, and how, to be diligent against cybersecurity threats. A Summary of Cybersecurity Best Practices Citation. McCarthy, Charlie; Harnett, Kevin; Carter, Art. A Summary of Cybersecurity Best Practices. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014, 40p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1329314 Synopsis: This report contains the results and analysis of a review of best practices and observations in the field of cybersecurity involving electronic control systems across a variety of industry segments where the safety-of-life is concerned. This research provides relevant benchmarks that are essential to making strategic decisions over the next steps for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSAâs) research program. This publication is part of a series of reports that describe the authors' initial work under the goal of facilitating cybersecurity best practices in the automotive industry (Goals 1 and 2). The information presented herein increases the collective knowledge base in automotive cybersecurity; helps identify potential knowledge gaps; helps describe the risk and threat environments; and helps support follow-on tasks that could be used to establish security guidelines. Assessment of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center Model
Citation. McCarthy, Charlie; Harnett, Kevin; Carter, Art; Hatipoglu, Cem. Assessment of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center Model. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014, 46p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1341933 Synopsis: An Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC) is a trusted, sector-specific entity that can provide a 24-hour per day and 7-day per week secure operating capability that establishes the coordination, information sharing, and intelligence requirements for dealing with cybersecurity incidents, threats, and vulnerabilities. An ISAC can serve as an industry resource by which to gather key information about cybersecurity events and issues and identify, communicate, and analyze potential impacts of such concerns to the sector. This report presents findings from an assessment of the ISAC model, and how ISACâs are effectively implemented in other sectors. The report also explains how a new sector ISAC could be formed by leveraging existing ISAC models. This publication supports the goal of facilitating the establishment of a cybersecurity information sharing forum in the automotive sector (Goal 2). Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity Citation. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2014, 54p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1312046 Synopsis: U.S. maritime ports handle more than $1.3 trillion in cargo annually. The operations of these ports are supported by information and communication systems, which are susceptible to cyber-related threats. Failures in these systems could degrade or interrupt operations at ports, including the flow of commerce. Federal agenciesâin particular Department of Homeland Security (DHS)âand industry stakeholders have specific roles in protecting maritime facilities and ports from physical and cyber threats. The Government Accoutability Office's (GAOâs) objective was to identify the extent to which DHS and other stakeholders have taken steps to address cybersecurity in the maritime port environment. GAO examined relevant laws and regulations; analyzed federal cybersecurity-related policies and plans; observed operations at three U.S. ports selected based on being a high-risk port and a leader in calls by vessel type, e.g. container; and interviewed federal and nonfederal officials. GAO recommends that DHS direct the Coast Guard to (1) assess cyber-related risks, (2) use this assessment to inform maritime security guidance, and (3) determine whether the sector coordinating council should be reestablished. DHS should also direct the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to (1) develop procedures to consult DHS cybersecurity experts for assistance in reviewing grant proposals and (2) use the results of the cyber-risk assessment to inform its grant guidance. DHS concurred with GAOâs recommendations. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation Citation. Moteff, John D. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. Congressional Research Service, 2014, 39p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1312743 Synopsis: The nationâs health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g., electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed). The national security community has been concerned for some time about the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to both physical and cyberattack. In May 1998, President Clinton released Presidential Decision Directive No. 63. The Directive set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government- operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between government and the private sector to
develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nationâs critical infrastructures by the year 2003. While the Directive called for both physical and cyber protection from both man-made and natural events, implementation focused on cyber protection against man-made cyber events (i.e., computer hackers). Following the destruction and disruptions caused by the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001, the nation directed increased attention toward physical protection of critical infrastructures. Over the intervening years, policy, programs, and legislation related to physical security of critical infrastructure have stabilized to a large extent. However, current legislative activity has refocused on cybersecurity of critical infrastructure. This report discusses in more detail the evolution of a national critical infrastructure policy and the institutional structures established to implement it. The report highlights two primary issues confronting Congress going forward, both in the context of cybersecurity: information sharing and regulation. Critical Infrastructure Protection: More Comprehensive Planning Would Enhance the Cybersecurity of Public Safety Entitiesâ Emerging Technology Citation. Critical Infrastructure Protection: More Comprehensive Planning Would Enhance the Cybersecurity of Public Safety Entitiesâ Emerging Technology. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2014, 41p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1290381 Synopsis: Individuals can contact fire, medical, and police first responders in an emergency by dialing 911. To provide effective emergency services, public safety entities such as 911 call centers use technology including databases that identifies phone number and location data of callers. Because these critical systems are becoming more interconnected, they are also increasingly susceptible to cyber- based threats that accompany the use of Internet-based services. This, in turn, could impact the availability of 911 services. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to review federal coordination with state and local governments regarding cybersecurity at public safety entities. The objective was to determine the extent to which federal agencies coordinated with state and local governments regarding cybersecurity efforts at emergency operations centers, public safety answering points, and first responder organizations involved in handling 911 emergency calls. The five identified federal agencies (Departments of Homeland Security, Commerce, Justice, and Transportation and Federal Communications Commission (FCC)) have to varying degrees, coordinated cybersecurity-related activities with state and local governments. These activities included (1) supporting critical infrastructure protection-related planning, (2) issuing grants, (3) sharing information, (4) providing technical assistance, and (5) regulating and overseeing essential functions. However, except for supporting critical infrastructure planning, federal coordination of these activities was generally not targeted towards or focused on the cybersecurity of state and local public safety entities involved in handling 911 emergency calls. Under the critical infrastructure protection planning activity, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) coordinated with state and local governments and other federal stakeholders to complete the Emergency Services Sector-Specific Plan. The plan is to guide the sector, including the public safety entities, in setting protective program goals and objectives, identifying assets, assessing risks, prioritizing infrastructure components and programs to enhance risk mitigation, implementing protective programs, measuring program effectiveness, and incorporating research and development of technology initiatives into sector planning efforts. It also addressed aspects of cybersecurity of the current environment. However, the plan did not address the development and implementation of more interconnected, Internet-based planned information technologies, such as the next generation of 911 services. According to DHS officials, the plan did not address these technologies, in part, because the process for updating the sector-specific plan will begin after the release of the revised National Infrastructure Protection Planâa unifying framework to enhance the safety of the nationâs critical infrastructure. A revised plan was released in December 2013, and, according to DHS, a new sector-specific plan is estimated to be
completed in December 2014. Until DHS, in collaboration with stakeholders, addresses the cybersecurity implications of the emerging technologies in planning activities, information systems are at an increased risk of failure or being unavailable at critical moments. Under the other four activities, federal agencies performed some coordination related activities for public safety entities including administering grants for information technology enhancements, sharing information about cyber-based attacks, and providing technical assistance through education and awareness efforts. For example, the Departments of Transportation and Commerce allocated $43.5 million in grants to states over a 3-year period, starting in September 2009, to help implement enhancements to 911 system functionality. While these grants were not targeted towards the cybersecurity of these systems, cybersecurity was not precluded from the allowed use of the funds. GAO recommends that the Secretary of Homeland Security collaborate with emergency services sector stakeholders to address the cybersecurity implications of implementing technology initiatives in related plans. The Critical Infrastructure Gap: U.S. Port Facilities and Cyber Vulnerabilities Citation. Kramek, Joseph. The Critical Infrastructure Gap: U.S. Port Facilities and Cyber Vulnerabilities. Brookings Institution, 2013, 50p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1325343 Synopsis: This paper looks at the current state of cybersecurity as it relates to U.S. ports. Topics include port security prior to and post-September 11th, the Maritime Transportation Security Act, the Port Security Grant Program, and cybersecurity awareness, preparedness and recovery. Case studies outlining current port security and practices are presented for the Port of Baltimore, Maryland, the Port of Houston, Texas, the Port of Los Angeles, California, the Port of Long Beach, California, the Port of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and the Port of Beaumont, Texas. Of the six ports studied most had not conducted a cybersecurity vulnerability assessment nor developed a cyber incident response plan. Policy recommendations are provided to address port cybersecurity improvements. Critical Infrastructure Security: Assessment, Prevention, Detection, Response Citation. Critical Infrastructure Security: Assessment, Prevention, Detection, Response. WIT Press, 2012, 326p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1247665 Synopsis: This book examines best practices and trends in infrastructure security at both the physical and digital level. Methods and tools for assessing, preventing, detecting and responding to security threats are outlined. The book is divided into five parts: (1) Security risk and vulnerability assessment; (2) Modeling and simulation tools; (3) Cybersecurity; (4) Monitoring and surveillance; (5) Security systems integration and alarm management. Homeland Security: DHSâs Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity Citation. Homeland Security: DHSâs Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009, 25p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/906303 Synopsis: Securing the nationâs transportation and information systems is a primary responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Within DHS, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is responsible for securing all transportation modes; U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for cargo container security; the U.S. Coast Guard is responsible for protecting the maritime environment; and the National Protection and Programs Directorate is responsible for the cybersecurity
of critical infrastructure. This statement focuses on the progress and challenges DHS faces in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity. It is based on U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) products issued from June 2004 through November 2009, as well as ongoing work on air cargo security. DHS has made progress in enhancing security in the maritime sector, but key challenges remain. For example, as part of a statutory requirement to scan 100 percent of U.S.-bound container cargo by July 2012, CBP has implemented the Secure Freight Initiative at select foreign ports. However, CBP does not have a plan for fully implementing the 100 percent scanning requirement by July 2012 because it questions the feasibility, although it has not performed a feasibility analysis of the requirement. Rather, CBP has planned two new initiatives to further strengthen the security of container cargo, but these initiatives will not achieve 100 percent scanning. Further, TSA, the Coast Guard, and the maritime industry took a number of steps to enroll over 93 percent of the estimated 1.2 million users in the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) program (designed to help control access to maritime vessels and facilities) by the April 15, 2009 compliance deadline, but they experienced challenges resulting in delays and in ensuring the successful execution of the TWIC pilot. While DHS and the Coast Guard have developed a strategy and programs to reduce the risks posed by small vessels, they face ongoing resource and technology challenges in tracking small vessels and preventing attacks by such vessels. In the aviation sector, TSA has made progress in meeting the statutory mandate to screen 100 percent of air cargo transported on passenger aircraft by August 2010 and in taking steps to strengthen airport security, but TSA continues to face challenges. TSAâs efforts include developing a system to allow screening responsibilities to be shared across the domestic air cargo supply chain, among other steps. Despite these efforts, TSA and the industry face a number of challenges including the voluntary nature of the program, and ensuring that approved technologies are effective with air cargo. TSA also does not expect to meet the mandated 100 percent screening deadline as it applies to air cargo transported into the U.S., in part due to existing screening exemptions for this type of cargo and challenges in harmonizing security standards with other nations. GAO is reviewing these issues as part of its ongoing work and will issue a final report next year. In addition, TSA has taken a variety of actions to strengthen airport security by, among other things, implementing a worker screening program; however, TSA still faces challenges in this area. DHS has made progress in strengthening cybersecurity, such as addressing some lessons learned from a cyber attack exercise, but further actions are warranted. Since 2005, GAO has reported that DHS has not fully satisfied its key responsibilities for protecting the nationâs computer-reliant critical infrastructures and has made related recommendations to DHS, such as bolstering cyber analysis and warning capabilities and strengthening its capabilities to recover from Internet disruptions. DHS has since developed and implemented certain capabilities to satisfy aspects of its responsibilities, but it has not fully implemented GAOâs recommendations and, thus, more action is needed to address the risk to critical cybersecurity infrastructure. Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored Citation. Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009, 129p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/889626 Synopsis: An attack on the U.S. freight rail system could be catastrophic because rail cars carrying highly toxic materials often traverse densely populated urban areas. The Department of Homeland Securityâs (DHS) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is the federal entity primarily responsible for securing freight rail. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to assess the status of efforts to secure this system. This report discusses (1) stakeholder efforts to assess risks to the freight rail system and TSAâs development of a risk-based security strategy; (2) actions stakeholders have taken
to secure the system since 2001, TSAâs efforts to monitor and assess their effectiveness, and any challenges to implementing future actions; and (3) the extent to which stakeholders have coordinated efforts. Federal and industry stakeholders have completed a range of actions to assess risks to freight rail since September 2001, and TSA has developed a security strategy; however, TSAâs efforts have primarily focused on one threat, and its strategy does not fully address federal guidance or key characteristics of a successful national strategy. Specifically, TSAâs efforts to assess vulnerabilities and potential consequences to freight rail have focused almost exclusively on rail shipments of certain highly toxic materials, in part, because of concerns about their security in transit and limited resources. However, other federal and industry assessments have identified additional potential security threats, including risks to critical infrastructure and cybersecurity. Although many stakeholders agreed with TSAâs initial strategy, going forward TSA has agreed that including other identified threats in its freight rail security strategy is important, and reported that it is reconsidering its strategy to incorporate other threats. Additionally, in 2004, GAO reported that successful national strategies should identify performance measures with targets, among other elements. TSAâs security strategy could be strengthened by including targets for three of its four performance measures and revising its approach for the other measure to ensure greater consistency in how performance results are quantified. Federal and industry stakeholders have also taken a range of actions to secure freight rail, many of which have focused on securing certain toxic material rail shipments and have been implemented by industry voluntarily; however, TSA lacks a mechanism to monitor security actions and evaluate their effectiveness, and new requirements could pose challenges for future security efforts. GAOâs Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government calls for controls to be designed to ensure ongoing monitoring. While the freight rail industry has taken actions to better secure shipments and key infrastructure, TSA has limited ability to assess the impacts of these actions because it lacks a mechanism to systematically track them and evaluate their effectiveness. Having such information could strengthen TSAâs efforts to efficiently target its resources to where actions have not been effective. New, mandatory security planning and procedural requirements will also necessitate additional federal and industry efforts and resources, and may pose some implementation challenges for both federal and industry stakeholders. Federal and industry stakeholders have also taken a number of steps to coordinate their freight rail security efforts; however, federal coordination can be enhanced by more fully leveraging the resources of all relevant federal agencies. GAO previously identified a number of leading practices for effective coordination that could help TSA strengthen coordination with federal and private sector stakeholders. Cybersecurity Resources Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer (2016) Citation. NCHRP Web-Only Document 221/TCRP Web-Only Document 67: Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer, Transportation Research Board, 2016. Available: https://www.nap.edu/download/23516 Synopsis. This Primer provides transportation organizations with reference materials concerning cybersecurity concepts, guidelines, definitions, and standards. It delivers strategic, management, and planning information associated with cybersecurity and its applicability to transit and state DOT operations. It includes definitions and rationales that describe the principles and practices that enable effective cybersecurity risk management. The primer provides transportation managers and employees with greater context and information regarding the principles of information technology and operations systems security planning and procedures. The report is supplemented with an Executive Briefing for
use as a 20-minute presentation to senior executives on security practices for transit and DOT cyber and industrial control systems. Guide To Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Second Edition Citation. Special Publication 80-82, Guide To Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Second Edition, National Institute For Standards And Technology, 2015. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/ drafts/800-82r2/sp800_82_r2_second_draft.pdf Synopsis. The ICS security guide advises on how to reduce the vulnerability of computer-controlled industrial systems to malicious attacks, equipment failures, errors, inadequate malware protection and other threats. The Second Edition of the Guide includes new guidance on how to tailor traditional IT security controls to accommodate unique ICS performance, reliability and safety requirements, as well as updates to sections on threats and vulnerabilities, risk management, recommended practices, security architectures and security capabilities and tools. Recommended Practice: Securing Control And Communications Systems In Transit Environments Citation. APTA Standards Development Program Recommended Practice: Securing Control And Communications Systems In Transit Environments, APTA. Available: Part I: http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/documents/apta-ss-ccs-rp-001-10.pdf Part II: http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/documents/apta-ss-ccs-rp-002-13.pdf Part IIIa and IIIb in development Synopsis. This document covers recommended practices for securing control and communications systems in transit environments.These Recommended Practices address the importance of control and communications security to a transit agency, provide a survey of the various systems that constitute typical transit control and communication systems, and identify the steps that an agency would follow to set up a successful security program. The documents address the security of the following passenger rail and/or bus systems: SCADA, traction power control, emergency ventilation control, alarms and indications, fire/intrusion detection systems, train control/signaling, fare collection, automatic vehicle location (AVL),physical security feeds (CCTV, access control), public information systems, public address systems, and radio/wireless/related communication. NIST Cybersecurity Framework Available: http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/ The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), with transportation specific guidance available from APTA and FHWA, have developed recommended practices and standards. There are international standards and recommendations from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the Information Systems Audit and the Control Association (ISACA), and Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT). US Department of Transportation (USDOT) Cybersecurity Action Team The US Department of Transportation (USDOT) developed a Cybersecurity Action Team, as part of
Executive Order 13636, to implement o the Departmentâs Cyber Incident Response Capability Program. The team monitors, alerts and advises the ITS and surface transportation communities of incidents and threats, and leverages the extensive body of assessments and research done by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) staff related to the security threats and vulnerabilities of the United Statesâ transportation systems. US-CERT and Industrial Control Systems (ICS-CERT) Cyber Information Sharing and Collaboration Program Incident Hotline: 1-888-282-0870 Website: https://www.us-cert.gov/ The US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT), part of DHS' National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC), provides technical assistance, coordinates cyber information sharing and proactively manage cyber risks through its 24x7 operations center. US-CERT distributes vulnerability and threat information through its National Cyber Awareness System (NCAS), and operates a Vulnerability Notes Database to provide technical descriptions of system vulnerabilities. Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Available: https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/ The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) operates cybersecurity operations centers focused on control systems security as part of the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC). The team: â¢ Responses to and analyses industrial control systems (ICS) related incidents â¢ Provides onsite support for incident response and forensics â¢ Conducts malware analysis â¢ Coordinates responsible disclosure of ICS vulnerabilities/mitigations â¢ Shares vulnerability information and threat analysis through information products and alerts â¢ Provides security awareness training courses (see http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/Training- Available-Through-ICS-CERT). Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Transportation Systems Sector Cybersecurity Working Group (TSSCWG) Available: https://www.dhs.gov/publication/cipac-trans-cybersecurity-agendas The TSA has authority to regulate cybersecurity in the transportation sector and provides cybersecurity pamphlets, a weekly newsletter, cybersecurity exercise support, and incident- specific threat briefings. TSA has pursued collaborative and voluntary approaches with industry. TSA DHS facilitates the Cybersecurity Assessment and Risk Management Approach (CARMA) for companies requesting assessments. TSA has hosted cybersecurity- focused Intermodal Security Training and Exercise Program (I-STEP) exercises, most recently in August 2014. TSA and its industry partners established the Transportation Systems Sector Cybersecurity Working
Group (TSSCWG) to advance cybersecurity across all transportation modes. The TSSCWG strategy, completed in mid-2012, stated, âThe sector will manage cybersecurity risk through maintaining and enhancing continuous awareness and promoting voluntary, collaborative, and sustainable community action.â The TSSCWG is developing implementation guidance for adoption of the NIST Framework. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework Available: http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/ The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The Computer Security Division (CSD), a component of NISTâs Information Technology Laboratory (ITL), provides standards and technology to protect information systems against threats to information and services. Executive Order 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (2013) directed NIST to work with stakeholders to develop a voluntary cybersecurity framework â based on existing standards, guidelines, and practices - for reducing cyber risks to critical infrastructure. Cybersecurity Framework (CSF) Reference Tool Available: http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/csf_reference_tool.cfm A runtime database solution, have been created the allows the user to browse the Framework Core by functions, categories, subcategories, informative references, search for specific words, and export the current viewed data to various file types. NIST National Vulnerability Database Available: http://nvd.nist.gov National Vulnerability Database (NVD) is the U.S. government repository of standards-based vulnerability management data that includes databases of security checklists, security-related software flaws, misconfigurations, product names, and impact metrics. NIST Computer Security Division's Computer Security Resource Center (CSRC) Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/index.html This Center facilitates broad sharing of information security tools and practices, provides a resource for information security standards and guidelines, and identifies key security web resources to support users in industry, government, and academia. The CSRC is the primary gateway for gaining access to NIST computer security publications, standards, and guidelines plus other useful security- related information. NIST Security Publications Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsSPs.html NIST has published over 300 Information Security guides that include Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), the Special Publication (SP) 800 series, Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) Bulletins, and NIST Interagency Reports (NIST IR). Most commonly referenced NIST publications include: â¢ Special Publication 800-12: An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook (1995). Elements of security, roles and responsibilities, common threats, security policy,
and program management. Initially created for the federal government, most practices are applicable to the private sector. â¢ Special Publication 800-14 Generally Accepted Principles and Practices for Securing Information Technology Systems (1996) describes common security principles that are used. It provides a high level description of what should be incorporated within a computer security policy. It describes what can be done to improve existing security as well as how to develop a new security practice. Eight principles and fourteen practices are described within this document. â¢ Special Publication 800-16 Information Technology Security Training Requirements: A Role- and Performance-Based Model (2014). Learning-continuum model, security literacy and basics, role-based training. â¢ Special Publication 800-30, Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems (2012). Risk management, assessment, mitigation. â¢ Special Publication 800-37 Guide for Applying the Risk Management Framework to Federal Information Systems (2010) â¢ Special Publication 800-39 Integrated Enterprise-Wide Risk Management: Organization, Mission, and Information System View (2011). â¢ Special Publication 800-53, Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations (2013). Security control fundamentals, baselines by system- impact level, common controls, and tailoring guidelines that are applied to a system to make it "more secure". â¢ Special Publication 800-60, Revision 1, Guide for Mapping Types of Information and Information Systems to Security Categories, (2008). Security objectives and types of potential losses, assignment of impact levels and system security category. â¢ Special Publication 800-82, Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security (2014). Overview of industrial control systems (ICS), threats and vulnerabilities, risk factors, incident scenarios, security program development. â¢ Special Publication 800-97, Establishing Wireless Robust Security Networks: A Guide to IEEE 802.11i (2007) â¢ Special Publication 800-100, Information Security Handbook: A Guide for Managers (2006). Governance, awareness and training, capital planning, interconnecting systems, performance measures, security planning, contingency planning. â¢ Special Publication 800-122, Guide to Protecting the Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) (2010). Identifying, PII, impact levels, confidentiality safeguards, incident response. â¢ Special Publication 800-150 Guide to Cyber Threat Information Sharing, (2016) â¢ Special Publication 800-160 Systems Security Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Building Trustworthy Resilient Systems, Second Public Draft (2016) National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force â Analytical Group Available: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/ncijtf In 2008, the U.S. President mandated the National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force (NCIJTF) to be the focal point for all government agencies to coordinate, integrate, and share information related
to all domestic cyber threat investigations. The FBI is responsible for developing and supporting the joint task force, which includes 19 intelligence agencies and law enforcement. Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) Available: http://www.ic3.gov/default.aspx The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) is a partnership between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C). Internet crime complaints are reported online on the IC3 site. IC3 analysts review and research the complaints, disseminating information to the appropriate federal, state, local, or international law enforcement or regulatory agencies for criminal, civil, or administrative action, as appropriate. InfraGard Available: https://www.infragard.org/ InfraGard is a partnership between the FBI, state and local law enforcement agencies, and the private sector - businesses, academic institutions and other participants - dedicated to sharing information and intelligence to prevent hostile acts against the U.S. With over 80 chapters, InfraGard chapters conduct local meetings pertinent to their area. National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) Available: http://nccoe.nist.gov/ Established in 2012 through a partnership among NIST, the State of Maryland and Montgomery County, the National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence is dedicated to furthering innovation through the rapid identification, integration and adoption of practical, standards-based cybersecurity solutions.
C. Emergency Management Program Transportation plays a critical and unique role in emergency response. As the National Response Framework (NRF) states, âThe ability to sustain transportation services, mitigate adverse economic impacts, meet societal needs, and move emergency relief personnel and commodities will hinge on effective transportation decisions at all levels.â Transportationâs unique role stems from the broad range of capabilities and responsibilities a transportation agency has: large and distributed workforces, easy access to heavy equipment and a robust communications infrastructure. To be ready for the agencyâs role, a comprehensive emergency management program must be in place within the agency. As a part of their function, state DOTs are responsible for creating all-hazards plans and ensuring that employees have the ability to implement them. These all-hazards plans must conform with and complement the planning activities of the rest of the stateâs operations and agencies as well as those of regional authorities. DOTs may coordinate planning efforts with other state agencies, including the state's Emergency Management Agency; county highway departments; with various agencies of the U.S. Department of Transportation; and with DOTs from other states to ensure activities can be easily integrated when necessary. DOTs also need to plan to receive and use resources provided by other states and the federal government during operations. In conducting these activities, DOTs should consider applicable standards and best practices for incorporating risk and resilience into functions and systems. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 201, Second Edition (2013) Citation. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 201, Second Edition, FEMA, 2013. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library- data/8ca0a9e54dc8b037a55b402b2a269e94/CPG201_htirag_2nd_edition.pdf Synopsis. The Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) provides for the development of local, state, tribal, territorial, and insular area emergency operations plans. FEMA released CPG 201 in 2012, with a Second Edition following in 2013. The First Edition of CPG 201 presented the basic steps of a Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) that included a process for identifying community- specific threats and hazards. It addressed setting capability targets for each core capability identified in the National Preparedness Goal; the Second Edition of CPG 201 included an estimation of resources needed to meet those capability targets. The Second Edition also included changes to the THIRA process, streamlining the number of steps to conduct a THIRA and providing additional examples. THIRA Information Sheet Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1388146249060- 7b2abfe6be10c67c4070ed42deaaadf1/THIRA%20Information%20Sheet_20131104.pdf CPG 201 Supplement 1: THIRA Guide Toolkit Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1831-25045- 0138/cpg_201_supp_1_thira_guide_toolkit_final_040312.pdf
Information Sheet ESF #1 Transportation Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1913-25045- 2201/final_esf_1_transportation_20130501.pdf Managing Catastrophic Transportation Emergencies: A Guide for Transportation Executives Citation. Managing Catastrophic Transportation Emergencies: A Guide for Transportation Executives. AASHTO, 2015. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/171299.aspx Synopsis. This Guide provides guidance to new chief executive officers (CEOs) about the roles and actions that CEOs take during emergency events. A Pre-Event Recovery Planning Guide For Transportation Citation. NCHRP Report 753 A Pre-Event Recovery Planning Guide For Transportation, Transportation Research Board, 2013. Available: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_753.pdf Synopsis. This Guide discussed the impact that response can have on recovery, noting that the response efforts can mitigate the damages and consequences of an event, and potentially reduce the time to recovery, such as quickly assessing damage and removing debris. Some response decisions, such as where to put debris, can have an impact on both short-term and long-term recovery, as learned during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Highlighting the differences between response and recovery, Report 753 also noted the importance of response and recovery team members understanding each otherâs roles and responsibilities, because often the two functions overlap. Considering Security And Emergency Management In The Planning Of Transportation Projects: A Guide For Planners Of New Transportation Projects, FHWA (2012) Citation. Considering Security And Emergency Management In The Planning Of Transportation Projects: A Guide For Planners Of New Transportation Projects, FHWA 2012. Available: http://www.planning.dot.gov/documents/consideringsecurityandem.pdf Synopsis. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration has released this report designed to help ensure that security and emergency management are considered during the planning phase of highway-related infrastructure projects. Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/156212.aspx Synopsis. This Guide supports development of a formal program for the improved management of traffic incidents, natural disasters, security events, and other emergencies on the highway system. It outlines a coordinated, performance-oriented, all-hazard approach called âEmergency Transportation Operationsâ (ETO). The guide focuses on an enhanced role for state departments of transportation as participants with the public safety community in an interagency process.
Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series Citation. Houston, Nancy. Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series. No. FHWA-HOP-06-109. 2006. Available: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/00_evac_primer.htm Synopsis. Evacuations may involve hundreds or hundreds of thousands of people. Regardless of the numbers, in each and every instance, the transportation network plays a key role in evacuating people out of harmâs way. Recognizing the unique challenges posed by the disaster environment on mobility and the safe and secure movement of people and goods, the U.S. Department of Transportationâs (DOTâs) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) seeks to improve evacuation planning and implementation by bringing to the emergency management community new ways of better using the transportation network before and during evacuations. This document constitutes the first of a primer series entitled âRoutes to Effective Evacuations.â This primer is intended as a tool to aid local and state planners to maximize the use of the highway network in the development and execution of evacuation plans for their communities, states or regions. Final Report for the Application of Technology to Transportation Operations in Biohazard Situations Citation. Final Report for the Application of Technology to Transportation Operations in Biohazard Situations, FHWA, 2005. Available: http://www.its.dot.gov/eto/docs/transops_biohazard/executive.htm Synopsis. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration has released a report that examines the role of transportation agencies during a biohazard situation. The report is designed to help state and local transportation agencies perform the roles expected of them during all phases of a biohazard incident. According to the report, those roles can differ significantly from the ones they typically perform during other types of emergencies. A Guide to Transportationâs Role in Public Health Disasters Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 10: A Guide to Transportationâs Role in Public Health Disasters. Transportation Research Board, 2006. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/156474.aspx Synopsis. This Guide examines development of transportation response options to an extreme event involving chemical, biological, or radiological agents. The report contains technical information on chemical, biological, and radiological threats, including vulnerabilities of the transportation system to these agents and consequence-minimization actions that may be taken within the transportation system in response to events that involve these agents. The report also includes a spreadsheet tool, called the Tracking Emergency Response Effects on Transportation (TERET), that is designed to assist transportation managers with recognition of mass-care transportation needs and identification and mitigation of potential transportation-related criticalities in essential services during extreme events. The report includes a userâs manual for TERET, as well as a PowerPoint slide introduction to chemical,
biological, and radiological threat agents designed as an executive-level communications tool based on summary information from the report.. Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Professionals Citation. Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Professionals, FHWA, 2006. Available: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ics_guide/index.htm Synopsis. The purpose of this Simplified Guide is to introduce the ICS to stakeholders who may be called upon to provide specific expertise, assistance, or material during highway incidents but who may be largely unfamiliar with ICS organization and operations. These stakeholders include transportation agencies and companies involved in towing and recovery, as well as elected officials and government agency managers at all levels. This document may also be beneficial to public safety professionals, who are familiar with ICS but may not fully understand how ICS concepts are applicable to transportation agencies. Public Transportation Emergency Mobilization and Emergency Operations Guide Citation. TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, Volume 7: Public Transportation Emergency Mobilization and Emergency Operations Guide, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/156130.aspx Synopsis. This report examines activities that may be taken by public transportation agencies working with their local communities to promote the early recognition of emergency events, expedite response to emergency events, establish multi-agency coordination, and ensure that public transportation resources are available to support the response to an emergency event. Incorporating Security into the Transportation Planning Process Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 3: Incorporating Security into the Transportation Planning Process, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/155903.aspx Synopsis. This report examines the status, constraints, opportunities, and strategies for incorporating security into transportation planning at the state and metropolitan levels. The report also examines security-related projects in state and metropolitan priority programming decisions. Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 8: Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/156474.aspx
Synopsis. The report is designed to assist transportation agencies in evaluating and modifying existing operations plans, policies, and procedures, as called for in the National Incident Management System. The planning guidelines in this report are supplemented online with downloadable worksheets, a template for a completed COOP plan, a series of brochures that can be used to explain the COOP planning process to staff, a draft PowerPoint presentation that may be customized and presented to transportation executive leadership, and more than 300 resource documents organized in an electronic COOP library. FHWA Emergency Transportation Operations Website Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/index.htm The Office of Operations Emergency Transportation Operations (ETO) home page, features information on the ETO for Disasters, Traffic Planning for Special Events (PSE) and Traffic Incident Management (TIM) programs. The site provides tools, guidance, capacity building and good practices that aid local and State DOTs and their partners in their efforts to improve transportation network efficiency and public/responder safety when a non-recurring event either interrupts or overwhelms transportation operations. Non-recurring events may range from traffic incidents to traffic Planning for Special Event (PSE) to disaster or emergency transportation operations (Disaster ETO). Work in ETO program areas focuses on using highway operational tools to enhance mobility and motorist and responder safety. Traffic Incident Management (TIM) Traffic incident management (TIM) is a planned and coordinated program to detect and remove incidents and restore traffic capacity as safely and quickly as possible. Traffic Incident Management Gap Analysis Primer Available:http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/about/tim.htm#t3 Synopsis. This document provides guidance to federal, State and local TIM programs and their involved partners on the components needed to develop and sustain a successful full-fledged TIM program. The objectives of this primer are to: â¢ Identify and summarize the current state of TIM practice and activities at the national and State/local levels. â¢ Identify and summarize gaps found in TIM activities/information for national and State/local departments and agencies. â¢ Identify and outline a framework for achieving a complete TIM program for the different levels of government utilizing national guidelines. â¢ Outline the key elements that are contained in successful TIM programs. The information contained within this document is geared towards multidisciplinary TIM stakeholders from both the public and private sectors. This includes but is not limited to personnel from transportation agencies, law enforcement, fire and rescue, emergency medical services (EMS), public safety communications, emergency management, towing and recovery, hazardous materials (HazMat), utilities, contractors, and traffic information media.
Making the Connection: Advancing Traffic Incident Management in Transportation Planning Citation. Making the Connection: Advancing Traffic Incident Management in Transportation Planning, FHWA, 2013. Available: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop13044/index.htm Synopsis. The intent of this primer is to inform and guide traffic incident management (TIM) professionals and transportation planners to initiate and develop collaborative relationships and advance TIM programs through the metropolitan planning process. The primer aims to inspire planners and TIM professionals to create transportation plans and programs that support regional TIM programs through TIM-focused objectives, performance measures, and TIM strategies and projects. The ultimate goal of this primer is to strengthen, support, and elevate regional TIM programs as a crucial, lower-cost strategy for reliability, safety, environmental improvements, and mobility. Senior Executive Transportation & Public Safety Summit Report Citation. Senior Executive Transportation & Public Safety Summit: National Traffic Incident Management Leadership & Innovation Roadmap for Success, FHWA, 2012. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/publications/publicsafetysummit/index.htm Synopsis. The 2012 Senior Executive Transportation & Public Safety Summit Report summarizes the proceedings, findings, and recommendations from a two-day Senior Executive Summit on Transportation and Public Safety, held June 26 and 27, 2012 at the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) in Washington, D.C. This forum of senior-level, multi-disciplinary executives representing the transportation, law enforcement, fire and rescue, and emergency medical services communities addressed major challenges and innovative solutions in enhancing the state of the practice nationally in Traffic Incident Management (TIM). Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Deputy Administrator Greg Nadeau, and FHWA Executive Director Jeff Paniati provided opening remarks expressing the commitment of the entire Department to support safe, quick traffic incident response on the Nation's roadways. Participants at the Summit discussed innovative practices in TIM policies, legislation, training and outreach. Summit highlights included discussions and presentations on the following issues: Improving responder and motorist safety and consistency among jurisdictions; Supporting TIM outreach initiatives and messaging; Enhancing State and local legislation and policies that advance TIM planning and operations, including Driver Removal and Authority Removal legislation; Supporting urgent and clearly-defined research strategies, such as model Move Over and Driver Removal laws, the effects of emergency lighting, and the impact of TIM performance measures; Implementing the National TIM Responder Training course developed through the Transportation Research Boardâs Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2); Improving the efficiency of the highway system through possible cost-recovery strategies, better investment of cost-efficient resources, and improved communication among responders about roles and responsibilities; and Developing an action-based executive group equipped to provide leadership, support, and guidance in advancing priority actions.
Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation for Traffic Incident Management Applications Citation. Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation for Traffic Incident Management Applications, FHWA, 2012. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop12045/index.htm Synopsis. Traffic incidents are a major source of congestion. Implementing traffic incident management (TIM) strategies has proven to be a highly cost effective way of reducing non-recurrent congestion. This publication provides the current state of practice of various analytical methodologies and related TIM applications. It, also, identifies some research activities to improve analysis of incident impacts and TIM strategies. This document provides a synthesis of analysis, modeling, and simulation (AMS) methods for incident impacts. The focus is on incidents effects on congestion and reliability as well as secondary incidents, for the purpose of estimating TIM benefits and evaluating programs and proposed strategies. Traffic Incident Management Cost Management and Cost Recovery Primer Citation. Traffic Incident Management Cost Management and Cost Recovery Primer, FHWA, 2012. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop12044/index.htm Synopsis. This publication provides mid-level managers at transportation and other stakeholder agencies with the resources they need to explain the benefits of traffic incident management (TIM) and TIM cost management and cost recovery to executive leadership. It also provides the same mid-level managers with information that will help them implement TIM cost management and cost recovery techniques. This document focuses on "recoverable costs" related to TIM, as there are costs associated with TIM that cannot accurately be measured or replaced; however, costs related to responder and motorist injury, disability, fatality, and the related medical and societal costs are not addressed here as those issues are addressed in a variety of ways in the existing literature. Best Practices in Traffic Incident Management Citation. Best Practices in Traffic Incident Management, FHWA, 2010. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop10050/index.htm Synopsis. This report describes task-specific and cross-cutting issues or challenges commonly encountered by TIM responders in the performance of their duties, and novel and/or effective strategies for overcoming these issues and challenges (i.e., best practices). Field Operations Guide for Safety/Service Patrols Citation. Field Operations Guide for Safety/Service Patrols, FHWA, 2009. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop10014/index.htm Synopsis. This guide was produced by the Federal Highway Administration and was developed for use by Safety/Service Patrol operators and supervisors. It is expected that Safety/Service Patrol personnel will carry the guide in their vehicle to use as a quick reference while performing patrol tasks. They should refer to this guide on a regular basis as a refresher on steps and tasks associated with managing incidents - particularly for those situations not encountered every day. This guide is not designed to stand alone, but in conjunction with training and exercises that will indoctrinate the Safety/Service
patrol operators into these good practices as well as Agency formal Standard Operating Guidelines or Procedures. Traffic Incident Management Handbook Citation. Traffic Incident Management Handbook, FHWA, 2010. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/publications/timhandbook/index.htm Synopsis. The Traffic Incident Management Handbook (TIM) (the Handbook or TIM Handbook) includes the latest advances in TIM programs and practices across the country, and offers practitioners insights into the latest innovations in TIM tools and technologies. Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Report Citation. Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Report, US Department of Justice, 2009. Available: https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/fa_323.pdf Synopsis. The study report highlights the results of a U.S. Department of Justice - National Institute of Justice (NIJ) supported project intended to enhance emergency vehicle and roadway operations safety for firefighters, law enforcement officers, and other emergency responders. This report discusses best practices in emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity, including cutting edge international efforts. It covers retroreflective striping and chevrons, high-visibility paint, built-in passive light, and other reflectors for law enforcement patrol vehicles, fire apparatus, ambulances and other EMS vehicles, and motorcycles. National Preparedness and National Planning Frameworks The federal government requires State DOTs to incorporate principles and concepts of national initiatives that provide common approaches to incident management and response in emergency response plans and operations. National initiatives include the National Response Framework (NRF) with its designated emergency support functions (ESFs) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS) with its protocols for multiagency interaction and communication. State and local NIMS compliance is a prerequisite for federal preparedness funds. The National Disaster Recovery Framework includes designated recovery support functions (RSFs). Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (2011) http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/presidential-policy-directive-8-national-preparedness.pdf National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Preparedness Goal, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2015, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1443624338930- 32e9ed3ac6cf8e95d7d463ed9b9685df/NationalPreparednessGoal_InformationSheet_2015.pdf Synopsis. The 2011 National Preparedness Goal was updated in 2015. The key changes are described in the National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition â Whatâs New Fact Sheet. The National Preparedness Goal itself has not changed:
âA secure and resilient nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.â The following changes were made to the National Preparedness Goal document: â¢ Introduction: Language added to stress the importance of community preparedness and resilience. â¢ Risk and the Core Capabilities: Enhanced items on cybersecurity and climate change. â¢ Preliminary Targets: Updated preliminary targets. â¢ New Core Capability: A new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression, was added. â¢ Core Capability Titles: Revised the following core capability titles: o Threats and Hazard Identification (Mitigation) â revised to Threats and Hazards Identification; o Public and Private Services and Resources (Response) â revised to Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On- scene Security and Protection (Response) â revised to On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health and Medical Services (Response) â revised to Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. â¢ Core Capability Definitions: Several of the core capability definitions were revised. Overview of the National Planning Frameworks (2013) http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1914-25045- 2057/final_overview_of_national_planning_frameworks_20130501.pdf National Planning Frameworks: â¢ National Prevention Framework â¢ National Protection Framework â¢ National Mitigation Framework â¢ National Response Framework â¢ National Disaster Recovery Framework National Prevention Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Prevention Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466011024787- 91b8e49bf7344dd6dadca441c26272ad/InformationSheet_Prevention_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Prevention Framework focuses on terrorism and addresses the capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop imminent threats or attacks. Some core capabilities overlap with the Protection mission area. The updates include edits to the Nation Preparedness Goal, and lessons learned. Other edits include: âUpdates to Coordinating Structure language on Joint Operations Centers and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative. Clarification on the relationship and differences between the Prevention and Protection mission areas. Updated language on the National Terrorism Advisory System
(NTAS) as part of the Public Information and Warning core capability. Additional language on science and technology investments within the prevention mission area.â National Protection Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Protection Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466013587164- 86696df20638bbf24e25d70070eda114/InformationSheet_Protection_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Protection Framework focuses on âactions to deter threats, reduce vulnerabilities, and minimize the consequences associated with an incident.â The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. In addition, the following changes have been made: âUpdated Cybersecurity Core Capability Critical Tasks to align with the Mitigation, Response, and Recovery Mission Areas. Additional language on science and technology investments to protect against emerging vulnerabilities are included within the protection mission area. Additional language on interagency coordination within the protection mission area to support the decision-making processes outlined within the framework.â National Mitigation Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Mitigation Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466014552462- 1b78d1a577324a66c4eb84b936c68f16/InformationSheet_Mitigation_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Mitigation Framework covers the capabilities necessary to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the effects of disasters, and focuses on risk (understanding and reducing it), resilience (helping communities recover quickly and effectively after disasters), and a culture of preparedness. The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned including a revised core capability title, Threats and Hazards Identification. In addition, the following changes have been made: âAdditional language on science and technology efforts to reduce risk and analyze vulnerabilities within the mitigation mission area. Updates on the Mitigation Framework Leadership Group (MitFLG), which is now operational. Updates to the Community Resilience core capability definition to promote preparedness activities among individuals, households and families.â National Response Framework, Third Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Response Framework, Third Edition â Information Sheet,â Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-
data/1466014891281- 6e7f60ceaf0be5a937ab2ed0eae0672d/InformationSheet_Response_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The NRF is aligned with NIMS and provides capabilities to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs. Response activities occur before, during, and after an incident and can overlap with the start of Recovery activities. The following changes were made to the Framework: â¢ The addition of a new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression. â¢ Three revised core capability titles o Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. â¢ Three revised core capability definitions o Environmental Response/ Health and Safety; o Fatality Management Services; and o Logistics and Supply Chain Management. National Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet Citation. âNational Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition â Information Sheet,â Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466017528262- 73651ed433ccfe080bed88014ac397cf/InformationSheet_Recovery_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Disaster Recovery Framework describes âhow the whole community works together to restore, redevelop, and revitalize the health, social, economic, natural, and environmental fabric of the community.â The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. Additional changes made to the Framework include âIncreased focus on Recoveryâs relationship with the other four mission areas. Updated Recovery Support Functions (RSFs) to reflect changes in Primary Agencies and Supporting Organizations. Additional language on science and technology capabilities and investments for the rebuilding and recovery efforts.â Resilience Resilience is âthe ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse eventsâ (Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, National Research Council 2012). The National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC), a presidential advisory council, conducted a study on resilience that was published under the title Critical Infrastructure Resilience, Final Report and Recommendations (2009). NIAC defines infrastructure resilience as the âability to reduce the magnitude and/or duration of disruptive eventsâ.
In the context of transportation systems, increasing the resilience of transportation networks could include adaptations or elements that can be incorporated into the planning and design of specific asset types. For example, TRB Report 750: Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, And The Highway System: Practitionerâs Guide And Research Report provided specific guidance on potential adaptions for bridges, culverts, storm water infrastructure, slopes/walls, and pavement in light of extreme weather events. The most recent transportation reauthorization legislation, titled âFixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Actâ or the âFAST Actâ, became public law on December 4, 2015 and includes, in SEC. 1201. Metropolitan Transportation Planning, an addition to Title 23 US Code Section 23 requiring MPOs to consider investments that âimprove the resiliency and reliability of the transportation system and reduce or mitigate stormwater impacts of surface transportation.â Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative Citation. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, The National Academies, 2012. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13457/disaster-resilience-a-national-imperative Synopsis. Resilience is defined in this report as âthe ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events.â It provides a discussion of how to increase the nationâs resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year 2030. Systems Resilience and Climate Change Citation. Systems Resilience and Climate Change, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Volume 2532, 2015. Available: http://trrjournalonline.trb.org/toc/trr/2532 Synopsis.This edition of TRBâs Transportation Research Record includes 18 papers that examine resilience and climate change issues related to transportation: â¢ Roadmaps for Adaptation Measures of Transportation to Climate Change. â¢ Resilience Versus Risk: Assessing Cost of Climate Change Adaptation to Californiaâs Transportation System and the City of Sacramento, California. â¢ Barriers to Implementation of Climate Adaptation Frameworks by State Departments of Transportation. â¢ Resilience of Coastal Transportation Networks Faced with Extreme Climatic Events â¢ Analysis of Transportation Network Vulnerability Under Flooding Disasters â¢ Vulnerability Evaluation of Logistics Transportation Networks Under Seismic Disasters â¢ Integrating Stochastic Failure of Road Network and Road Recovery Strategy into Planning of Goods Distribution After a Large-Scale Earthquake â¢ Multimodal Transit Connectivity for Flexibility in Extreme Events â¢ Risk and Resilience Analysis for Emergency Projects â¢ Unmanned Aircraft Systems Used for Disaster Management â¢ Multimodal Evacuation Simulation and Scenario Analysis in Dense Urban Area: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Case Study â¢ Spatiotemporal Population Distribution Method for Emergency Evacuation: Case Study of New Orleans, Louisiana
â¢ Joint Evacuation and Emergency Traffic Management Model with Consideration of Emergency Response Needs â¢ Supporting Mobility-Impaired Populations in Emergency Evacuations â¢ Agent-Based Evacuation Model Considering Field Effects and Government Advice â¢ Selecting Four-Leg Intersections for Crossing Elimination in Evacuations â¢ Using Dynamic Flashing Yellow for Traffic Signal Control Under Emergency Evacuation â¢ Hurricane Evacuation Route Choice of Major Bridges in Miami Beach, Florida Resilience: Key Products and Projects Citation. Resilience: Key Products and Projects, TRB, updated monthly. Available: http://www.trb.org/SecurityEmergencies/Blurbs/166648.aspx. Synopsis. Updated monthly, this presentation is a slideshow summary of the Transportation Research transportation security and resilience activities. These cross the main areas of TRB inquiry (freight, transit, highways and airports). Fundamental Capabilities of Effective All Hazards Infrastructure Protection, Resilience and Emergency Management for State DOTs Citation: Fundamental Capabilities of Effective All Hazards Infrastructure Protection, Resilience and Emergency Management for State DOTs, AASHTO, 2015. Available: http://scotsem.transportation.org/Documents/SCOTSEM/Fundamental%20Capabilities%20of%20Effecti ve.pdf Synopsis. A Guide prepared to assist State DOTs understand the fundamentals of preventing incidents within their control, protect transportation users, supporting other responders, recover from incidents and evaluate responses. It also introduces concepts supporting resilience programs. This is an update to the 2007 publication Fundamentals of Effective All-Hazards Security Management for State DOTs. Integrating Hazard Mitigation and Comprehensive Planning Workshop Citation. Integrating Hazard Mitigation and Comprehensive Planning Workshop, Philadelphia, PA, April 25, 2016. Available: http://www.dvrpc.org/Resiliency/HMP/pdf/2016-04-25_Workshop_Summary.pdf Synopsis. The workshop emphasized the important relationship between land use planning and hazard mitigation, noting that how we design, build, and regulate our communities impacts their ability to withstand hazards. Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters Citation. Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters, Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. Available: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/COSEPUP/nationalresilience/index.htm Synopsis. The ad hoc committee conducted a study and issued a consensus report that integrates information from the natural, physical, technical, economic and social sciences to identify ways in which to increase national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. The ad hoc committee report:
â¢ Defines ânational resilienceâ and frames the primary issues related to increasing national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. â¢ Provides goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for resilience at the U.S. national level. â¢ Describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. â¢ Outlines additional information or data and gaps and obstacles to action that need to be addressed in order to increase resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. â¢ Presents conclusions and recommendations about what approaches are needed to elevate national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. Crisis Response and Disaster Resilience 2030: Forging Strategic Actio