National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies (2019)

Chapter: Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises

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Page 110
Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Guide to Emergency Management at State Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25557.
×
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110  Section 6: Emergency Management Training and Exercises    As emphasized in Section 4, plans should be routinely tested through training, drills, and exercises. This  section covers training, drills, and exercises for not only the state DOT’s emergency plans but the agency’s  broader  emergency management  program.    Also,  relevant  state DOT  case  examples  of  training  and  exercise implementation are included. In addition, this section introduces the Homeland Security Exercise  and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) approach to exercise development and evaluation.    Once a plan has been developed and needed resources have been procured, personnel are organized and  equipped;  and  training,  exercises,  and  evaluation  conducted  to  develop  required  capabilities  and  competencies.  Per  the  2015 AASHTO  Fundamental Capabilities  of  Effective All‐Hazards  Infrastructure  Protection, Resilience, and Emergency Management, this capability is:   Preparing DOT employees for their roles;  Understanding and improving plans put in place;  Providing an opportunity to test plans and validate the effectiveness of training. There is no question that successful management of emergencies, especially large‐scale or complex ones,  requires well‐trained and exercised personnel who can not only perform their assigned tasks but work  with  personnel  from  other  agencies  and  jurisdictions,  and  provide  emergency  services  in  other  jurisdictions if requested. Emergency management training imparts to personnel knowledge, skills, and  abilities required to perform their roles, responsibilities, and functions in emergencies. Individual and role‐ specific  training  leads  to  team‐  or  unit‐level  training  which  culminates  in  interagency  and  interjurisdictional training and exercises that allow personnel to practice and demonstrate what they have  learned, and become familiar with key personnel from and foster collaboration with other agencies and  organizations.  Furthermore,  as  noted  in  the  2014  NCHRP  REPORT  777:  A  GUIDE  TO  REGIONAL  TRANSPORTATION PLANNING FOR DISASTERS, EMERGENCIES, AND SIGNIFICANT EVENTS, regional‐level disasters  and  emergencies  have  high  consequences  but  occur  infrequently  or  not  at  all.    Interagency  and  interjurisdictional  exercises  are  essential  in  testing  regional  plans,  EOPs,  and mutual  aid  procedures.  Exercises also help assess emergency management technologies, equipment, and facilities; the ability of  personnel  to mobilize  them; and provide personnel with  the opportunities  to practice using  them.  In  addition, having good documentation and an effective and consistent  training and exercise evaluation  process will help DOTs fulfill grant and program requirements; and, engage in continuous improvement  of plans, procedures, personnel, technologies, equipment, and facilities.   While state DOTs  fully understand  the  importance of training  for emergencies and seek to  implement  quality training and exercise programs, they face numerous challenges that can  impede their goal. The  roles  and  responsibilities  of  personnel  involved  in  emergency management  continue  to  evolve  and  expand,  and  new  threats  and  hazards  emerge, while  budgets  decrease  or  remain  stagnant.  Training  managers  and  supervisors  are  also  faced with new or  changing  federal  and  state  transportation  and  emergency management  legislation, standards, and guidance. To keep up with  these challenges, state  DOTs need to act strategically and create an emergency training and exercise program that  is not only  aligned with  federal and state guidance but can easily  integrate changes and  improvements, and take  advantage of available resources and partnerships. For example, FEMA and the state EMA have a wealth  of knowledge and preparedness resources on exercise planning and design, conduct and evaluation, and  offers  emergency  training  and  exercise  opportunities  at  nominal  or  no  cost  to  state  agencies.  Close 

111  coordination with the state EMA is also important since state agencies are usually expected to support  the state’s NIMS and Stafford Act compliance and reporting requirements as well as the state’s efforts  towards EMAP accreditation.   Interagency  training  and  exercises  help  ensure  that  key  players  are  able  to  respond  to  emergencies  efficiently and effectively, fulfill their roles and responsibilities in the EOP and other emergency plans, and  coordinate  and  collaborate  with  each  other  using  NIMS/ICS.  Following  national  standards  such  as  NIMS/ICS, HSEEP, EMAP, and EMAC and incorporating them into training and exercises enhance the ability  of state DOT personnel to work with other agencies and jurisdictions. While delivering training to large  numbers of field personnel is costly and adhering to national standards and undertaking corrective actions  may be time consuming, the benefits of enhanced preparedness far outweigh the costs.   Emergency Training and Exercise Needs   Emergency training needs for state DOT personnel with emergency management roles can be determined  by  conducting  a  training  needs  assessment.  The  assessment  will  identify  internal  and  external  requirements  and mandates,  and  employees’  current  and  potential  responsibilities.  The  assessment  results will provide the specific training required by job function or position. Personnel from M&O field  personnel  to  supervision  to  CEOs  and  elected  officials  require  some  form  of  emergency  training.  In  addition, individuals responsible for exercise planning, design and development should have appropriate  training as well. Some state DOTs offer training and assistance on emergency response and recovery and  the FHWA ER program to local public works agencies. As state DOTs increasingly rely on contractors to  perform all types of work  including emergency response and recovery work, state DOTs should ensure  that those contractors selected for emergency management roles are both qualified and trained. Where  appropriate and  feasible,  state DOTs may choose  to  include contractors  in  their  training and exercise  programs. In addition, some state DOTs include other emergency response providers such as police, fire  and local public works agencies in their training and exercise programs. Appendix E of NCHRP SYNTHESIS  468 provides a Needs Assessment form used by Vermont VTrans to determine the training needs of their  employees.   National preparedness guidance and mandates  include  the National Response Framework Emergency  Support Function ESF# 1 and ESF# 3 and the National Incident Management System (NIMS). Key national  standards include the OSHA and the MUTCD standards.   State DOT personnel with roles and responsibilities delineated in plans require training. According to CPG  101 v. 2,   “Whenever possible, training and exercise must be conducted for each plan to ensure that current  and new personnel are familiar with the priorities, goals, objectives and courses of action.” (p. 4‐ 26, CPG 101 v. 2)  Plans include agency and state preparedness plans; joint operational or regional coordination plans; all‐ hazards evacuation plans; Standard Operating Procedures; mobilization plans; continuity plans; mitigation  plans; recovery plans; codes and requirements; transportation/traffic incident management plans; and,  hazard‐specific response plans.   DHS/FEMA grants help DOTs participate in preparedness activities including training and exercises. They  normally require implementation of NIMS and can also have training, exercise, evaluation, and reporting  requirements.   

112      In addition, areas of improvement identified in risk assessments, self‐assessments, reviews, performance  indicators,  lessons  learned and corrective actions of exercises,  incidents, and planned events can also  impact training and exercise programs.   Emergency training needs of transportation field personnel are discussed in detail in NCHRP Synthesis 468  on Interactive Training for All‐Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance  and Operations Field Personnel. The transportation CEO’s role in emergency response is described in the  NCHRP  web‐only  document  206:  Managing  Catastrophic  Transportation  Emergencies:  A  Guide  for  Transportation  Executives.  According  to  the  document,  the  CEO  of  the  state  DOT  has  the  ultimate  responsibility  regarding  the  agency’s  emergency  management  program  and  its  preparedness  and  performance  during  emergency  situations.  According  to  NCHRP web‐only  document  206: Managing  Catastrophic Transportation Emergencies: A Guide for Transportation Executives, the CEO must ensure  the following:  1. “An agency‐wide emergency operations plan that gets reviewed and updated on a regular basis.  2. A training and exercise program of annual or greater frequency that involves the state director in  at least one exercise.  3.  A continuity of operations plan (COOP) plan and COOP site whose capabilities are assessed on a  regular basis.” (Managing Catastrophic Transportation Emergencies: A Guide for Transportation  Executives, p. 7‐)  In  addition,  training  and  exercise  personnel  should  have  function‐specific  expertise  and  training  experience. Individuals responsible for exercise evaluation and exercise design and development should  take relevant courses on the topics.   Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP)  The 2016 Emergency Management Standard promulgates standards for training, exercises, evaluations,  and corrective action processes. EMAP provides accreditation on its Emergency Management Standard to  government emergency management programs including programs of state EMAs and state DOTs. While  no DOT  is  currently  accredited,  state DOTs  support  their  states  through  compliance with  the  EMAP  standards.    The training section states that an accredited EMAP includes a formal and documented training program  that includes a “training needs assessment, curriculum, course evaluations, and records of training...” and  provides “the assessment, development and implementation of training for Program officials, emergency  management response personnel and  the public.”  (2016 Emergency Management Standard, p. 11) An  accredited  EMAP  program  should  have  regularly  scheduled  training  and  a method  and  schedule  for  evaluation, maintenance,  and  program  revision.  Training  should  be  based  on  current  and  potential  responsibilities, and on hazards  identified  in EMAP Standard 4.1.1. In addition, personnel to be trained  include  all  personnel  with  emergency  management  responsibilities  including  key  officials.  Program  records should include training participant names, and types of training planned and delivered.   With respect to exercises, evaluations, and corrective actions, an accredited EMAP “regularly tests the  knowledge,  skills and abilities, and experience of emergency personnel as well as  the plans, policies,  procedures, equipment, and facilities.” (2016 Emergency Management Standard, p. 11)   An accredited  exercise program evaluates plans, procedures, and capabilities through various means including periodic  reviews,  testing, post‐incident  reports,  lessons  learned, performance evaluations, exercises, and  real‐

113      world events. The evaluation results should be documented and provided to stakeholders. An accredited  exercise program also includes a process for corrective actions which prioritizes and tracks each action.   Continuity of Operations  Continuity  of  operations  plans  are  activated  when  an  emergency  impedes  the  state  transportation  agency’s ability to carry out  its essential functions. The emergency may be due to a natural disaster or  manmade event resulting  in the destruction of key  facilities or a pandemic  incapacitating a significant  proportion of key personnel. Continuity of operations plans include information about essential functions,  management  of  vital  records,  devolution  procedures  including  orders  of  succession,  delegations  of  authority, and movement to alternate facilities. The 2013 FEMA Continuity Guidance Circular 1 for non‐ federal governments  specifies  the  following  training and exercise  frequency and  topics  for  continuity  capabilities and essential functions:  Annual testing should be performed for:   Alert, notification, and activation procedures   Recovery of essential records, critical information systems, services, and data   Protecting and accessing essential records and information systems   Primary and backup infrastructure systems and services   Telework capabilities including IT infrastructure  Annual exercises should be performed for   Essential functions capabilities   Internal and external interdependencies identified in the continuity plan   Continuity plans and procedures including internal and external communications, deliberate and  preplanned  movements  to  an  alternate  site,  required  backup  records  and  data  to  support  essential functions, and use of telework sites if telework is a part of the continuity plan.   Annual briefings on  continuity  awareness  for  all  personnel  should be  conducted.  In  addition,  annual  briefings on continuity and devolution should be provided to Emergency Response Group and Devolution  Emergency Response Group members. Periodic briefings should be held  for managers about essential  records.  Quarterly testing of  internal and external communications equipment and systems, and annual testing  and exercises of physical security capabilities at continuity facilities should be conducted.   Biennial exercises should be performed for reconstitution and devolution procedures.  The following annual training for Emergency Response Group and Devolution Emergency Response  Group members should also be conducted:   Reconstitution plans and procedures   Activation of continuity plans   Communications and IT systems   Devolution option 

114       Electronic and hardcopy documents, references, records, info systems, data management  software and equipment.  In addition, annual training on essential functions and roles and responsibilities should be provided to:    Leadership staff   Staff expected to telework during an activation   Staff who will assume the position of organization head or other key positions    Officials who will have policy and decision‐making authorities  NIMS / ICS  NIMS is the essential foundation of the National Preparedness System and provides the template for the  management of incidents and operations in support of all five National Planning Frameworks. The 2011  NIMS  Training  Program document  emphasizes  the  importance  of  training  and  states  that  training of  emergency personnel “is critical to the success of NIMS implementation nationally.” (FEMA 2011, p. 2)   Responsibilities of stakeholders  including state  transportation agencies  include  identifying appropriate  personnel to take NIMS training, ensuring all course delivery meets the standard contained within the  NIMS Training Program and other training guidance provided by the National  Integration Center (NIC),  and credentialing emergency/incident management personnel. Credentialing is defined in the 2017 draft  NIMS Guideline for the National Qualification System as “the process of providing documentation that  identifies personnel and verifies their qualifications for particular positions.”   These  responsibilities align and dovetail with  the concepts of personnel qualification and certification  defined in the 2017 draft NIMS Guideline. Qualification is “the process of enabling personnel to perform  the  duties  of  specific  positions  and  documenting  their  demonstration  of  the  capabilities  that  those  positions require.”  (NIMS, 2017)   Qualification  involves completions of training, obtaining  licenses and  certifications and meeting fitness requirements. Certification attests “that individuals meet qualifications  for key incident functions and are competent to fill specific positions.” (NIMS, 2017)  For state DOTs, NIMS and ICS training should be a priority for the following reasons as well: NIMS and ICS  enhance the effectiveness of interagency coordination and response through a standardized approach to  incident management.  Implementation of NIMS  is  a  requirement of  federal preparedness grants and  mitigation grants. Also, NIMS requires the use of ICS at traffic incident management scenes. Furthermore,  as stated in NCHRP Synthesis 472,   “A good understanding and implementation of NIMS concepts and principles, including ICS, NIMS  resource management  procedures,  and  ICS  record‐keeping  procedures  and  forms,  facilitate  successful  integration  of  state  DOT  personnel  into  their  state’s  emergency  organization  and  effective reimbursements.” (NCHRP Synthesis 472, p. 48)  The NIC provides NIMS  training and qualification guidance and maintains and distributes  foundational  documents and other resources. The NIC identified core competencies for personnel qualification and a  NIMS  national  curriculum,  and  for  the Multi‐Agency  Coordination  Systems.  The  2011 NIMS  Training  Program, released in 2011 and supersedes the 2008 Five‐Year NIMS Training Plan, is based on these core  competencies which, in turn, are based on operational needs. The NIMS Training Program includes a NIMS  Core Curriculum which includes baseline NIMS and ICS courses IS‐700 and ICS‐100 and additional training 

115      including MACs, EOCs, mutual aid, and resource management. In general, incident complexity will affect  training needs, and some  flexibility  is provided to entities  in the  implementation of NIMS training. For  instance, agencies may develop their own training courses to suit their scheduling and budgetary needs  and still meet the NIMS training requirements.    While  field  personnel  require  basic  NIMS  and  ICS  training,  personnel  in  EOCs,  MACs  and  TMCs,  supervisors, senior management, and elected officials require additional or other training. Arizona DOT’s  Emergency  Planning  and Management  Training Matrix  shows  required  emergency management  and  security  training  for DOT personnel by  job  category. The Matrix  is  included  in Appendix G of NCHRP  Synthesis  468. Missouri  DOT’s  NIMS  Training  Guide  recommends  specific  NIMS  training  courses  for  personnel at different levels including Emergency Responders, First‐Line Response Supervisors, Mid‐Level  Response Supervisors, Senior‐Level Response Managers and Executives, Elected and Appointed Officials  and Support Staff.   In addition, NIMS/ICS should be used in all training and exercises including use of ICS in exercise planning  team structures; and, ICS should be used in emergency response including response to traffic incidents.   Five new NIMS documents were recently released for public comment. They include: NIMS Guideline for  the National Qualification  System, NIMS  Job Titles/Position Qualifications, NIMS Position  Task Books,  NIMS  GUIDELINE  FOR  THE  CREDENTIALING  OF  PERSONNEL  AND  NIMS  GUIDELINE  FOR  MUTUAL  AID.  (https://www.fema.gov/national‐incident‐management‐system/national‐engagement  )  Since  2010,  NIMS  updates  and  publications  including  the  five  recently  released  NIMS  documents  provide  new  definitions, policy direction and guidance. Existing  training programs and content  should be  reviewed  against the finalized documents and updated as needed. Also, check with your state NIMS coordinator  and/or state EMA regarding NIMS compliance matters.   Mutual Aid/Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC)   State DOTs  provide  and  receive mutual  aid  to/from  other  states  and  organizations  using mutual  aid  agreements  and mutual  aid  plans. Mutual  aid  operational  plans  include  a  schedule  of  training  and  exercises  for  validation  of  plan  design,  concept,  implementation  and  communications,  logistics,  and  administrative structure, and affording practice opportunities to emergency response providers. (Draft  2017  NIMS  Guideline  for Mutual  Aid)  EMAC  is  an  example  of  interstate/tribe/territory  mutual  aid  compact, and was discussed  in Section 2 of this Guide. Understanding and being able to execute tasks  related to EMAC and other mutual aid agreements is important and requires appropriate training.   Emergency Management Performance Grant (EMPG)  EMPG  funded  activities  include  updating  emergency  plans,  conducting  training,  and  designing  and  conducting exercises to validate core capabilities, maintain current capabilities, and enhance capability  for  high‐priority  core  capabilities  with  low  capability  levels.  EMPG  recipients  and  subrecipients  are  expected to address capability targets and gaps  identified through the annual THIRA and SPR process.  EMPG  program  recipients  are  also  required  to  develop  a Multiyear  Training  and  Exercise  Plan  (TEP)  addressing THIRA risks and exercising/validating THIRA capability requirements in a progressive manner.    Recipients should develop and maintain a progressive exercise program and a multiyear TEP consistent  with HSEEP. EMPG Program funds related to training should support NIMS implementation and emphasize  NIMS Training Program core competencies.  NIMS Training ‐ Independent Study (IS) 100, IS 200, IS 700,  and IS 800 are required for EMPG‐funded personnel.  In addition, they are required to complete either 

116      the  courses  in  the  Professional  Development  Series  or  the  National  Emergency Management  Basic  Academy.    EMPG also has the following exercise participation requirements:   No less than four quarterly exercises of any type and one full‐scale exercise within a 12‐month  period are  required.   The exercises should  increase  in complexity and have common program  priorities.    EMPG‐funded personnel are  required  to participate  in no  fewer  than  three exercises  in a 12‐ month period.  For allowable costs and other information, see DHS Notice of Funding Opportunity  Fiscal Year 2016 Emergency Management Performance Grant Program (EMPG)    Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Training  FEMA’s Emergency Management  Institute offers complimentary, on‐demand courses accessible to the  public via the internet. FEMA suggests the completion of at least the following independent study courses  (http://training.fema.gov/IS/):   IS‐1: Emergency Manager: An Orientation to the Position   IS‐10: Animals in Disaster, Module A – Awareness and Preparedness   IS‐11: Animals in Disaster, Module B – Community Planning   IS‐100.a: Introduction to Incident Command System   IS‐120.a: An Introduction to Exercises   IS‐130: Exercise Evaluation and Improvement Planning   IS‐197.EM: Special Needs Planning Considerations – Emergency Management   IS‐200.a: ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents   IS‐208.a: State Disaster Management   IS‐230.a: Fundamentals of Emergency Management   IS‐235: Emergency Planning   IS‐288: The Role of Voluntary Agencies in Emergency Management   IS‐366: Planning for the Needs of Children in Disasters   IS‐547.a: Introduction to Continuity of Operations   IS‐650.a: Building Partnerships with Tribal Governments   IS‐700.a: NIMS – An Introduction   IS‐701.a: NIMS Multiagency Coordination Systems   IS‐702.a: NIMS Public Information Systems   IS‐703.a: NIMS Resource Management   IS‐704: NIMS Communications and Information Management   IS‐706: NIMS Intrastate Mutual Aid – An Introduction   IS‐800.b: National Response Framework, An Introduction   IS‐860.a: National Infrastructure Protection Plan    FEMA’s Emergency Management Institute offers classes in All‐Hazards Position Specific Training Program  annually as well. The courses are for personnel with responsibilities for managing complex incidents and  are seeking certification for ICS command, general staff, or unit leader positions or current members of  an Incident Management Team.  

117      Federal Reimbursement Programs (e.g., FHWA ER, FEMA PA)  Federal reimbursement programs such as the FHWA Emergency Relief and the FEMA Public Assistance  programs have complex processes and procedures. Fully understanding the program requirements can  save DOTs  time and expenses and help  them  receive  the  reimbursement amounts  to which  they are  entitled.  In  addition  to  documentation,  damage  assessment,  and  debris management,  knowledge  of  emergency  contracting,  repair  versus  replacement  considerations,  design  and mitigation  techniques,  environmental and historical preservation regulations, and construction and procurement procedures are  required.  Each of these function areas have detailed requirements and can become confusing during an  emergency.   As stated in the NCHRP Synthesis 472: FEMA and FHWA Emergency Relief Funds Reimbursements to State  Departments of Transportation a “high level of preparedness leads to better outcomes [with respect to  the FEMA and FHWA reimbursement programs] for state DOTs.” Training practices that were helpful to  DOTs in obtaining successful reimbursements included providing training on the FHWA Emergency Relief  and FEMA Public Assistance programs to personnel responsible for documentation and reimbursement,  training in conducting assessments, using scenarios from prior disasters, providing training to Local Public  Agencies on both programs, providing training to state EMA personnel on the FHWA Emergency Relief  program, and training state DOT personnel for  integration  into the state EMA as FEMA project officers  and project coordinators. Transit agencies  should also achieve  full understanding of FTA’s Emergency  Relief program and comply by its requirements.      Emergency Evacuations  Exercises  can  assess  the  feasibility  of  an  evacuation  plan  and  train  personnel.  State  transportation  agencies conduct and/or participate in exercises in areas with high likelihood of hurricanes and flooding  to prepare for an evacuation.  As described in the NCHRP 20‐59(30) Texas DOT case study, after Rita, DHS  conducted a series of hurricane preparedness exercises in the Gulf Coast region to prepare for the 2006  hurricane season.    Contraflow has been used by hurricane‐prone areas for emergency evacuations. Contraflow is described  as “a form of reversible traffic operation in which one or more travel lanes of a divided highway are used  for the movement of traffic in the opposing direction.” (NCHRP Report 740)  Exercise results along with  results of simulations and traffic analyses are used to fine tune contraflow operations plans.   Traffic Control and Management  Traffic control during emergencies requires traffic management teams able to manage and direct traffic  on highways and critical intersections lacking active signalization and during contraflow operations. The  Manual on Uniform  Traffic Control Devices  (MUTCD),  Traffic  Incident Management  (TIM), work  zone  safety practices, and TMCs and ITS technologies are important elements in effective traffic control and  management. Hazmat protocols and OSHA guidance may be helpful  in  incident  involving HazMat and  other incident types as well.   Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)   The FHWA’s MUTCD    (available at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/ser‐pubs.htm)  is a national  standard on  traffic control devices on all roadways and bikeways open to public traffic.  MUTCD also contains standards  on temporary traffic control (TTC) and traffic incident management activities.  TTC functions include the  movement of road users around an  incident, reducing  the  likelihood of secondary  traffic crashes, and 

118      precluding unnecessary use of local roadways. Non‐compliance with the MUTCD can result in the loss of  federal‐aid funds and tort liability. Because the MUTCD is detailed and comprehensive, sufficient training  in the standard is required of emergency response providers. In particular, responders should be trained  in  safe  practices  around  traffic  incident management  areas  to  ensure  their  safety  and  the  safety  of  motorists. The ITE Traffic Engineering Handbook recommends periodic training updates to train personnel  on new MUTCD policies or standards, industry practices, or DOT policies and procedures.    The MUTCD is published by FHWA under 23 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 655, Subpart F.  The  following parts are applicable during emergency traffic management:   Part 4 ‐ Highway Traffic Signals   Part 5 ‐ Traffic Control Devices for Low‐Volume Roads   Part 6 ‐ Temporary Traffic Control   Part 7 ‐ Traffic Control for School Areas   Part 8 ‐ Traffic Control for Railroad and Light Rail Transit Grade Crossings   Part 9 ‐ Traffic Control for Bicycle Facilities  Traffic incidents are classified into the following three classes of duration for the purpose of determining  traffic control needs. These classes are:   Major—expected duration > 2 hours;   Intermediate—expected duration 30 minutes‐2 hours;    Minor—expected duration < 30 minutes.  In addition to the FHWA’s MUTCD webpage, MUTCD Training and Resources are also available from a  number of organizations.   Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) Offices   American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA)   Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)   American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)   National Highway Institute (NHI)   International Municipal Signal Association (IMSA)   National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse  Traffic Incident Management (TIM) Training  State DOTs, tribal and local public works agencies along with safety/service patrols address and manage  traffic  incidents on  a daily basis.  Field personnel  also perform TIM  activities during  emergencies  and  disasters. The TIM Self‐Assessment inquires whether the agency held at least one multi‐agency training  session on the following topics:   NIMS/ICS 100   Training of mid‐level managers on the National Unified Goal   Traffic control   Work zone safety   Safe parking 

119      Also included is a question on whether all responders have been trained in traffic control following MUTCD  guidelines.   After the  introduction of NIMS, NIMS concepts and elements were  incorporated  into TIM.   The NTIMC  National Unified Goal Strategy concerning Multidisciplinary NIMS and TIM Training “ensures that incident  responders are cross‐trained on scene roles and responsibilities and have a thorough understanding of  the Incident Command System (ICS) as required in the National Incident Management System (NIMS). “  (page 5 ‐ 2010 Traffic Incident Management Handbook Update) Furthermore, the 2010 Traffic Incident  Management Handbook Update states that TIM programs “at all stages of development can and should  tap into NIMS resources to achieve “Preparedness.”  This integration of NIMS into TIM practices provides  field personnel with frequent on‐the‐job training of NIMS through the response to actual incidents.    Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) and Technologies  Because TMCs play an important role in traffic and incident management and emergency support, TMC  staff  should  be  appropriately  trained.  TMCs  should  conduct  task‐specific  needs  assessment  and  crosscutting needs assessment. These assessments may result  in the  identification of specific response  scenarios, and development of interagency training programs and exercises. According to the FHWA, two  training related strategic actions that should be taken by TMCs focus on training and discussion‐based  exercises  to  train personnel on plans and procedures, and  the certification of  required personnel and  equipment to ensure their preparedness.    TMCs monitor  and manage  transportation  systems  and  support  incident management  through  the  deployment of ITS and other transportation technologies. TMCs are often co‐located with EOCs and work  closely  with  emergency  response  personnel  from  their  DOT,  from  state  and  local  police  and  fire  departments, and other state, local, regional agencies, private contractors, towing companies and other  organizations to manage traffic incidents of all sizes and types.   Work Zone Safety and Mobility Rule  The Work Zone Safety and Mobility Rule which went into effect in 2007 requires training as well as periodic  refresher training for all personnel in work zone transportation management and traffic control. Note that  the Rule requires Transportation Management Plans (TMPs) for all federal‐aid projects and recommends  TMPs for non‐federal‐aid projects as well. For significant projects, TMPs must have a Temporary Traffic  Control (TTC) Plan and address Traffic Operations and Public Information and Outreach.   The  National  Work  Zone  Safety  Information  Clearinghouse  (www.workzonesafety.org)  supplies  information on relevant training. Other sources include the National Highway Institute and professional  organizations  such as  the  ITE,  the American Traffic  Safety  Services Association, and  the  International  Municipal Signal Association.  The 2013 FHWA Work Zone Operations Best Practices Guidebook describes best practices by state DOTs  such  as  a  TMP  peer  review  process  by Michigan  DOT, New  Jersey  DOT’s  Safety  Program  (including  emergency plans and training) specification as a contractor requirement and  its on‐site Traffic Control  Coordinator (TCC) training, and Virginia DOT’s Flagger Certification Program.  Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)    As described on its website (www.osha.gov), the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 created the  Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) “to assure safe and healthful working conditions 

120      for working men and women by  setting and enforcing  standards and by providing  training, outreach,  education and assistance.”   While not all DOTs are  required  to  follow OSHA  regulations, OSHA has a  comprehensive set of useful standards covering workplace hazards. The OSHA standards address many  workplace  hazards  and  hazard  communication  including working with  hazardous materials,  personal  protective equipment, fire protection, and fall protection; construction, maintenance and other roadway  activities;  bloodborne  pathogens  and  emergency  response.  Various  training  resources  including  the  Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response training can be found on the OSHA website.  For  specific OSHA guidance, consult your compliance unit.   Hazmat  Workers handling or  transporting hazmat  require  specialized  training, while all  field personnel would  benefit from basic awareness and communications training. A useful resource is the 2011 HMCRP Report,  A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials  Releases.   Disclaimer: Complex  federal environmental, safety, and health  regulations  including OSHA  regulations  need to be followed by state transportation agencies.  For specific guidance, consult your compliance unit.   Physical Security and Cybersecurity  The  2013  National  Infrastructure  Protection  Plan  (NIPP)  calls  for  the  strengthening  of  Critical  Infrastructure Security and Resilience  through  the coordinated development and delivery of  technical  assistance, training, and education. Another of NIPP’s goals is promoting “learning and adaptation during  and after exercises and  incidents.” The 2013 NIPP also encourages broad participation  in exercises  to  address diverse needs and purposes, and addressing “cascading effects involving the lifeline functions”  and determination of infrastructure priorities during response and recovery. (p. 24, 2013 NIPP)   Physical security and cybersecurity training issues will be covered in the NCHRP 20‐59 51A project which  is expected to result in an updated Security 101 guide.   Planned Events  Planned  Events  present  good  opportunities  to  assess  plans  and  provide  personnel  with  additional  opportunity  to  practice  their  training.  As  described  in  NCHRP  Report  777,  WMATA  evaluates  the  movement  of  drivers  and  riders  during  the  annual  Fourth  of  July  fireworks  on  the  national  mall  Washington, D.C. Also,  large‐scale planned events (e.g., Superbowl, Presidential  Inaugurations) require  substantial preparation  including training and exercises and require the participation of many agencies  including DOTs and jurisdictions.   Technologies  Effective mobilization of  technologies and equipment used  in emergencies  is  important  in emergency  response.   They should therefore be  incorporated  into exercises when possible.   All technologies to be  used in emergency situations should be used in daily operations as well to ensure that personnel are able  to use them. If a technology is complex, appropriate training should be provided prior to use. In addition,  if a technology cannot be used in daily operations, personnel should receive appropriate training and the  opportunity to use it in exercises.   Hazard‐Specific Training  Since likely hazards and threats vary by state and region, specific state DOT training and exercise needs  will depend on the likelihood of particular hazards and threats in the state or region. For instance coastal 

121      regions are adversely affected by hurricanes while regions with nuclear power plants need radiological  response plans.    Exercises   Training alone is not sufficient to achieve qualification in emergency management functions. Experience  and practice through exercises and actual events or  incidents are essential. Exercises are beneficial for  multiple purposes  including  the evaluation of personnel, plans, procedures, equipment, and  facilities.  NIPP 2013 emphasizes “continuous learning and adaptation” through a call to action to learn and adapt  during  and  after  exercises  and  incidents,  and  rapidly  incorporating  lessons  learned  into  technical  assistance, training, and education programs.   Drills are a common form of exercise for state DOT field personnel and are used to provide training on  specialized  equipment or  a  specific  function or procedure.  Tennessee DOT’s Comprehensive  Exercise  Program document lists ten purposes for the program.   1)  Exercise  the  Transportation  Emergency  Preparedness  Plan,  supporting  plans,  catastrophic  annexes and specific policies and procedures to ensure TDOT’s ability to respond effectively to the  needs of the citizens and local jurisdictions during emergencies,   2)  Exercise  the Emergency Support Functions assigned  to TDOT under  the Tennessee Emergency  Management Plan to respond effectively to the needs of the citizens and  local  jurisdictions during  emergencies  there  by  improving  individual  and  team  performance,  strengthening  professional  relationships, retaining skills, abilities, experiences and practicing or clarifying response organization  roles and responsibilities,   3)  Institutionalize  and  document  the  TDOT  emergency  management  exercise  program  and  its  principles to regularly test or practice the skills, abilities, and experiences within the community of  emergency management for the State of Tennessee.  The CEP will also validate or test the capabilities  of  TDOT  policies,  plans,  procedures,  organization,  equipment,  facilities,  personnel,  training  and  agreements  for  the  response and  recovery phases  that will allow  for  the  return of TDOT and  the  transportation infrastructure system to a normal status as soon as possible; and to establish exercise  program processes, practices, goals and objectives for TDOT emergency management stakeholders  across the State.  4)  Follow the State and agency policy and plan review cycle in order to validate the new or updated  documents.  5) Establish a documented corrective action process / plan (CAP) and improvement plan (IP) that will  ensure constant improvement in emergency response capabilities in TDOT.    6)  To  comply  with  TEMA  and  Federal  homeland  security  requirements  and  known  emergency  management best practices.   7) To exercise response operations and planning efforts according to contractual obligations.  8) To exercise emergency response operational plans for all PROBABLE and the more likely POSSIBLE  hazards and threats to Tennessee.  

122      9) To exercise the capabilities and  legal guidelines to provide the service, assistance, coordination,  and expertise to the citizens of Tennessee as described by the TEMP; and   10) To support local jurisdictional training and exercise programs as best as is possible.  The 2013 Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) offers substantial exercise planning  guidance. Many preparedness and homeland security grants require exercises and the development of  After Action Reports/Improvement Plans conforming to the HSEEP. The HSEEP document provides a set  of  guiding  principles  and  a  common  approach  to  exercise  program  management,  design  and  development, conduct, evaluation, and  improvement planning. Designed  to be  flexible and adaptable,  HSEEP is applicable for exercises of all types.   The fundamental principles of HSEEP include a focus on capability‐based objectives and exercise priorities  informed by  risk, guidance of  the exercise program and  individual exercises by elected and appointed  officials,  integration  of  the whole  community where  appropriate,  and  use  of  common methodology.   HSEEP principles also  include a progressive planning approach with exercises  temporally  increasing  in  complexity, and alignment of exercises using a common set of priorities and objectives.  In  addition, HSEEP  emphasizes  the  development  of  a Multi‐year  Training  and  Exercise  Plan  (TEP)  to  schedule  and  coordinate  the  delivery of  training  and  exercise  activities.  The  TEP  takes  a  progressive  approach with  exercises  and  training  becoming  increasingly  complex while  adhering  to  the  exercise  program priorities.  The  training  is designed  to prepare participants  for  future  exercises.  Examples of  Multiyear Training and Exercise Plans are included in the Caltrans and Tennessee DOT case studies.  Close coordination with the state Emergency Management Agency (EMA) ensures that DOT exercise and  training  activities  support  state priorities  as well  as DOT priorities. Regional or district offices  should  coordinate with regional EMA offices which can offer various types of assistance with exercise planning  and  implementation. DOTs can also  leverage  limited resources by participating  in exercises or training  sponsored by EMA or other agencies including local law enforcement and fire departments.   The  TEP  results  from  a  Training  and  Exercise  Planning Workshop  (TEPW).  The  TEPW  determines  the  strategy and  format of an exercise program and program priorities based on  input  from elected and  appointed officials. TEPW participants should include:  •  Elected and appointed officials  •  Representatives from relevant disciplines (federal, state, regional, local)  •  Personnel responsible  for exercise management and conduct  including  facilitators, controllers,  and evaluators  CPG 101 v. 2 emphasizes the  importance of considering the whole community  including special needs  populations and the private sector in the planning process and in exercises.    Priorities are based on jurisdiction‐specific threats and hazards which may be based on THIRA and other  risk  assessments,  corrective  actions  from  actual  events  and  exercises,  external  requirements  (noted  earlier in this Chapter), and accreditation standards (e.g., EMAP), regulations and legislative requirements  (e.g., OSHA, MUTCD, NRC).  

123      Once the program is underway, a rolling summary of outcomes provides an analysis of trends to inform  elected  and  appointed  officials,  support  reporting  requirements,  and modify  exercise  schedule  and  objectives as appropriate.    Exercise Cycle  The HSEEP Exercise Cycle contains the following four elements: 1) exercise design and development, 2)  conduct, 3) evaluation, and 4) improvement planning. Key activities in each element are listed below:     1. Exercise  design  and  development  –  identify  exercise  planning  team;  assign  team  members  to  schedule meetings,  identify/develop  objectives,  design  the  scenario,  create documentation, plan exercise conduct and evaluation, and coordinate logistics.  Seek input from elected and appointed officials.   2. Conduct – prepare for exercise play, manage the exercise, and wrap‐up activities.   3. Evaluation  –  planning  for  evaluation  begins  at  the  start  of  the  exercise  cycle.  Performance  of  personnel,  plans,  procedures,  equipment,  and  facilities  (per  2016  EMAP)  is evaluated against exercise objectives, and  strengths and weaknesses are  identified during the evaluation process.   4. Improvement  planning  –  corrective  actions  are  tracked  to  completion.  The  2016  EMAP requires that the corrective actions are prioritized as well. The 2016 EMAP also  requires that the products of evaluations of not just exercises but periodic reviews,  testing,  post‐incident  reports,  real‐world  events,  and  post‐incident  reports  be  documented and distributed.  Exercise Types  There are two categories of exercises: Discussion‐based and Operations‐based.   Discussion‐based exercises ‐ seminars, workshops, tabletop exercises (TTXs), and games – are less costly  and  time‐consuming  than Operations‐based  exercises. Discussion‐based  exercises  use  a  facilitator  to  direct discussions. They help familiarize and/or train participants on or develop plans policies, agreements  and  procedures  such  as  development  of  operational  concepts  and  procedures,  transportation  EOPs,  public information dissemination strategies, and coordination of response/evacuation plans. Discussion‐ based exercises can also help in the creation of training.   Operations‐based  exercises  –  drills,  FEs,  and  FSEs  –  are more  realistic  and  conducted  in  real‐time.  Operations‐based exercises provide personnel with the opportunity to practice what they have learned  and are useful for assessing emergency plans, procedures, personnel, technologies, and equipment.  Note  that FSEs are considered having  the highest  realism and  require  the most  resources and  time  in both  exercise duration and planning.   Table  13    contains  brief  descriptions  of  each  exercise  type,  and  Table14  provides  advantages  and  disadvantages by exercise type.   Table   13: Discussion‐based Exercises and Operations‐based Exercises  Discussion‐based Exercises 

124      Seminars  Seminars provide an overview of authorities,  strategies, plans, policies, procedures, protocols,  resources, concepts, and ideas. They help to:  ‐develop or change plans or procedures;  ‐assess the capabilities of interagency or inter‐ jurisdictional operations.  Workshops  Similar to Seminars, but participant interaction is  increased, and the focus is placed on achieving or  building a product. Successful workshops clearly  define objectives and have the broadest possible  stakeholder attendance.   Tabletop Exercises (TTXs)  Held in an informal setting, generates discussion of  various issues regarding a hypothetical emergency.  TTXs are used to:  ‐enhance general awareness, validate plans and  procedures, rehearse concepts, and/or assess the  systems to guide the prevention of, protection from,  mitigation of, response to, and recovery from a  defined incident.     Games  Simulates operations in a competition to  ‐explore the consequences of player decisions and  actions   ‐helps validate or reinforce plans and procedures or  evaluate resource requirements.  Operations‐based Exercises  Drills  A coordinated, supervised activity to:  ‐validate a specific operation or function in a single  agency or organization;  ‐train on new equipment; develop or validate new  policies or procedures; or practice and maintain  current skills.    Functional Exercises (FEs)  Uses exercise scenario with event updates that drive  activity at the management level, conducted in a  realistic, real‐time environment to validate and  evaluate:  ‐capabilities, multiple functions and/or sub‐functions,  or interdependent groups of  functions  ‐ plans, policies, procedures, and staff members in  management, direction, command, and control  function  Actual movement of people and equipment may not  occur.   Full‐Scale Exercises (FSEs)  The most complex and resource‐intensive type of 

125      Exercise, involves multiple agencies, organizations,  and jurisdictions.   FSEs validate many facets of preparedness.     (Derived from HSEEP Glossary, 2013)  Table 14: Advantages and Disadvantages  Discussion‐based Exercises  Advantages  ‐Conducted in a safe, non‐stressful  environment at a lower cost than Operations‐ based exercises.  Interaction among peers fosters learning.  ‐Can assist in the identification of additional  training needs.  ‐May be helpful in developing future training  content and scenarios.  Disadvantages  ‐Cost may become an issue if the exercise is held at a  location difficult to access for some or all of the  participants.  ‐Discussion‐based exercises do not provide the  realism that operations‐based methods can provide.  Operations‐based Exercises, Drills  Advantages  ‐Provide hands‐on experiential learning with  respect to functions, activity, or equipment.  ‐Provides a sense of urgency without the  possibility of serious consequences.  ‐Can help identify procedural and policy gaps.  ‐May avoid comprehension problems related  to literacy/language deficiencies  Disadvantages  ‐Providing hands‐on training to a large number of  individuals can be time‐consuming and costly.  ‐Scheduling drills can be difficult due to scheduling  issues of the field personnel, the instructor, and the  facility or equipment.  ‐Variables differ based on the individual, so  consistent outcomes are not assured.  ‐Personality differences between the instructor or  mentor and the worker may cause issues.  Operations‐based Exercises, Functional Exercises (FEs)  Advantages  -Offers experiential learning in a realistic setting. -Facilitates the retention of knowledge and skills. -Helps identify units and individuals that would benefit from additional training. -Can help develop future training content and scenarios.  Disadvantages  ‐Arranging and scheduling FEs can be difficult and  time‐consuming.  Operations‐based Exercises, Full‐Scale Exercises (FSEs)  Advantages  ‐Offers very high realism, complex situations.  ‐Helps identify units and individuals that  would benefit from additional training.  ‐Can help develop future training content and  Scenarios.  Disadvantages  -Significant coordination, preparation, resources, and  time are required.  (Adapted from NCHRP Synthesis 468) 

126      Emergency Response Drills   According to 2013 NCHRP Report 740, there are four types of emergency response drills useful for  assessment of emergency evacuation plans:  ‐Plan walk‐through: introduces the emergency plan, procedures, communications pathways,  etc.; yields ideas, comments on plans and can also be used as refresher training;  ‐Table‐to exercises (TTX) requiring participants to respond to a hypothetical crisis; duration of  play can reach several hours;  ‐Event simulations which provide enhanced realism (e.g., using victims with fake blood, using  actual members of special populations); duration ranges from two to eight hours;  ‐A full deployment drill, extremely realistic and involves multiple agencies and jurisdictions; this  type of drill can last several days.  Facilitated Exercise  2010 MTI Emergency Management Training and Exercises for Transportation Agency Operations describes  another type of exercise, the Facilitated Exercise. The San Jose Metropolitan Medical Task Force exercise  chair created a format that divided a full‐scale exercise into segments and incorporated refresher training.  The facilitator guides the exercise play in each segment and ensures that no significant mistake has been  made by the players. For example, if an important topic is left out of the Incident Action Plan, the facilitator  will inform the players regarding its significance and will ensure that it is included in the Plan. The thinking  behind  this  is based on adult andragogy –  learners  remember what  they do and not what  they hear.  Therefore, instead of allowing players to engage in incorrect behaviors or make the wrong decisions, the  facilitator takes steps to direct the exercise play in the appropriate direction.   Refresher Training  Refresher training for NIMS/ICS courses is not available through FEMA EMI and is very limited in available  through other sources. Tennessee DOT, however, does provide a four‐hour refresher NIMS/ICS course  every five years. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  In addition, exercises and real‐life  incidents provide personnel  with opportunities to practice NIMS and ICS.   Sandboxes  Sandboxes can help participants envision actions and facilitate operations‐based exercises by simulating  certain actions and scenes. The sandbox can include model vehicles, buildings, traffic signals, etc. (2014  MTI Exercise Handbook)  Helpful Tips regarding Exercise Programs  (Based on the Tennessee DOT case study)   Establish  relationships  with  members  of  state,  local,  and  federal  government  emergency  management communities, volunteer agencies, and private industry   Build on existing relationships through regional personnel with key stakeholders   Emphasize joint state and local exercises 

127       Design shorter duration exercises   Consolidate exercise objectives and requirements to enhance efficiency  Design and Development  The 2013 NIPP recommends the following regarding exercise design: “Design exercises to reflect lessons  learned and test corrective actions from previous exercises and incidents, address both physical and cyber  threats  and  vulnerabilities,  and  evaluate  the  transition  from  steady  state  to  incident  response  and  recovery efforts.” (p. 26, 2013 NIPP)   For design and development of  individual exercises, exercise program managers will need  to manage  multiple elements including the exercise budget and staff along with IT requirements, exercise tools and  resources,  MOUs  and  other  agreements,  technical  assistance,  equipment  and  supplies,  and  documentation from previous exercises.   Design and Development Steps  Exercise design and development steps include:   1. Review elected and appointed officials’ guidance, the TEP, and other factors.   2. Select participants for an exercise planning team and developing an exercise planning  timeline with milestones.  3. Select objectives and core capabilities.  4. Identify evaluation requirements.  5. Develop the exercise scenario.  6. Create documentation  7. Coordinate logistics  8. Plan for exercise control and evaluation.  Key Meetings  The following meetings are usually held to help move the design and development process forward. Of  these meetings, the HSEEP notes that the following are considered essential meetings: Initial Planning  Meeting (IPM) and Final Planning Meeting (FPM)  Prior  to  these meetings,  it  is  helpful  to  have  identified  the  lead  agency,  funding  sources,  any  labor  restrictions, and HSEEP compliance issues. (2014 MTI Exercise Handbook).   Concept  and  Objectives  (C&O) Meeting  ‐  identifies  the  scope  and  objectives  of  the  exercise. Participants  include elected and appointed officials, representatives  from the  sponsoring and participating organizations, and the exercise planning team  leader. The  Concept and Objectives  (C&O) Meeting  can be held with  the  Initial Planning Meeting  (IPM).   Initial Planning Meeting (IPM) ‐ determines exercise scope and identifies exercise design  requirements  and  conditions  such  as  assumptions  and  artificialities.  Exercise  documentation responsibilities and exercise details are determined; they include exercise  objectives, location, schedule, duration, participant extent of play, and scenario variables  (e.g., time, location, hazard selection).   

128       Master  Scenario  Events  List  (MSEL) Meeting  –  focuses  on  developing  the MSEL.  The  meeting may be combined with the MPM or FPM.    Midterm  Planning  Meetings  (MPMs)  –  provides  opportunities  to  discuss  exercise  organization  and  staffing  concepts,  scenario  and  timeline  development,  scheduling,  logistics, administrative  requirements and  review draft documentation, and any other  issues. Also provides opportunities to engage elected and appointed officials.     Final Planning Meeting (FPM) ‐ ensures the readiness of all components and resolution of  any outstanding issues. No significant changes should be made during or after this FPM.    Exercise Planning Team  The exercise planning team is led by a team leader. The team determines exercise objectives, designs the  scenario, ensures their activities are aligned with the overall multiyear plan, and creates the exercise plan.  Exercise plans have clear objectives, define exercise roles and responsibilities and management structure  based  on NIMS/ICS,  and  procedures  for  debriefings/hot wash,  and AAR/IP  or  Corrective Action  Plan  development. The exercise planning  team also  creates other needed documentation and  coordinates  logistics including safety of participants.    For evacuations, while agencies can and do conduct exercises such as TTXs and FEs  to  test plans and  mobilization capabilities, there will be no opportunity to exercise an actual evacuation.  The 2013 NCHRP  REPORT 740: A TRANSPORTATION GUIDE FOR ALL‐HAZARDS EMERGENCY EVACUATION stresses the importance  of  including as many agencies as possible and representatives of populations with special needs  in the  planning process.    Helpful Tips for the Exercise Planning Team  These and the remainder of the helpful tips in this section are based on the following sources: 2013 HSEEP,  2014 MTI Exercise Handbook, 2014 NCHRP Report 777; 2015 TDOT Comprehensive Exercise Plan, 2013  NIPP.   In exercises and drills managed by another agency, participate in exercise planning to ensure the  DOT role is realistic to operations.    In exercises and drills managed by your DOT, ensure all key stakeholders participate.    Plan for high‐probability and low‐probability events.    Consider special needs populations and pets.    Exercise planning team should keep key officials, state EMA, and other stakeholders in the loop.   Safety should always be top of mind.    Have a clear organizational structure based on ICS structure     Use project management tools and processes   Start evaluation planning and fill key evaluation roles at the start of this process   Review  the detailed  checklists  for discussion‐based exercises, operations‐based exercises, and  facilitated exercises are available in the 2014 MTI Exercise Handbook.    Insure adequate play for all participants   Exercise focus should be driven by objectives, not by the scenario   The number of objectives should be limited (few rather than many)   Use the SMART guidelines to develop exercise objectives 

129      Exercise Objectives  The exercise objectives selected for the exercise will drive scenario selection, evaluation, and all other  aspects of exercise development. Therefore, exercise objectives should be prudently chosen with input  from elected and appointed officials. Following SMART guidelines assist planning teams in identifying and  developing relevant exercise objectives:   Specific – objectives address who, what, when, where, why.    Measurable – measures  should define quantity, quality, etc. with a  focus on concrete  outcomes/actions.    Achievable – objectives should be feasible for players   Relevant – objectives  should be pertinent  to  the  agency’s mission,  goals, or  strategic  intent   Timeframe – reasonable timeframe should accompany each objective  In  addition,  keep  the  number  of  exercise  objectives  to  a  feasible  number,  and  focus  on  exercising  emergency functions assigned to the DOT by the state.  The following are sample exercise objectives:  Demonstrate capability to    Mobilize resources for contraflow operations   Track and document resources   Conduct effective situational assessment   Identify alternative transportation solutions    Respond to an Active Shooter event  The  2014 MTI  Exercise Handbook  (p.  128,  Table  13)  presents  a  list  of  example  objectives  based  on  Wisconsin Emergency Management, 2004. They include:    Communications: “To determine the ability to establish and maintain communications essential  to support response to an incident/accident and the immediate recovery, including establishing  interoperable communications with first responder agencies.”   Damage Assessment: “To demonstrate the ability to organize and conduct damage assessment,  including the collection of information to facilitate response by first responder organizations,  support of over‐ weight  permits, and recovery activities.”   Emergency Public Information: “To determine the capability of the emergency public  information system to disseminate timely and accurate emergency response information in  languages and methods appropriate to the community; evaluate the ability to work with the  media and maintain media monitoring and rumor control; evaluate the adequacy of the  electronic signboards, travel information radio, 5‐1‐1 system, and agency website for  maintaining timely travel information to the public.”   Emergency Evacuation: “To determine the adequacy of the evacuation plan for the jurisdiction  and the ability of officials to effectively coordinate an evacuation. Demonstrate the capability  and procedures to provide access, egress and emergency routing (including contraflow where  appropriate) to support mass care for persons displaced by a disaster in another community.”  Roles and Responsibilities 

130      Key exercise roles are noted in 2013 HSEEP, Table 4.1. The roles include:   Exercise director – oversees all exercise functions   Evaluator – observes, documents, and analyzes the exercise; has expertise in functional areas  they observe    Lead Evaluator – oversees team of evaluators; is familiar with all issues concerning the exercise;  and, is able to analyze capabilities   Facilitator – for Discussion‐based exercises, keeps discussions aligned with exercise objectives;  ensures all issues and objectives are covered   Controller – for Operations‐based exercises and some games, plans and manages exercise play  and timeline, sets up and operates exercise, directs pace of the play by providing injects and  other information, and ensures safety of participants.    Senior Controller – oversees exercise organization including all controllers, manages exercise  progress, oversees exercise setup and takedown, and debriefs controllers and evaluators.     Safety Controller ‐ monitors exercise safety during exercise setup, conduct, and cleanup  Scenarios  A scenario is a narrative or timeline used in Operations‐based exercises and TTXs that “drives an exercise  to  test objectives”  and  “informed by  actual  threats  and hazards….”  (2013 HSEEP Glossary)  Scenarios  should include:   “(1) the general context or comprehensive story; (2) the required conditions that will allow players  to  demonstrate  proficiency  and  competency  in  conducting  critical  tasks,  demonstrating  core  capabilities, and meeting objectives; and (3) the technical details necessary to accurately depict  scenario conditions and events” (HSEEP 2013, p. 3‐12).  The Master Scenario Events List  (MSEL) supplements  the exercise scenario with a chronological  list of  event  synopses  or  injects,  expected  responses  and  responsible  players,  and  objectives  and  core  capabilities  to  be  addressed,  and  is  useful  for more  complex  exercises.  Sources  of  scenarios  include  National  Planning  Scenarios,  Public  Transportation  System  Security  and  Emergency  Preparedness  Planning  Guide,  and  TCRP  Web‐Only  Document  60/NCHRP  Web‐Only  Document  200  (available  at:  http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_w60.pdf)  which  describes  scenarios  addressed  in  the  Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project A‐36, “Command Level Decision Making for Transit  Emergency Managers”:  flood,  hurricane,  earthquake,  power  outage,  hazardous materials,  and  active  shooter. NCHRP Synthesis 468 provides a Blizzard Emergency Scenario and a Flood Scenario.  The 2014 MTI Exercise Handbook notes the benefits of basing the scenario on an actual event. According  to the authors, Edwards and Goodrich, “An actual occurrence increases believability. Theoretically based  scenarios  decrease  believability.  The more  artificialities  that  are  used,  the  higher  the  likelihood  of  misunderstanding  and  rejection by participants.”    For  instance, Washington DOT used  the 50‐vehicle  pileup on Snoqualmie Pass that occurred  in February, 2007 to create a scenario for a TTX held  in May  2007.  Helpful Tips regarding Scenario Development   Scenarios should be realistic and challenging but not overwhelming    Scenarios should focus on local threats and hazards   Use subject‐matter experts (SMEs) to create realism 

131       Use capabilities of MPOs (e.g., GIS mapping, extensive databases, stakeholder connections)   Involve a broad, diverse team for scenario development   Link MSEL entries to the Exercise Evaluation Guide (EEG) critical tasks to ensure the critical tasks  and core capabilities can be demonstrated.      Select three recent events; then, select the scenario that best supports exercise objectives.    Scenarios can also be based on:  o National Planning Scenarios  o Findings of After Action Reports/Improvement Plans  o Threat and Vulnerability Assessments  o Current or Historical Events (local, national, or international)  o Scenarios Developed for Research Studies (e.g., TCRP A‐36 project)   Consider the following when developing a scenario  o Cascading effects involving lifeline functions  o Flexible uses of the transportation system  o Resource prioritization strategies  o Mobility options and needs of all travelers including disadvantaged populations  o Chain of authority when key personnel/decision‐maker is unavailable  o Critical information collection and dissemination  o Identification of infrastructure priorities in response and recovery  Example Scenarios  for discussion‐based  transportation  sector exercises are provided  in  the 2014 MTI  Exercise Handbook.    In addition, DOTs may consider seeking assistance from the state EMA and other  agencies and resources from the Homeland Security Digital Library (HSDL) HSDL.org which now includes  content  from  the Lessons  Learned  Information Sharing  (LLIS) program. The Homeland Security Digital  Library  (HSDL)  contains  a  trove  of  information  and  case  studies  on  lessons  learned.  HSDL  is  jointly  sponsored by FEMA and  the Naval Postgraduate School’s Center  for Homeland Defense and Security.  HSDL contains lessons learned, After Action Reports, case studies, innovative practices and other material  formerly  contained  in  the  Lessons  Learned  Information  Sharing  program  in  addition  to many  other  documents on homeland security. Available: HSDL.org. Helpful transportation‐specific resources include  the NCHRP Synthesis 468  report,  the 2014 MTI Exercise Handbook: What Transportation Security and  Emergency  Preparedness  Leaders  Need  to  Know  to  Improve  Emergency  Preparedness,  2010  MTI  Emergency Management  Training  and  Exercises  for  Transportation  Agency Operations,  2014  NCHRP  Report 777: , and the AASHTO Catastrophic Guide.  Exercise Documentation  Exercise documentation is extremely important. Identification of strengths and areas of improvement can  be accomplished without accurate and thorough documentation. The types of documents required for  each exercise type are provided in Table 3.2 of the 2013 HSEEP:   Situation Manual for TTXs and Games for all Participants   Facilitator Guide for TTX and Game Facilitators   Multimedia Presentation for TTX and Game for all Participants   Exercise Plan for Drill, FE, and FSE for Players and Observers   Controller and Evaluator Handbook for Drill, FE, and FSE for Controllers and Evaluators   Master Scenario Events List for Drill, FE, FSE for Controllers, Evaluators, and Simulators   Extent of Play Agreement for FE and FSE for Exercise Planning Team   Exercise Evaluation Guides for TTX, Game, Drill, FE, and FSE for Evaluators 

132       Participant Feedback Form for all Exercises for all Participants  Note that Tennessee DOT follows HSEEP, EMAP, and Emergency Management Performance Grant (EMPG)  exercise documentation guidance.  Exercise Conduct  Exercise Conduct involves the following key steps:  Step 1: Preparing for exercise play  Generally, discussion‐based exercises require less preparation than operations‐based exercises.   Both require room or site and seating set‐up, equipment checks, multimedia presentation and handouts,  sign‐in sheets, and feedback forms. Also before an exercise, separate briefings are held for elected and  appointed officials, facilitators/controllers/evaluators, players, observers, and actors.  Step 2: Managing exercise play   For Discussion‐based exercises, the facilitator gives a multimedia presentation, and participant discussion  will ensure. These discussions can be facilitated or moderated. Facilitated discussions occur in a plenary  session or breakout sessions. Breakout group discussions are held before the moderated discussion  in  which a spokesperson from each group summarizes the key findings of the discussion. Evaluators observe  and document these sessions.  For Operations‐based exercises,  it  is  important  to clearly define and mark exercise areas and exercise  materials to avoid confusion. Controllers control exercise flow and provide necessary data and injects to  players.  Activity and staff not in the exercise areas are simulated by the SimCell staff. Evaluators are pre‐ positioned at  strategic  locations  to allow observation and documentation of exercise play and player  response.  Evaluators  capture both quantitative  and qualitative data using  Exercise  Evaluation Guides  (EEGs).  EEGs  facilitate  the  exercise  evaluation  process  by  clearly  delineating  exercise  objectives  and  associated  core  capabilities,  capability  targets,  and  critical  tasks. Documentation of  the  exercise play  through photos and video recordings can help train personnel, brief senior management, and  improve  future exercises.  Step 3: Wrap‐up activities   Wrap‐up activities including debriefings and a “Hot Wash” which is a debriefing conducted immediately  after the exercise.   o Debriefings of exercise planning team members gather information about their satisfaction with  the exercise, issues, and possible improvements. Participant Feedback Forms are used to collect  participant  feedback  and  help  develop  debriefing  notes.  The  controller/evaluator  debriefing  provides an opportunity for controllers and evaluators to share their observations and key insights  into strengths and areas for improvement.    o A  Hot Wash,  a  forum  for  exercise  participants  to  discuss  exercise  strengths  and  areas  for  improvement, is led by an experienced facilitator.  Participant Feedback Forms can be distributed  during  the Hot Wash. For Operations‐based exercises, a Hot Wash  for each  functional area  is  conducted.   Helpful Tips regarding Exercise Conduct 

133       Establish a contingency process to end the exercise in case of a real‐world event.   Document the exercise play through photos and video recordings which can be used to train  personnel, brief senior management, and improve future exercises.   Remember to document the debriefings.    Consider providing psychological support during debriefings.  Exercise Evaluation   To  create  standardized  evaluation mechanisms  for  the  exercise  and  ability  to  track  progress  across  multiple  exercises,  and meet  funding  or  reporting  requirements, once  exercise objectives have been  selected,  identify  core  capabilities  for  each  exercise  objective.  Next,  identify  capability  targets  (performance thresholds) for each of the core capabilities. Information regarding capability targets may  be available from results of the THIRA or other risk assessments. Finally, identify the critical tasks needed  to accomplish a core capability. Critical tasks are found in the EOP, SOPs, Mission Area Frameworks, or  other sources.   The four key steps for Exercise Evaluation are discussed below:  Step 1: Planning for Exercise Evaluation  The first step in exercise evaluation is planning which should start during the Exercise Design and  Development stage. Actions that should be taken include:   Select lead evaluator   Define evaluation team requirements and structure   Develop Exercise Evaluation Guides which include objectives, core capabilities, targets, and  critical tasks   Recruit, train, and assign evaluators   Develop evaluation documentation including exercise‐specific details, evaluator team  organization/assignments/locations, evaluator instructions, and evaluation tools   Conduct a pre‐exercise C/E briefing to confirm roles, responsibilities, and assignments and any  changes  For evaluation of plans, CPG 101 v. 2 (page c‐4) recommends asking the following questions:   “Did an action, process, decision, or the operational timing identified in the plan make the  situation worse or better?   Were new alternate courses of action identified?   Were the requirements of children, individuals with disabilities, and others with access and  functional needs fully addressed and integrated into all appropriate aspects of the plan?   What aspects of the action, process, decision, or operational timing make it something to keep  in the plan?   What aspects of the action, process, decision, or operational timing make it something to avoid  or remove from the plan?   What specific changes to plans and procedures, personnel, organizational structures, leadership  or management processes, facilities, or equipment can improve operational performance?”  Step 2: Observing the exercise conduct and data collection 

134      For discussion‐based exercises, the evaluator or note‐taker will record data from participant discussions.  For operations‐based exercises, the focus  is on recording player actions. The data collected during this  step will be essential in developing the AAR.   Step 3: Analyzing data and identifying strengths and areas for improvement  Data analysis will determine answers to the questions:    Were exercise objectives met?   Were the capability targets met? If not, why not?   Were players able to perform core capabilities? Did they execute the critical tasks to meet  capability targets? If not, what were the impacts and/or consequences?    Do current plans, policies, and procedures support critical tasks and capability targets? Were  participants familiar with these documents?   To determine the root causes of deficiencies, evaluators will closely review critical tasks not completed  and targets not met.     Step 4: Reporting exercise outcomes   Helpful Tips on Evaluations   Select facilitators and evaluators that know and are known by your agency    Evaluators should evaluate only their own agency and profession and jurisdiction  After Action Report (AAR)/Improvement Plan (IP)/Corrective Actions  Lessons learned lead to helpful feedback for the DOT, personnel, and teams. They are reviewed, analyzed,  and compiled  into an After Action Report (AAR). The AAR provides documentation regarding strengths  and weaknesses  identified during  the event. After an  initial analysis  step, a qualitative assessment  is  recommended especially for exercises, incidents, and planned events to develop an initial list of corrective  actions. An  Improvement Plan (IP) contains a  list of corrective actions addressing capability gaps along  with responsibility for each Corrective Action, target dates, and tracking mechanism. The IP should include  source  of  funds  for  Corrective Actions,  and  how  and when  overseeing  agency will  be  notified  upon  completion of a Corrective Action. The  IP  is based on the AAR and  lessons  learned along with relevant  information from self‐assessments, audits, and administrative reviews.   To develop a draft  list of  improvement areas and Corrective Actions,  the  reviewer asks  the  following  questions:  What are the lessons learned for similar problems or scenarios?   What changes need to be made to:   o training, plans and procedures   o organizational structures, resources, systems  o management processes  …to improve performance?   

135      (Adapted from HSEEP, 2013)  The AAR contains evaluation information, overview of performance with a focus on exercise objectives  and the analysis of core capabilities.  According to CPG 101 v. 2, the AAR should:   Describe the reasons and need to conduct an AAR (e.g., review actions taken, identify  equipment shortcomings, improve operational readiness, highlight strengths/initiatives)   Describe the methods and agencies used to organize and conduct a review of the  disaster, including how recommendations are documented to improve local readiness  (e.g., change plans/procedures, acquire new or replace outdated resources, retrain  personnel)   Describe the links and connections between the processes used to critique the response  to an emergency/disaster and the processes used to document recommendations for  the jurisdiction’s exercise program   Describe how the jurisdiction ensures that the deficiencies and recommendations  identified in the AAR are corrected/completed.  p. c‐10 Appendix C, CPG 101 v. 2  AAR templates should be reviewed and used to ensure that important information is not left out of the  document.  The exercise sponsor sends the draft AAR to exercise participants and elected and appointed  officials will confirm conclusions in the AAR and areas for improvement.   After a draft AAR and IP have been developed, elected officials and key decision makers are provided an  opportunity  to  review  them and provide  comments. An After‐Action Meeting  (AAM)  is  then held  for  personnel to review the updated AAR and the draft IP.   The  AAM  facilitator  should  lead  focused  discussions, present the event timeline and responses to assist in event recall, and distribute a feedback  form  to  gather  additional  comments  and  input.  The  final  AAR  and  IP/Corrective  Actions  should  be  disseminated to all training and exercise participants and others affected by them.  Improvement planning can be used to support continuous improvement throughout the DOT by taking a  consistent  approach  to  related  activities  including  issue  resolution  and  information  sharing,  data  collection  from  and  analysis  of  exercises  and  events,  and  longer‐term  trend  analysis.  Regarding  the  maintenance of plans, each component of the plan should be reviewed and revised on a regular basis,  AND after specific events such as key changes  in resources, changes  in guidance or standards, a major  exercise or incident, or a change in officials.  Helpful Tips on After Action Report/Improvement Plan/Corrective Actions   Corrective actions should be clear, specific, and actionable.    Corrective actions should be within the DOT’s responsibility.   Ensure support for the IP and Corrective Actions.    Don’t forget to properly document the AAR process.    Tasked individuals/entities may need to develop implementing documents.   Share improvement recommendations related to NIMS, NIMS plans and training with the NIMS  national coordination process.  

136       2014 MTI  EXERCISE HANDBOOK  (Annex B)  contains  a  sample  Participant  Feedback  form  and  sample After Action Report.    The HSEEP website provides helpful templates including AAR/IP templates.  Training Implementation Solutions  NCHRP SYNTHESIS 468: INTERACTIVE TRAINING FOR ALL‐HAZARDS EMERGENCY PLANNING, PREPARATION, AND  RESPONSE  FOR  MAINTENANCE  AND  OPERATIONS  FIELD  PERSONNEL  identified  and  described  training  implementation challenges, and  training needs and solutions. Key challenges  for state DOTs  identified  were scheduling difficulties and limited budgets. Additional challenges included lack of qualified training  staff, personnel  turnover, distance  issues,  senior management  issues,  inadequate  facilities  and other  resources,  insufficient  information about available  training, and  infrequent need  for  training. Training  delivery solutions included in Table 15 :   Table  15: Training Delivery Solutions  Field Crew Meetings  Advantages  Meetings are brief and are held on a regular  basis at a location/time convenient to field  personnel.  Meetings are also focused and very relevant  to field crew.  Hands‐on training is possible. Field personnel  can practice a procedure or skill.  Disadvantages  None  Just‐in‐Time Training  Advantages  High retention of training content   Cost‐effective  Disadvantages  Personnel are not provided the opportunity to  practice a skill or process before its real‐life  application.    Taking the time to train personnel may delay the  response effort.  Training personnel in an emergency situation when  their level of stress is high may hinder the learning  process.    Interjurisdictional and Interagency Training and Exercises  Advantages  Opportunity for face‐to‐face interactions with  peers from other response agencies through  these exercises is essential preparation for  larger and more complex events.  They will also help prepare agencies and their  field personnel understand the ICS structure,  their roles and responsibilities within the  structure, and how they should integrate with  Disadvantages  Scheduling difficulties may impede the ability of a  large percentage of field personnel to attend these  sessions.   

137      personnel from other entities for these  events  Joint Training  Advantages  Scheduling difficulties may be mitigated by  delivering emergency training in conjunction  with another related topic.  Intra‐agency interaction and communications  may be facilitated.   Disadvantages  Emergency component may need to be shortened or  modified.  Asynchronous Training ‐ Computer‐based Training without Live Instructors  Advantages  Alleviates the need to schedule the training in  advance.  Allows 24‐hour access to the material.   Some on demand services offer automated  record keeping and trainee progress tracking.    Disadvantages  Lack of ability to interact with other students and  instructor limits learning    Student distraction may be more likely    Self‐direction is needed.  Asynchronous Training ‐ Prepackaged DVDs and CDs  Advantages  Allows trainers to select appropriate training  videos or CD or DVD training packages that is  the best value for their needs.  The packages  usually focus on a particular topic and contain  a variety of tools.  Cost‐effective because many trainees may  view the content typically for a fixed cost.  Online on‐demand training may charge the  agency per trainee.  With VTC, CCTV, or SKYPE technology, it is  possible to present the content to multiple  locations    Disadvantages  When VTC, CCTV, or SKYPE technology is used,  technology related issues can arise and connectivity  and quality of the transmission may be inconsistent.   Training videos and packages on CD ROMs and DVDs  are not “on‐demand;” the training needs to be  scheduled.  Interaction with instructors and other trainees is  limited.    Train‐the‐Trainer  Advantages  Cost‐effective way to leverage limited  resources.  Alleviates having to hire additional training  staff or consultants.    Disadvantages  Content dilution could be possible as additional  training tiers are added.  Planned Events, Incidents  Advantages  Both planned events and incidents are good  opportunities to practice coordination,  communications, resource mobilization, and  traffic management/control strategies. Traffic  incidents happen daily and provide many  opportunities for practice.  Disadvantages (Incidents)  There is no guarantee that a series of minor  incidents, aside from traffic accidents, will occur prior  to a disaster.  Incidents, even minor ones, have more risk  associated with them; for instance, a minor traffic 

138        accident could become a multicar crash with many  fatalities and injuries.  Computer‐Assisted Simulations  Advantages  A large, geographically dispersed audience  can be reached.  Allows identification of weaknesses or  resource deficiencies in training, plans,  procedures, and policies.  Allows the participation/interaction of key  personnel in different geographic regions.   Improves individual performance,  organizational communication, and  coordination.  Dangerous scenarios may be simulated safely.  May or may not be web‐based.    Disadvantages  Good PC and Internet skills necessary for learners to  gain full advantage of training.  In remote locations or other areas bad or no Internet  access can hinder training.  Unforeseen connection problems may arise during  training. If on the host’s end, training may be  interrupted.    Bandwidth issues may cause delay or disruption.   May lack realism, and may not provide a true test of  capabilities in an emergency situation.  For synchronous simulations, scheduling can be a  problem.  Classroom Training  Advantages  Can present up‐to‐date information.   Summarizes materials from various sources.  Can adapt the material to student  backgrounds and interests.  Highlights important concepts and materials.  Instructor enthusiasm can motivate students  and enhance learning (McKeachie and Svinicki  2013)    Disadvantages  Reduced development of problem‐solving skills and  interaction among students if sufficient interaction  opportunities are not provided.  Scheduling difficulties  Cost of the training and travel, including time.  (Scheduling and travel issues may be alleviated  through the use of VTC, VoIP, or similar technology.)    Online Training with Live Instructors  Advantages  Cost is lower vs. classroom training.  Training is standardized.   Training can be provided anywhere with web  access.  Disadvantages  Training must be scheduled in advance.  Trainees may be distracted.  Ability to monitor student progress may be limited.  Access to a PC and Internet are required.  Familiarity with the Internet and basic PC skills are  required.   

139      In addition to these methods, Blended Training allows agencies to combine multiple methods, and choose  desired aspects of each method. Cross‐Training personnel can provide contingencies for situations that  result in significant absenteeism.    Helpful Tips on Training   Determine who (what positions) need what type of emergency management training  including  NIMS Core Curriculum training.    In general,  training should progress  from  individuals to  intra‐agency  teams  to  interagency and  interjurisdictional exercises.    Establish professional qualifications, certifications, and/or performance standards for individuals  and teams, whether paid or volunteer with the assistance of the NIC and the state EMA.    Ensure that content and training methods comply with applicable standards and produce required  skills and measurable proficiency.    Ensure  that  all  personnel  with  a  direct  role  in  emergency  preparedness  and  emergency  management complete the designated FEMA training.    Establish or leverage partnerships with other agencies and organizations to coordinate and deliver  NIMS training requirements in conformance with NIMS.    Incorporate NIMS/ICS into all training and exercises.    Identify what additional training resources may be needed in the community to support response  and evacuation/shelter‐in‐place/quarantine activities.    Strive to make the training interactive. Much learning can occur through instructor‐student and  student‐student interactions.    Make the training relevant and specific to real‐world problems.    Provide a chance for  learners to reflect on their training. Then, provide opportunities to apply  their new learning shortly thereafter.   Acknowledge  experience  and  knowledge  by  providing  opportunities  for  participants  to  share  information and practices.    Maintain comprehensive training records, following EMAP standards and any applicable state or  agency policy.   Connect with the NIC for guidance on NIMS/ICS personnel training needs and qualifications for  emergency management positions.   The  FHWA  Peer‐to‐Peer  (P2P)  program  offers  technical  assistance  including  training  and  education  on  traffic  incident  management/planned  special  event  planning,  procurement,  deployment, and operations.     Memberships in professional organizations can be leveraged to take advantage of their training  and certification programs. Organizations include American Public Works Association, American  Road and Transportation Builders Association, the American Traffic Safety Services Association,  AASHTO’s  Transportation  Curriculum  Coordination  Council,  International  Municipal  Signal  Association.   Job aids and on‐the‐job learning can help with training retention and recall.     Technologies  such  as VOIP  and VTC  can broadcast  classroom  instruction  to other districts or  regional offices.    Minor incidents provide an opportunity for personnel to hone their abilities and skills and identify  gaps in training.   Useful training sources for NIMS/ICS include:  

140       FEMA NIMS Training Program   FEMA ICS Training Program and Resource Center   FEMA National Response Framework Resources   FEMA National Training and Education Division     FEMA National Fire Academy.   FEMA Center for Domestic Preparedness   FEMA Emergency Management Institute (EMI)    FEMA Independent Study Program   FHWA National Highway Institute   FTA National Transit Institute   FEMA National Training and Education Division   State EMA   State and local police and fire departments   FHWA National Highway Institute (NHI)   LTAP/TTAP centers   Universities or colleges.    SHRP 2 National Traffic Incident Management Responder Training   U.S.DOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration Transportation Safety Institute  There are also many other sources of  training on NIMS/ICS and other emergency management  topics  including regional coalitions, associations, member organizations, etc. These sources are noted in Chapter  2 of this Guide and in Chapter 5 of the NCHRP Synthesis 468 report.     State DOT Emergency Management Training and Exercise Implementation Practices  During interviews with state DOTs and case example agencies for the NCHRP Synthesis 44‐12 project, the  following courses were common elements in many of their training programs:   IS‐15.b: Special Events Contingency Planning for Public Safety Agencies   IS‐100: Introduction to the Incident Command System   IS‐200: ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents   ICS‐300: Intermediate ICS for Expanding Incidents   ICS‐400: Advanced ICS   IS‐552: The Public Works Role in Emergency Management   IS‐554: Emergency Planning for Public Works   IS‐556: Damage Assessment for Public Works   IS‐558: Public Works and Disaster Recovery   IS‐559: Local Damage Assessment   IS‐632: Introduction to Debris Operations    IS‐700: Introduction to the National Incident Management System   IS‐701.a: NIMS Multiagency Coordination System (MACS)   IS‐703.a: NIMS Resource Management   IS‐706: NIMS Intrastate Mutual Aid—An Introduction   IS‐800: Introduction to the National Response Framework   SHRP 2 National Traffic Incident Management Responder Training. 

141      NCHRP  Synthesis  468  contains  the  full  training matrices  for  Arizona  DOT’s  Emergency Management  Training for its Maintenance and Landscaping/Natural Resources personnel. Portions of the matrices that  include NIMS and ICS for various roles and functions are shown below.       Maintenance Roadway, Signing, and Striping Personnel  Highway Operations Worker    Basic Incident Command IS‐100   National Incident Management System IS‐700  Tech 1   Traffic Incident Management   Control of Hazardous Energy  Supervisor   ICS for Expanding Incidents IS‐200   National Response Framework IS‐800  Superintendent   Intermediate Incident Command IS‐300   Advanced Incident Command IS‐400  Landscape/Natural Resources Personnel  Highway Operations Worker    Basic Incident Command System IS‐100   National Incident Management System IS‐700   Hazard Communication    OSHA/DOT Hazardous Materials    Traffic Incident Management  Tech 1   Traffic Incident Management   Control of Hazardous Energy   Introduction to Wildland Firefighting    Supervisor   ICS for Expanding Incidents IS‐200   National Response Framework IS‐800  Superintendent 

142       Intermediate Incident Command IS‐300   Advanced Incident Command IS‐400  In addition to this training, Arizona DOT’s Highway Operations Worker undergoes almost 40 additional  training courses ranging from fire safety to flagger ATSSA certification to computer security awareness.  Tech 1 takes about 10 additional courses including advanced work zone traffic control and maintenance  communications.  Supervisors must  also  take  about  10  additional  courses  such  as On  Boarding New  Employees and Managing Resources Effectively. Superintendents take 6 additional courses including the  NHI Maintenance Leadership Academy and Performance Measurement. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  The  following  is  a portion of  Tennessee DOT’s  emergency management  training based on  the DOT’s  training needs assessment.    NIMS/ICS training; required courses vary based on worker function   ICS Train‐the‐Trainer Course   TIM training for all responders   Protect the Queue training for all field employees   Hazardous Materials Awareness training for all field employees   Hazardous Materials for Operational Level Response   Active Shooter Training for all employees   TVA Fixed Nuclear Facilities Emergency Worker Training   Oak Ridge Emergency Worker Training   Storm Spotter Training   Emergency Radio Communications Training   Emergency Management Support Team Training   Damage Assessment Workshop   Basic Public Information   TEMA 101   Instructor Methodology   Principles of Emergency Management   Exercise Development   Communications Leader Course   Search and Navigation Courses  o TEMA Search Operations  o GPS Land Navigation Course  o Basic Visual Tracking  o Managing Search Operations   National Domestic Preparedness Consortium (NDPC) ‐ DHS‐funded courses   FEMA National Emergency Training Center  (Tennessee DOT Case Study)  State  DOTs  use  a  number  of  different  methods  from  field  crew  meetings  to  train‐the‐trainer  to  interagency training and exercises to deliver emergency management training to their field personnel.  Examples of these methods include the following:   Field Crew Meetings 

143       Caltrans  ‐ tailgate meetings are used to share  information and to train field personnel on new  procedures, technologies, equipment, and safety issues. The meetings are held every 10 days at  every maintenance yard. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Missouri DOT ‐ field personnel are trained on specific tasks during field crew meetings.  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  Cross Training   Tennessee DOT – TDOT cross‐trains four to five additional persons to perform a particular function  that has been designated as an “Essential Function” of the DOT. Essential Functions are defined  in the TDOT COOP.  The training need depends on the gap between the number of people that  already have the capacity to perform the function and the number that  is required. The actual  amount of required training depends on function and system complexity. (Tennessee DOT Case  Study)  Joint Training   The  Second  Strategic  Highway  Research  Program’s  (SHRP  2)  National  Traffic  Incident  Management Responder Training Course is multidisciplinary and interjurisdictional and has been  delivered to many state DOT personnel along with police, fire, and other responders. The SHRP 2  program has also created a Train‐the‐Trainer Course for incident responders and managers as well  as  an  e‐Learning  training  course  being  implemented  through  the National Highway  Institute.   (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Arizona DOT  ‐ TIM training  is conducted by the Arizona Department of Public Safety using the  train‐the‐trainer version of  the SHRP 2 National TIM Responder Training  course.  It  contains a  strong ICS element and promotes a shared understanding of TIM requirements. SHRP 2’s two‐day  TTT course facilitates widespread use of the multidisciplinary training; the training was shortened  to  a  four‐hour  format  by  the  Arizona Department  of  Public  Safety.  The  training  participants  include state DOT personnel and federal, state, county, and local emergency response providers,  and tow truck operators and contractors. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)    Interjurisdictional and Interagency Training and Exercises   Arizona ‐ Arizona Division of Emergency Management (ADEM) Training and Exercise Office offers  a  wide  variety  of  training  courses  that  cover  emergency  planning,  mitigation,  awareness,  operations,  incident  command,  and  domestic  preparedness.  ADEM  also  offers  emergency  response training to ADOT and other agencies for an unlikely accident at the Palo Verde Nuclear  Generating Station. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Blue Cascades Exercises ‐ Pacific Northwest Economic Region and the Center for regional Disaster  Resilience bring public and private partners from the U.S. and Canada in the Pacific Northwest to  hold a series of scenario‐based TTXs – Caltrans is one of the state DOT participants. The goals of  the  TTXs  are  to  “raise  awareness  of  infrastructure  interdependencies  and  associated  vulnerabilities, impacts, and preparedness gaps, identifying potential solutions to make needed  improvements.”  (http://www.regionalresilience.org/interdependencies.html)  The  exercise  sequence  involved  1)  concept  identification,  2) workshop,  3)  development  of materials  and  scenarios, 4) TTX, 5) After‐Action Conference, and 6) Final Report. Scenarios have included a major  earthquake,  flood  and  pandemic,  physical  attack,  and  cyber‐attack.  The  exercises  result  in 

144      Regional  Action  Plans  for  stakeholders.  These  plans  have  included  projects  and  actions  in:  interdependencies, coordination, roles and responsibilities, response,  logistics and distribution,  information  sharing,  training and education, public  information, and economic  continuity and  recovery. (Caltrans case study, NCHRP Report 777)   Tennessee  ‐  TDOT  has  an  arrangement with  the  Tennessee  Emergency Management Agency  (TEMA) to “exchange” training  in which training delivered by TEMA  is complimentary to TDOT  personnel and vice versa. Interdisciplinary training with the Civil Air Patrol  is organized at  least  once yearly. TEMA's Technical Hazards Branch provides multiple training and training exercises  on  radiological emergency  response  for Tennessee’s  two nuclear plants on an annual basis  to  federal, state, and local responders. Plans are exercised on an annual basis; a federal exercise is  also conducted by FEMA and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission yearly at one of the two plants.  (Tennessee Case Study, NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Texas – Texas DOT personnel participate in ICS‐300 (Intermediate ICS) and ICS‐400 (Advanced ICS)  training courses hosted by local fire departments and police departments. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  Train‐the‐Trainer (TTT)    Arizona DOT ‐ in its first NIMS/ICS rollout, Arizona DOT trained 10 instructors to teach Introduction  to  ICS  and  Introduction  to  NIMS  to  4,600  district  personnel  in  a  classroom  setting.  (NCHRP  Synthesis 468)   Iowa DOT – Iowa DOT used TTT for the IS‐100 and IS‐200 (ICS for Single Resources) courses. District  office  and DMV  enforcement  trainers were  trained  first;  they  then  trained more  than  1,600  personnel over the course of a year.  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)    Computer Simulation   I‐95 Corridor Coalition’s three‐dimensional, multiplayer computer gaming simulation technology  (www.i95vim.com)  provides  scenario‐based,  interactive,  and  real‐time  incident management  training (Virtual Incident Management Training, I‐95 Corridor Coalition n.d.).   ON‐line  eXercise  System  is  a  web‐based  training  system  for  disaster  professionals  and  communities. The system can implement TTX, FE, and FSE using the Internet.   FEMA’s  Emergency Management  Institute  (EMI)  offers  a  series  of  virtual  tabletop  exercises  focused on disaster training.    The Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) is a free, web‐based exercise system  for  the  transportation,  transit,  rail,  and  airport domains  and  is  compliant with NIMS/ICS  and  HSEEP.  Initially  focused on  transit  scenarios and developed and  field‐tested under  the Transit  Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project A‐36, Command‐Level Decision Making for Transit  Emergency Managers, TERA initial transit scenarios are being modified and expanded with NCHRP  funds to include state DOT roles. Additional information regarding TERA and the A‐36 project can  be  found at www.tera.train‐emst.com and  in TCRP Web‐Only Document 60/NCHRP Web‐Only  Document 200, available online at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_w60.pdf  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)    Classroom Training 

145       Arizona DOT – Arizona Division of Emergency Management and Texas A&M provide emergency  management classroom training to ADOT field personnel.  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   California  –  Caltrans  provides  classroom  training  including monthly NIMS/SEMS/ICS  and  First  Observer  training  at  its  Maintenance  Training  Academy  to  new  and  existing  maintenance  personnel.  (Caltrans Case Study)    Tennessee DOT  ‐ Supervisors are required to take  IS‐200  (ICS  for Single Resources) and  IS‐800  (Introduction  to  the  NRF)  in  a  classroom  setting.  Managers  are  required  to  take  ICS‐300  (Intermediate  ICS)  and  ICS‐400  (Advanced  ICS)  delivered  through  classroom  training  as well.  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  Examples of exercise implementation by exercise type are provided in the following section:    Workshops/Seminars   California – Caltrans uses workshops to deliver all‐hazards training and COOP/COG training: each  year, Caltrans holds four All‐Hazards Training Workshops (one per quarter) and three COOP/COG  Workshops. (Caltrans Case Study)   Texas  ‐  Texas DOT’s  emergency  response  providers  and  key  district  staff members  including  district engineers and M&O directors participate in various workshops and seminars including an  annual  hurricane  preparedness workshop.  The  2013 workshop  covered  evacuation,  re‐entry,  cleanup, and response techniques. The following were also covered: protocols for the suspension  of construction schedules, radio communications and interoperability, debris and environmental  contracts,  MAP‐21,  FHWA  Emergency  Relief  and  FEMA  Public  Assistance  reimbursement,  volunteer management, and the Maintenance Management System (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Vermont  ‐  Six discussion‐based  exercises  (seminars or workshops)  a  year  focusing on VTrans  specific threats and hazards are attended by VTrans field personnel. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)    Table‐Top Exercise (TTX)   California  ‐ Caltrans participates  in  the  annual CalEMA Golden Guardian  Executive  Table  Top  Exercise (TTX) which is held one month prior to the actual CalEMA Golden Guardian FSE. (Caltrans  Case Study)   Arizona ‐ The Arizona DOT’s districts hold TTXs that relate to ADOT’s statewide exercises.  (NCHRP  Synthesis 468)   Tennessee – TDOT conducts TTXs with representatives of tasked organizations to help validate its  EOP.    Multiple DOTs ‐ The I‐STEP Highway and Motor Carrier AASHTO Peer Exchange Tabletop Exercise  for state DOTs held at the 2012 Transportation Hazards and Security Summit and Peer Exchange  highlighted  regional  prevention,  protection,  and  response  practices.  The  TTX  scenario was  a  terrorist attack against critical infrastructure and an attack against a critical bridge coinciding with  a natural disaster.  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)    Drills 

146       California  ‐ Caltrans holds drills  to evaluate personnel,  technologies, and equipment; and  for  the  development of plans and procedures. Caltrans’ personnel undergo monthly drills to ensure that they  can mobilize the technologies and equipment; during the drills, any issues with the systems will be  flagged  as  well.   Monthly  drills  are  held  on  Caltrans Microwave  Telephone  and  Fixed  Satellite  Telephone and Sat Com Auxiliary Radio Systems which is a satellite communications system owned,  managed, and operated by Caltrans for the purpose of emergency communications within Caltrans  and with other agencies. (Caltrans Case Study)  Functional Exercises (FEs)   Iowa ‐ The Iowa DOT holds three to four regional TTXs annually. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Missouri ‐ Half of Missouri DOT’s exercises are FEs; typically, 10 percent or more of the field personnel  are involved in these exercises. Scenarios have included earthquakes; severe weather, including snow,  ice, and tornados; and situations involving nuclear power plants and terrorism. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  Full‐Scale Exercises (FSEs)   Arizona  ‐  Arizona  DOT  personnel  including  field  personnel,  emergency  preparedness  and  management, and communications personnel participated  in a 2011 statewide exercise on an  improvised explosive device explosion. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   California ‐ Caltrans participates in the statewide Great California Shakeout Interagency Exercise  organized by the Earthquake Country Alliance. (Caltrans Case Study)   Caltrans also participates  in  the annual CalEMA Golden Guardian FSE. The FSE  is preceded by  planning meetings and a TTX and a Hot Wash and After Action Report meeting is held after the  meeting. (Caltrans Case Study) In addition, Caltrans also incorporates and evaluates technologies  such as Caltrans Microwave Telephone and Fixed Satellite Telephone and Sat Com Auxiliary Radio  Systems into its FSEs.    Texas – Texas DOT organizes and hosts at least one FSE each year usually focusing on contraflow  evacuations  in  which  personnel  and  equipment  are  mobilized  and  the  process  timed  and  evaluated. Additional participants have included the Texas Department of Public Safety, the fire  marshal, and local law enforcement agencies.  (NCHRP Synthesis 468)   Vermont ‐ VTrans field personnel undergo 4‐5 day FSEs organized by the state EOC. The scenarios  are hurricanes and WMD. (NCHRP Synthesis 468)  Training Evaluation  U.S.  Office  of  Personnel  Management  (OPM)  regulations  require  federal  agencies  to  create  and  demonstrate  the  value  of  their  training  programs  to  their missions  through  training  evaluation.  The  regulations require the implementation of a training evaluation system that helps the agency determine  future investments in training and development. The evaluations should determine whether learning has  occurred; whether  learning was  applicable  to  job  performance  or  other  behaviors  affecting  results;  whether the learning was applied to the employee’s job; and, if he or she did, whether there was positive  impact on performance or other job‐related behaviors.    The  2011  U.S.  Office  of  Personnel  Management  (OPM)  Training  Evaluation  Field  Guide  uses  the  regulations as a foundation for the guide. The 2011 OPM Guide stresses the importance of ensuring that  training positively affects agency mission and outcomes  through evaluation.   The Guide uses the New  World Kirkpatrick Four LevelsTM to offer a structured way in which agencies can evaluate their training and  training programs.  

147  The original Kirkpatrick training evaluation method is comprised of four levels:    Level 1: Reaction. Trainees provide their reactions to the instructor or facilitator regarding training subject/content,  facilities,  and  schedule,  and  improvements  using  a  feedback  form.  This  is probably the easiest level to implement.  Level 2: Learning. Determines the extent to which trainees have  learned the training material. What  the trainee knew before the  training  (pre‐test)  is compared to what he/she has  learned from the training (post‐test).  Level 3: Behavior. Trainee application of training to their jobs is evaluated by observation of the trainee during work or during a drill.  Level 4: Results. Demonstrates whether the training  is having the desired outcome (e.g., faster response  to  an  incident).  Provides  information  on  the  effectiveness  of  a  training  program. Outcomes need to be measured before and after the training. The  new  Kirkpatrick method  recommends  using  the  four  levels  in  reverse:  starting with  level  4  and  proceeding to level 1. Also, to help prove value of training, it is necessary to conduct both quantitative  and qualitative evaluation for each level and to provide evidence of the connection between level 4 and  levels 1, 2, and 3.  The new Kirkpatrick method also adds the following to each of the levels:    Level 1: Engagement  (to what degree participants are  involved and  interested  in  the  learning intervention) and Relevance (to what degree the content of the learning intervention is applicable to the jobs of the participants).  Level  2:  Confidence  (to what  degree  training  participants  feel  confident  to  apply  the  newly obtained knowledge and skills on the job) and Commitment (to what degree training participants commit that they will apply newly obtained knowledge and skills on the job).  Level 3: Required Drivers (process and systems that reinforce, monitor, encourage and reward performance of critical behaviors on the job) and On‐the‐Job Learning (ongoing self‐education on the job by the training graduate)  Level 4: Leading Indicators (short term observations and measurements that suggest that critical behaviors are on track to create a positive impact on the desired results) The new method stresses the importance of monitoring behaviors and required drivers to ensure they are being applied on the  job; and, monitoring  leading  indicators to determine whether correct behaviors have been chosen. The 2011 OPM Guide notes the distinction between effective training ‐ training that fulfills Level 1 and 2  expectations – and training effectiveness which relates to Level 3 and 4 – application of the training to the  employee’s job which produces results that contribute to the agency’s mission.   State transportation agencies should refer to the 2011 OPM Guide as a resource guide when developing  training  evaluations.  The Guide  contains  case  studies  and  sample  tools  including  participant  surveys  appropriate for each of the four Levels and observation checklists for Levels 2 and 3. In addition, the Guide  provides a brief summary of additional evaluation tools that may be considered for use.  

Appendix A1: Annotated Bibliography A. Institutional Context for Emergency Management Recent guidance at the national level has been reshaping the focus and long-term direction of transportation agencies. Since the publication of the Guide in 2010, four significant national level directives and executive orders have been issued, with an emerging focus on the complementary goals of infrastructure protection and system resiliency as part of security and emergency management. • PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE 8: NATIONAL PREPAREDNESS (2011) strengthens security and resilience through five preparedness mission areas - Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery. • PRESIDENTIAL POLICY DIRECTIVE-21: CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AND RESILIENCE (2013) focuses on the need for secure critical infrastructure that is able to withstand and rapidly recover (resilient) from all hazards. • 2013 NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION PLAN: PARTNERING FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AND RESILIENCE emphasizes the importance of resilience, the need to reduce all-hazards vulnerabilities and mitigate potential consequences of incidents or events that do occur. • EXECUTIVE ORDER 13636: IMPROVING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE CYBERSECURITY (2013) provides a technology-neutral cybersecurity framework and means to promote and the adoption of cybersecurity practices. • EXECUTIVE ORDER 13653, PREPARING THE UNITED STATES FOR THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE (2013) requires federal agencies to integrate considerations of the challenges posed by climate change effects into their programs, policies, rules and operations to ensure they continue to be effective, even as the climate changes. • The MOVING AHEAD FOR PROGRESS IN THE 21ST CENTURY ACT (MAP–21), the previous transportation reauthorization legislation, focused on performance management and established a series of national performance goals. The goals related to safety, congestion reduction, freight movement and economic vitality and environmental sustainability are of particular relevance to emergency management. MAP-21 also required incorporating performance goals, measures, and targets into transportation planning. • The FIXING AMERICA’S SURFACE TRANSPORTATION (FAST) ACT, enacted in 2015, expands the focus on the resiliency of the transportation system. “It is in the national interest to encourage and promote the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of resilient surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight and foster economic growth and development within and between States and urbanized areas through metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes.” It requires strategies to reduce the vulnerability of existing transportation infrastructure to natural disasters and expands the scope of consideration of the metropolitan planning process to include improving transportation system resiliency and reliability.

National Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466017528262- 73651ed433ccfe080bed88014ac397cf/InformationSheet_Recovery_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Disaster Recovery Framework describes “how the whole community works together to restore, redevelop, and revitalize the health, social, economic, natural, and environmental fabric of the community.” The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. Additional changes made to the Framework include: “Increased focus on Recovery’s relationship with the other four mission areas. Updated Recovery Support Functions (RSFs) to reflect changes in Primary Agencies and Supporting Organizations. Additional language on science and technology capabilities and investments for the rebuilding and recovery efforts.” National Response Framework, Third Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Response Framework, Third Edition – Information Sheet,” Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library- data/1466014891281- 6e7f60ceaf0be5a937ab2ed0eae0672d/InformationSheet_Response_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The NRF is aligned with NIMS and provides capabilities to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs. Response activities occur before, during, and after an incident and can overlap with the start of Recovery activities. The following changes were made to the Framework: • The addition of a new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression. • Three revised core capability titles o Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. • Three revised core capability definitions o Environmental Response/ Health and Safety; o Fatality Management Services; and o Logistics and Supply Chain Management. National Mitigation Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Mitigation Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466014552462- 1b78d1a577324a66c4eb84b936c68f16/InformationSheet_Mitigation_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Mitigation Framework covers the capabilities necessary to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the effects of disasters, and focuses on risk (understanding and reducing it),

resilience (helping communities recover quickly and effectively after disasters), and a culture of preparedness. The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned including a revised core capability title, Threats and Hazards Identification. In addition, the following changes have been made: “Additional language on science and technology efforts to reduce risk and analyze vulnerabilities within the mitigation mission area. Updates on the Mitigation Framework Leadership Group (MitFLG), which is now operational. Updates to the Community Resilience core capability definition to promote preparedness activities among individuals, households and families.” National Protection Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Protection Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466013587164- 86696df20638bbf24e25d70070eda114/InformationSheet_Protection_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Protection Framework focuses on “actions to deter threats, reduce vulnerabilities, and minimize the consequences associated with an incident.” The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. In addition, the following changes have been made: “Updated Cybersecurity Core Capability Critical Tasks to align with the Mitigation, Response, and Recovery Mission Areas. Additional language on science and technology investments to protect against emerging vulnerabilities are included within the protection mission area. Additional language on interagency coordination within the protection mission area to support the decision-making processes outlined within the framework.” National Prevention Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Prevention Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466011024787- 91b8e49bf7344dd6dadca441c26272ad/InformationSheet_Prevention_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Prevention Framework focuses on terrorism and addresses the capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop imminent threats or attacks. Some core capabilities overlap with the Protection mission area. The updates include edits to the Nation Preparedness Goal, and lessons learned. Other edits include: “Updates to Coordinating Structure language on Joint Operations Centers and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative. Clarification on the relationship and differences between the Prevention and Protection mission areas. Updated language on the National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) as part of the Public Information and Warning core capability. Additional language on science and technology investments within the prevention mission area.”

National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2015, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1443624338930- 32e9ed3ac6cf8e95d7d463ed9b9685df/NationalPreparednessGoal_InformationSheet_2015.pdf Synopsis. The 2011 National Preparedness Goal was updated in 2015. The key changes are described in the National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition – What’s New Fact Sheet. The National Preparedness Goal itself has not changed: “A secure and resilient nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.” The following changes were made to the National Preparedness Goal document: • Introduction: Language added to stress the importance of community preparedness and resilience. • Risk and the Core Capabilities: Enhanced items on cybersecurity and climate change. • Preliminary Targets: Updated preliminary targets. • New Core Capability: A new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression, was added. • Core Capability Titles: Revised the following core capability titles: o Threats and Hazard Identification (Mitigation) – revised to Threats and Hazards Identification; o Public and Private Services and Resources (Response) – revised to Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On- scene Security and Protection (Response) – revised to On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health and Medical Services (Response) – revised to Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. • Core Capability Definitions: Several of the core capability definitions were revised. NIPP 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Citation. National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience, US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, 2013, [Online]. Available: https://www.dhs.gov/national-infrastructure-protection-plan Synopsis. From DHS.gov: “Our Nation’s well-being relies upon secure and resilient critical infrastructure—the assets, systems, and networks that underpin American society. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) — NIPP 2013: Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience — outlines how government and private sector participants in the critical infrastructure community work together to manage risks and achieve security and resilience outcomes.” “NIPP 2013 represents an evolution from concepts introduced in the initial version of the NIPP released in 2006 and revised in 2009. The National Plan is streamlined and adaptable to the current risk, policy, and strategic environments. It provides the foundation for an integrated and collaborative approach to achieve the vision of: “[a] Nation in which physical and cyber critical infrastructure remain secure and resilient, with vulnerabilities reduced, consequences minimized, threats identified and disrupted, and

response and recovery hastened.” NIPP 2013 meets the requirements of Presidential Policy Directive-21: Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience, signed in February 2013. The Plan was developed through a collaborative process involving stakeholders from all 16 critical infrastructure sectors, all 50 states, and from all levels of government and industry. It provides a clear call to action to leverage partnerships, innovate for risk management, and focus on outcomes.” The NIPP 2013 has six chapters, two appendices, and four supplements. After an Executive Summary, the Introduction (Chapter 1) gives an overview of the NIPP 2013 and its evolution from the 2009 NIPP. Chapter 2 defines the Vision, Mission, and Goals of the NIPP 2013, while Chapter 3 describes the Critical Infrastructure Environment in terms of key concepts, risk, policy, operations, and partnership. Core Tenets are established in Chapter 4. Ways to collaborate to manage risk are given in Chapter 5. The final chapter is a Call to Action (“Steps to Advance the National Effort”). The Sector-Specific Plans of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors are being updated to align with the NIPP 2013. The web page for NIPP 2013 also contains links to training courses, critical infrastructure partnership courses, security awareness courses, and the relevant authorities (i.e. laws, regulations, and guidance). NIPP Supplemental Tool: Incorporating Resilience into Critical Infrastructure Projects http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/NIPP%202013%20Supplement_Incorporating%20R esilience%20into%20CI%20Projects_508.pdf NIPP Supplemental Tool: Executing a Critical Infrastructure Risk Management Approach http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/NIPP%202013%20Supplement_Executing%20a%20 CI%20Risk%20Mgmt%20Approach_508.pdf

B. Nature and Degree of Hazards/Threats Hazards have continued to evolve since the First Edition was published. In more recent times transportation agencies have been experiencing more and more devastating events either due to natural causes (e.g., Superstorm Sandy, extensive Midwest flooding, powerful hurricanes), caused by unintentional human intervention (e.g., truck crashes and fires on the Oakland Bay Bridge and in the Boston tunnels, oil train derailments) or intentional acts (e.g. cyber-attacks and armed assault including active-shooter incidents). Because today’s transportation systems are integrated cyber and physical systems, there are greater cyber risks than ever, including the risk of a cyber incident impacting not only data, but the control systems and physical infrastructure of transportation agencies. Risk-Based Transportation Asset Management: Building Resilience into Transportation Assets: Report 5: Managing External Threats Through Risk-Based Asset Management Citation. “Report 5: Managing External Threats Through Risk-Based Asset Management”, Risk-Based Transportation Asset Management: Building Resilience into Transportation Assets, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, March 2013, [Online]. Available: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/pubs/hif13018.pdf Synopsis. From the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database: “This is the fifth of five reports examining how risk management complements asset management. This last report examines how physical, climatic, seismic and other external threats can be addressed in risk-based asset management programs. The first four reports and the literature review emphasized the definition of risk as the positive or negative effect of uncertainty or variability upon agency objectives. Those reports emphasized that risks could be positive in that some types of uncertainty can create opportunities. However, this report will focus more on negative risks, or threats. These risks generally are external, and while highly probable over a long period of time, are difficult to predict in the short term. Randomness and variability complicate planning for them. In August 2011, Hurricane Irene reached one of the nation’s most northern states, Vermont, and damaged 480 bridges out of a total network of 2717 bridges. In one day, more bridge deterioration occurred than normally would occur over many years. Accurate prediction of such events is nearly impossible. Such a significant storm had not struck Vermont for 83 years. In managing risks to assets from external threats, this report emphasizes the Three Rs, which are Redundancy, Robustness and Resiliency. These will be defined, described and illustrated through several agency examples. Asset management plays a critical role in each, particularly Robustness and Resiliency. Including the Three Rs in asset planning efforts can better prepare agencies to cope with an increasingly unpredictable world.” The report consists of five major sections. The first is an introductory section. The second section discusses Climate Change and Extreme Weather Risks. The FHWA’s Vulnerability Assessment Model is presented in the third section. The fourth section discusses Risked-Based Approaches to Protecting Assets. Summary and Conclusions make up the fifth section.

A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases Citation. A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases. HMCRP Report, Battelle Memorial Institute, Issue 5, 2011, 119p, [Online]. Available: http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165201.aspx Synopsis. From the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database: “This Guide presents comprehensive, step-by-step guidance on assessing hazardous materials emergency response needs at state, regional, and local levels; matching state, regional, and local capabilities with potential emergencies involving different types of hazardous materials; and assessing how quickly resources can be brought to bear in an emergency. The methodology described in the Guide is designed to be scalable, allowing the implementation results to be aggregated at the local level up through regional, state, and national levels. Also, the Guide is designed to connect as many components as possible to already- established standards, guidelines, regulations, and laws, so that the Guide will remain current as these underlying components are updated. In addition, the Guide discusses appropriate means for maintaining currency of the information over time. The Guide and accompanying spreadsheet tool (on the attached CD-ROM), which leads planners through the assessment process, will be most useful for local jurisdictions that have limited resources and expertise in hazardous materials emergency response planning.” Protecting America’s Roads, Bridges, and Tunnels: The Role of State DOTs in Homeland Security Citation. “Protecting America’s Roads, Bridges, and Tunnels: The Role of State DOTs in Homeland Security,” The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, DC, Jan 2005, [Online]. Available: http://scotsem.transportation.org/Documents/Protecting_Americas_Roads.pdf Synopsis. According to AASHTO’s page on Bridge and Tunnel Security, this publication is an “AASHTO brochure providing an overview of the vital role that State DOTs – builders and operators of the nation’s busiest roads, tunnels, and bridges – often play when emergency situations occur”. It explains “why the security of our roads, bridges, and tunnels is important, what DOTs are doing to improve it, and the keys to better partnership.” The document has four sections. The introductory section (“State Dots— Guardians of The Nation’s Transportation Infrastructure”) argues that DOTs’ foremost expanded roles include all-hazards emergency management and critical asset protection. The two body sections explain DOTs’ expertise and needs in their respective domain. The first body section (“A Vital Support Role in Emergency Management”) notes that DOTs’ all-hazards emergency management expertise includes the key functions of: traveler information; traffic management; transportation facilities, personnel, and equipment; and infrastructure reconstruction capabilities. At the same time, resources are needed to address the enhancement of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) capabilities; improvement of emergency response; and better communications. The second body section (“Protecting Critical Transportation Assets”) notes that DOTs have several available countermeasures: deterrence and detection, defense, and design and re-design. But to address critical asset protection, DOTs need resources to address: bridge retrofits, bridge reconstruction, tunnel protection costs.”

In its concluding section (“The Road Ahead – Setting an Agenda for Partnership in Security”), this publication advocates that DOTs be “considered as first responders in terms of support from the Department of Homeland Security.” For strengthening this partnership, four cornerstones are proposed: • recognition of vital role of DOT in emergency management and homeland security, • responsiveness to road, bridge, and tunnel asset protection needs, • additional resources for DOT to meet homeland security challenges, and • support for transportation-related security research. NCHRP Report 750 – Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: Practitioner’s Guide and Research Report, 2014 Citation. Parsons Brinckerhoff, Cambridge Systematics, and Stratus Consulting, Strategic Issues Facing Transportation Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: A Practitioner’s Guide and Research Report, NCHRP Report 750, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2014, [Online]. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/169781.aspx Synopsis. From the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database: “This report presents guidance on adaptation strategies to likely impacts of climate change through 2050 in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of infrastructure assets in the United States (and through 2100 for sea-level rise).In addition to the practitioner’s guide and research report, this project also developed the following items: 1. “a software tool that runs in common web browsers and provides specific, region-based information on incorporating climate change adaptation into the planning and design of bridges, culverts, stormwater infrastructure, slopes, walls, and pavements; 2. “tables that provide the same information as the previously mentioned software tool, but in a spreadsheet format that can be printed; and 3. “two spreadsheets that illustrate examples of the benefit-cost analysis of adaptation strategies discussed in Appendix B of Part I of NCHRP Report 750, Volume 2.” This report discusses physical countermeasures against storm surge, floods, extreme temperature, and permafrost instability. Storm surge countermeasures include shoreline revetments, elevated approach roadways, extended wingwalls, enhanced scour protection and strengthened deck tie-downs. Additional flood countermeasures include floodplain culverts, hardening the slopes of approach roadways, adding/raising spans, and protecting coatings. Countermeasures against extreme temperature include widening expansion joints, redesigning bearings, and strengthening beams and girders. Countermeasures against permafrost instability include mitigation techniques such as the use of reflective surfaces, air convection embankment, geosynthetic reinforcement, thermosyphons, berms, air ducts, insulation materials and lightweight fill materials. Hazard Data Sources and Tools Information on potential hazards, including probability and possible effects, can be obtained from the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA), State Emergency Management and Civil Defense Agencies, National Weather Service (NWS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of

the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Department of Natural Resources (DNR). FEMA 433: Using HAZUS-MH for Risk Assessment, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Available: http://www.fema.gov/fema-433-using-hazus-mh-risk-assessment FEMA Map Service Center Available: http://msc.fema.gov/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/FemaWelcomeView?storeId=10001&catalogId=10001 &langId=-1 This Federal Emergency Management Agency source provides map information for a variety of users affected by floods, including homeowners and renters, real estate and flood determination agents, insurance agents, engineers and surveyors, and federal and exempt customers. There are flood maps, databases, map viewers, documents and publications providing comprehensive information. Further aspects of the site include FEMA issued flood maps available for purchase, definitions of FEMA flood zone designations, and information about FIRMettes, a full-scale section of a FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) that users can create and print at no charge. FEMA Flood Map Service Center (MSC) Available: http://msc.fema.gov/portal/ The FEMA Flood Map Service Center is the official public source for flood hazard information produced in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The MSC contains official flood maps, access a range of other flood hazard products, and tools for better understanding flood risk. subsection of Interior Geospatial Emergency Management System (IGEMS) Available: http://igems.doi.gov/ The Department of Interior Geosciences and Environmental Change Science Center IGEMS, which replaced the Natural Hazards Support System (NHSS), provides online maps containing the latest available information on earthquakes, earthquake shakemaps, streamflow data, floods, volcanoes, wildfires, and weather hazards. National Weather Service GIS Data Portal (NOAA) Available: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/gis/shapepage.htm Current weather, forecasts and past weather data are available in Shapefile and other formats from the Data Portal. Hazards include tornados, hurricanes, rain, snowfall, floods and other weather related hazards. Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (NOAA) Available: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/oh/ahps/ The NOAA Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) is a web-based suite of forecast products that displays the magnitude and uncertainty of occurrence of floods or droughts, from hours to days and months, in advance. The majority of the observed water level data displayed on the AHPS web pages

originates from the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Streamflow Information Program which maintains a national network of stream gauges. In addition, real-time water level information is collected from other federal, state, and local stream gauge networks. Climate Change & Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment Framework (2012) Available: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/climate_change/adaptation/publications/vulnerability_assessm ent_framework/page00.cfm#Toc345418472 The Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability to climate change and extreme weather events. It gives an overview of key steps in conducting vulnerability assessments and uses in-practice examples to demonstrate a variety of ways to gather and process information. Space Weather Over the last several years, both industry and the Federal government have played an active role in maintaining and advancing the Nation’s ability to forecast and mitigate the various impacts of space weather. These actions include taking steps to replace aging satellite assets essential to monitoring and forecasting space weather, proposing space-weather standards for both the national and international air space, developing regulations to ensure the continued operation of the electric grid during an extreme space weather event, proposing a new option for replacing crucial Extra High Voltage (EHV) transformers damaged by space weather, and developing domestic production sources for EHV transformers. NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Available: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/ The official U.S. government space weather bureau. SpaceWeather.com Available: spaceweather.com This website maintains all space weather information including current conditions. White House Workshop on Space Weather, 2015 The White House held a workshop titled “Space Weather: Understanding Potential Impacts and Building Resilience” in October of 2015 and released the following supporting commitments to enhance Space- Weather Preparedness: • Releasing New Space Environment Data. The U.S. Air Force (USAF), in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), will provide Space Environment Data from the current GPS constellation and other U.S. Government satellites. This data could be used to validate space-weather forecast models, potentially enhancing space-weather prediction capabilities. As a first step, USAF and NOAA will make data from January 2014 – a month characterized by a high level of solar activity – freely available on data.gov, providing an opportunity for users to explore the scientific value of the data. Within three months of this release, the Office of Science and Technology Policy will chair an interagency group to evaluate

the utility of the released data and to determine if the open data archive should be expanded to include additional historical and near real-time data. • Launching a Space Weather Data Initiative. In accordance with President Obama’s Executive Order on making open and machine-readable the new default for government information, as well as on demonstrated successes of unleashing innovation and technology for disaster response and recovery, the Administration will launch a Space Weather Data Initiative. The goals of this Initiative are to (1) make easily accessible and freely available on data.gov an unprecedented amount of space weather-related data; (2) engage with the private sector and the open-data community to leverage the open data and promote the development of data- driven tools, applications, and technology to enhance space-weather preparedness; and (3) expand U.S. Government capacity for using open data, innovation, and technology to support effective and efficient response to and recovery from space-weather events. • Increasing International Collaboration. To strengthen international coordination and cooperation on space-weather preparedness, the Department of State will organize workshops and meetings in Washington, DC with embassy staff from a multitude of nations. These workshops and meetings will provide an opportunity for other countries to learn more about the purpose and goals of the National Space Weather Strategy and accompanying Action Plan; ensure that policymakers in and leaders of partner nations recognize space weather as a global challenge; and facilitate the sustained, coordinated participation of partner nations in relevant international space-weather initiatives. • Including Space Weather in Transportation “Fundamentals” Reports. Space weather can affect communication and navigation systems that are critical for safe and efficient transportation systems. By incorporating space-weather considerations into two reports that provide comprehensive and up-to-date guidance on the major elements of a state’s all-hazards transportation security and emergency management program – Security 101: A Physical Security Primer for Transportation, and A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies –officials will have the information they need to incorporate space-weather considerations into transportation-security guidelines and emergency-response plans. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) – a nonprofit association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico – will ensure that space weather is included in the next edition of these two AASHTO Special Committee on Transportation Security and Emergency Management “fundamentals” reports. • Incorporating Space Weather into Emergency-Management Training and Activities. Space- weather events can, directly or indirectly, cause or exacerbate major disasters or emergencies, and can interfere with or impair disaster response, relief, and recovery efforts. The National Emergency Management Association (NEMA) – a professional association of and for emergency management directors, dedicated to enhancing public safety by improving the nation’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from all emergencies and disasters – will increase training and education related to space weather. Specifically, NEMA will: o Partner with the International Association of Emergency Managers to host a space- weather focused webinar for members of both groups, reaching up to 1200 state and local emergency managers, and others working in the emergency-management field; o Incorporate space weather into training and education opportunities for newly appointed state emergency management directors; and o Incorporate space weather into the NEMA Homeland Security Committee’s policy focus on infrastructure resilience.

• Raising Awareness of Space Weather in the Aviation Sector. As part of their commitment to promote safety, security and a healthy U.S. airline industry, Airlines for America – America’s largest airline trade association – will work with member carriers and their affiliates to educate the community on space weather and its effects on aviation, which include degradation or loss of satellite navigation signals and radio transmissions for communication. Fact Sheet: New Actions to Enhance National Space-Weather Preparedness https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/space_weather_fact_sheet_final.pdf National Space Weather Strategy and National Space Weather Action Plan National Space Weather Strategy Available: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/final_nationalspaceweatherstrategy_2 0151028.pdf National Space Weather Action Plan Available: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/final_nationalspaceweatheractionplan _20151028.pdf The newly released National Space Weather Strategy (Strategy) and Space Weather Action Plan (Action Plan) were developed by an interagency group of experts, with input from stakeholders outside of the Federal government, to clearly articulate how the Federal government will work to fill these gaps by coordinating, integrating, and expanding existing policy efforts; engaging a broad range of sectors; and collaborating with international counterparts. The Strategy identifies goals and establishes the guiding principles that will guide these efforts in both the near and long term, while the Action Plan identifies specific activities, outcomes, and timelines that the Federal government will pursue accordingly. The Action Plan broadly aligns with investments proposed in the President’s Budget for Fiscal Year 2016 and will be reevaluated and updated within 3 years of the date of publication or as needed. Taken together, the Strategy and Action Plan will facilitate the integration of space-weather considerations into Federal planning and decision making to achieve preparedness levels consistent with national policies, and enhance the resilience of critical technologies infrastructures to the potentially debilitating effects of space weather on the people, economy, and security of the United States. Cybersecurity Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer Citation: Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer. NCHRP-TCRP Web- Only Document, Countermeasures Assessment and Security Experts, LLC; Western Management and Consulting, LLC, Issue NCHRP 221/TCRP 67, 2015, 183p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1408236 Synopsis: This primer, a joint product of two Transportation Research Board Cooperative Research Programs, provides transportation organizations basic reference material concerning cybersecurity concepts, guidelines, definitions and standards. The primer delivers fundamental strategic, management and planning information associated with cybersecurity and its applicability to transit and state

department of transportation operations. The primer presents fundamental definitions and rationales that describe the principles and practices that enable effective cybersecurity risk management. The goals of the primer are to: increase awareness of cybersecurity as it applies to highway and public transportation; plant the seeds of organizational culture change; address those situations where the greatest risks lie; and provide industry-specific approaches to monitoring, responding to and mitigating cyber threats. Individual chapters address: myths of cybersecurity; risk management, risk assessment and asset evaluation; plans and strategies, establishing priorities, organizing roles and responsibilities; transportation operations cyber systems; countermeasures; training; and security programs and support frameworks. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Agencies Need to Better Measure Cybersecurity Progress. Citation. Wilshusen, Gregory C. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Agencies Need to Better Measure Cybersecurity Progress. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2015, 82p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1375467 Synopsis: U. S. critical infrastructures, such as financial institutions, commercial buildings, and energy production and transmission facilities, are systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, vital to the nation’s security, economy, and public health and safety. To secure these systems and assets, federal policy and the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) establish responsibilities for federal agencies designated as sector-specific agencies (SSA), including leading, facilitating, or supporting the security and resilience programs and associated activities of their designated critical infrastructure sectors. The Government Accountability Office's (GAO’s) objectives were to determine the extent to which SSAs have (1) identified the significance of cyber risks to their respective sectors’ networks and industrial control systems, (2) taken actions to mitigate cyber risks within their respective sectors, (3) collaborated across sectors to improve cybersecurity, and (4) established performance metrics to monitor improvements in their respective sectors. To conduct the review, GAO analyzed policy, plans, and other documentation and interviewed public and private sector officials for 8 of 9 SSAs with responsibility for 15 of 16 sectors. GAO recommends that certain SSAs collaborate with sector partners to develop performance metrics and determine how to overcome challenges to reporting the results of their cyber risk mitigation activities. Four of these agencies concurred with GAO’s recommendation, while two agencies did not comment on the recommendations. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Enhance Efforts to Address Port Cybersecurity Citation. Wilshusen, Gregory C. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Enhance Efforts to Address Port Cybersecurity. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2015, 14p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1371372 Synopsis: The nation’s maritime ports handle more than $1.3 trillion in cargo each year: a disruption at one of these ports could have a significant economic impact. Increasingly, port operations rely on computerized information and communications technologies, which can be vulnerable to cyber-based attacks. Federal entities, including the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS’s) Coast Guard and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), have responsibilities for protecting ports against cyber-related threats. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has designated the protection of federal information systems as a government-wide high-risk area since 1997, and in 2003 expanded this to include systems supporting the nation’s critical infrastructure. This statement by Gregory C.

Wilshusen, Director, Information Security Issues, addresses (1) cyber-related threats facing the maritime port environment and (2) steps DHS has taken to address cybersecurity in that environment. In preparing this statement, GAO relied on work supporting its June 2014 report on cybersecurity at ports. (GAO-14-459). In its June 2014 report on port cybersecurity, GAO recommended that the Coast Guard include cyber-risks in its updated risk assessment for the maritime environment, address cyber-risks in its guidance for port security plans, and consider reestablishing the sector coordinating council. GAO also recommended that FEMA ensure funding decisions for its port security grant program are informed by subject matter expertise and a comprehensive risk assessment. DHS has partially addressed two of these recommendations since GAO’s report was issued. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity Citation. Murphy, Randall J; Sukkarieh, Michael; Haass, Jon; Hriljac, Paul. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. ACRP Report, Issue 140, 2015, 162p. Available: Http://trid.trb.org/view/1360787 Synopsis: Cybersecurity is a growing issue for all organizations, including airports. While the risks to traditional information technology (IT) infrastructure are often highlighted, many airports also rely on industrial control systems that introduce risks that are less apparent. The increasing practice of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD), whereby employees use their own personal devices for business purposes such as email and remote access to airport systems, brings its own risks that must be managed. These risks cannot be eliminated, but they can be reduced through implementation of industry standards, best practices, and awareness programs for employees. This report provides resources for airport managers and IT staff to reduce or mitigate inherent risks of cyberattacks on technology-based systems. Traditional IT infrastructure such as servers, desktops, and network devices are covered along with increasingly sophisticated and interconnected industrial control systems, such as baggage handling, temperature control, and airfield lighting systems. Accompanying this guidebook is a CD-ROM (CRP-CD- 171) of multimedia material that can be used to educate all staff at airports about the need, and how, to be diligent against cybersecurity threats. A Summary of Cybersecurity Best Practices Citation. McCarthy, Charlie; Harnett, Kevin; Carter, Art. A Summary of Cybersecurity Best Practices. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014, 40p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1329314 Synopsis: This report contains the results and analysis of a review of best practices and observations in the field of cybersecurity involving electronic control systems across a variety of industry segments where the safety-of-life is concerned. This research provides relevant benchmarks that are essential to making strategic decisions over the next steps for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA’s) research program. This publication is part of a series of reports that describe the authors' initial work under the goal of facilitating cybersecurity best practices in the automotive industry (Goals 1 and 2). The information presented herein increases the collective knowledge base in automotive cybersecurity; helps identify potential knowledge gaps; helps describe the risk and threat environments; and helps support follow-on tasks that could be used to establish security guidelines. Assessment of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center Model

Citation. McCarthy, Charlie; Harnett, Kevin; Carter, Art; Hatipoglu, Cem. Assessment of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center Model. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014, 46p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1341933 Synopsis: An Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC) is a trusted, sector-specific entity that can provide a 24-hour per day and 7-day per week secure operating capability that establishes the coordination, information sharing, and intelligence requirements for dealing with cybersecurity incidents, threats, and vulnerabilities. An ISAC can serve as an industry resource by which to gather key information about cybersecurity events and issues and identify, communicate, and analyze potential impacts of such concerns to the sector. This report presents findings from an assessment of the ISAC model, and how ISAC’s are effectively implemented in other sectors. The report also explains how a new sector ISAC could be formed by leveraging existing ISAC models. This publication supports the goal of facilitating the establishment of a cybersecurity information sharing forum in the automotive sector (Goal 2). Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity Citation. Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Needs to Better Address Port Cybersecurity. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2014, 54p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1312046 Synopsis: U.S. maritime ports handle more than $1.3 trillion in cargo annually. The operations of these ports are supported by information and communication systems, which are susceptible to cyber-related threats. Failures in these systems could degrade or interrupt operations at ports, including the flow of commerce. Federal agencies—in particular Department of Homeland Security (DHS)—and industry stakeholders have specific roles in protecting maritime facilities and ports from physical and cyber threats. The Government Accoutability Office's (GAO’s) objective was to identify the extent to which DHS and other stakeholders have taken steps to address cybersecurity in the maritime port environment. GAO examined relevant laws and regulations; analyzed federal cybersecurity-related policies and plans; observed operations at three U.S. ports selected based on being a high-risk port and a leader in calls by vessel type, e.g. container; and interviewed federal and nonfederal officials. GAO recommends that DHS direct the Coast Guard to (1) assess cyber-related risks, (2) use this assessment to inform maritime security guidance, and (3) determine whether the sector coordinating council should be reestablished. DHS should also direct the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to (1) develop procedures to consult DHS cybersecurity experts for assistance in reviewing grant proposals and (2) use the results of the cyber-risk assessment to inform its grant guidance. DHS concurred with GAO’s recommendations. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation Citation. Moteff, John D. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. Congressional Research Service, 2014, 39p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1312743 Synopsis: The nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g., electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed). The national security community has been concerned for some time about the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to both physical and cyberattack. In May 1998, President Clinton released Presidential Decision Directive No. 63. The Directive set up groups within the federal government to develop and implement plans that would protect government- operated infrastructures and called for a dialogue between government and the private sector to

develop a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan that would protect all of the nation’s critical infrastructures by the year 2003. While the Directive called for both physical and cyber protection from both man-made and natural events, implementation focused on cyber protection against man-made cyber events (i.e., computer hackers). Following the destruction and disruptions caused by the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001, the nation directed increased attention toward physical protection of critical infrastructures. Over the intervening years, policy, programs, and legislation related to physical security of critical infrastructure have stabilized to a large extent. However, current legislative activity has refocused on cybersecurity of critical infrastructure. This report discusses in more detail the evolution of a national critical infrastructure policy and the institutional structures established to implement it. The report highlights two primary issues confronting Congress going forward, both in the context of cybersecurity: information sharing and regulation. Critical Infrastructure Protection: More Comprehensive Planning Would Enhance the Cybersecurity of Public Safety Entities’ Emerging Technology Citation. Critical Infrastructure Protection: More Comprehensive Planning Would Enhance the Cybersecurity of Public Safety Entities’ Emerging Technology. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2014, 41p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1290381 Synopsis: Individuals can contact fire, medical, and police first responders in an emergency by dialing 911. To provide effective emergency services, public safety entities such as 911 call centers use technology including databases that identifies phone number and location data of callers. Because these critical systems are becoming more interconnected, they are also increasingly susceptible to cyber- based threats that accompany the use of Internet-based services. This, in turn, could impact the availability of 911 services. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to review federal coordination with state and local governments regarding cybersecurity at public safety entities. The objective was to determine the extent to which federal agencies coordinated with state and local governments regarding cybersecurity efforts at emergency operations centers, public safety answering points, and first responder organizations involved in handling 911 emergency calls. The five identified federal agencies (Departments of Homeland Security, Commerce, Justice, and Transportation and Federal Communications Commission (FCC)) have to varying degrees, coordinated cybersecurity-related activities with state and local governments. These activities included (1) supporting critical infrastructure protection-related planning, (2) issuing grants, (3) sharing information, (4) providing technical assistance, and (5) regulating and overseeing essential functions. However, except for supporting critical infrastructure planning, federal coordination of these activities was generally not targeted towards or focused on the cybersecurity of state and local public safety entities involved in handling 911 emergency calls. Under the critical infrastructure protection planning activity, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) coordinated with state and local governments and other federal stakeholders to complete the Emergency Services Sector-Specific Plan. The plan is to guide the sector, including the public safety entities, in setting protective program goals and objectives, identifying assets, assessing risks, prioritizing infrastructure components and programs to enhance risk mitigation, implementing protective programs, measuring program effectiveness, and incorporating research and development of technology initiatives into sector planning efforts. It also addressed aspects of cybersecurity of the current environment. However, the plan did not address the development and implementation of more interconnected, Internet-based planned information technologies, such as the next generation of 911 services. According to DHS officials, the plan did not address these technologies, in part, because the process for updating the sector-specific plan will begin after the release of the revised National Infrastructure Protection Plan—a unifying framework to enhance the safety of the nation’s critical infrastructure. A revised plan was released in December 2013, and, according to DHS, a new sector-specific plan is estimated to be

completed in December 2014. Until DHS, in collaboration with stakeholders, addresses the cybersecurity implications of the emerging technologies in planning activities, information systems are at an increased risk of failure or being unavailable at critical moments. Under the other four activities, federal agencies performed some coordination related activities for public safety entities including administering grants for information technology enhancements, sharing information about cyber-based attacks, and providing technical assistance through education and awareness efforts. For example, the Departments of Transportation and Commerce allocated $43.5 million in grants to states over a 3-year period, starting in September 2009, to help implement enhancements to 911 system functionality. While these grants were not targeted towards the cybersecurity of these systems, cybersecurity was not precluded from the allowed use of the funds. GAO recommends that the Secretary of Homeland Security collaborate with emergency services sector stakeholders to address the cybersecurity implications of implementing technology initiatives in related plans. The Critical Infrastructure Gap: U.S. Port Facilities and Cyber Vulnerabilities Citation. Kramek, Joseph. The Critical Infrastructure Gap: U.S. Port Facilities and Cyber Vulnerabilities. Brookings Institution, 2013, 50p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1325343 Synopsis: This paper looks at the current state of cybersecurity as it relates to U.S. ports. Topics include port security prior to and post-September 11th, the Maritime Transportation Security Act, the Port Security Grant Program, and cybersecurity awareness, preparedness and recovery. Case studies outlining current port security and practices are presented for the Port of Baltimore, Maryland, the Port of Houston, Texas, the Port of Los Angeles, California, the Port of Long Beach, California, the Port of Vicksburg, Mississippi, and the Port of Beaumont, Texas. Of the six ports studied most had not conducted a cybersecurity vulnerability assessment nor developed a cyber incident response plan. Policy recommendations are provided to address port cybersecurity improvements. Critical Infrastructure Security: Assessment, Prevention, Detection, Response Citation. Critical Infrastructure Security: Assessment, Prevention, Detection, Response. WIT Press, 2012, 326p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/1247665 Synopsis: This book examines best practices and trends in infrastructure security at both the physical and digital level. Methods and tools for assessing, preventing, detecting and responding to security threats are outlined. The book is divided into five parts: (1) Security risk and vulnerability assessment; (2) Modeling and simulation tools; (3) Cybersecurity; (4) Monitoring and surveillance; (5) Security systems integration and alarm management. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity Citation. Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009, 25p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/906303 Synopsis: Securing the nation’s transportation and information systems is a primary responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Within DHS, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is responsible for securing all transportation modes; U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for cargo container security; the U.S. Coast Guard is responsible for protecting the maritime environment; and the National Protection and Programs Directorate is responsible for the cybersecurity

of critical infrastructure. This statement focuses on the progress and challenges DHS faces in key areas of maritime, aviation, and cybersecurity. It is based on U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) products issued from June 2004 through November 2009, as well as ongoing work on air cargo security. DHS has made progress in enhancing security in the maritime sector, but key challenges remain. For example, as part of a statutory requirement to scan 100 percent of U.S.-bound container cargo by July 2012, CBP has implemented the Secure Freight Initiative at select foreign ports. However, CBP does not have a plan for fully implementing the 100 percent scanning requirement by July 2012 because it questions the feasibility, although it has not performed a feasibility analysis of the requirement. Rather, CBP has planned two new initiatives to further strengthen the security of container cargo, but these initiatives will not achieve 100 percent scanning. Further, TSA, the Coast Guard, and the maritime industry took a number of steps to enroll over 93 percent of the estimated 1.2 million users in the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) program (designed to help control access to maritime vessels and facilities) by the April 15, 2009 compliance deadline, but they experienced challenges resulting in delays and in ensuring the successful execution of the TWIC pilot. While DHS and the Coast Guard have developed a strategy and programs to reduce the risks posed by small vessels, they face ongoing resource and technology challenges in tracking small vessels and preventing attacks by such vessels. In the aviation sector, TSA has made progress in meeting the statutory mandate to screen 100 percent of air cargo transported on passenger aircraft by August 2010 and in taking steps to strengthen airport security, but TSA continues to face challenges. TSA’s efforts include developing a system to allow screening responsibilities to be shared across the domestic air cargo supply chain, among other steps. Despite these efforts, TSA and the industry face a number of challenges including the voluntary nature of the program, and ensuring that approved technologies are effective with air cargo. TSA also does not expect to meet the mandated 100 percent screening deadline as it applies to air cargo transported into the U.S., in part due to existing screening exemptions for this type of cargo and challenges in harmonizing security standards with other nations. GAO is reviewing these issues as part of its ongoing work and will issue a final report next year. In addition, TSA has taken a variety of actions to strengthen airport security by, among other things, implementing a worker screening program; however, TSA still faces challenges in this area. DHS has made progress in strengthening cybersecurity, such as addressing some lessons learned from a cyber attack exercise, but further actions are warranted. Since 2005, GAO has reported that DHS has not fully satisfied its key responsibilities for protecting the nation’s computer-reliant critical infrastructures and has made related recommendations to DHS, such as bolstering cyber analysis and warning capabilities and strengthening its capabilities to recover from Internet disruptions. DHS has since developed and implemented certain capabilities to satisfy aspects of its responsibilities, but it has not fully implemented GAO’s recommendations and, thus, more action is needed to address the risk to critical cybersecurity infrastructure. Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored Citation. Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored. U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2009, 129p. Available: http://trid.trb.org/view/889626 Synopsis: An attack on the U.S. freight rail system could be catastrophic because rail cars carrying highly toxic materials often traverse densely populated urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is the federal entity primarily responsible for securing freight rail. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to assess the status of efforts to secure this system. This report discusses (1) stakeholder efforts to assess risks to the freight rail system and TSA’s development of a risk-based security strategy; (2) actions stakeholders have taken

to secure the system since 2001, TSA’s efforts to monitor and assess their effectiveness, and any challenges to implementing future actions; and (3) the extent to which stakeholders have coordinated efforts. Federal and industry stakeholders have completed a range of actions to assess risks to freight rail since September 2001, and TSA has developed a security strategy; however, TSA’s efforts have primarily focused on one threat, and its strategy does not fully address federal guidance or key characteristics of a successful national strategy. Specifically, TSA’s efforts to assess vulnerabilities and potential consequences to freight rail have focused almost exclusively on rail shipments of certain highly toxic materials, in part, because of concerns about their security in transit and limited resources. However, other federal and industry assessments have identified additional potential security threats, including risks to critical infrastructure and cybersecurity. Although many stakeholders agreed with TSA’s initial strategy, going forward TSA has agreed that including other identified threats in its freight rail security strategy is important, and reported that it is reconsidering its strategy to incorporate other threats. Additionally, in 2004, GAO reported that successful national strategies should identify performance measures with targets, among other elements. TSA’s security strategy could be strengthened by including targets for three of its four performance measures and revising its approach for the other measure to ensure greater consistency in how performance results are quantified. Federal and industry stakeholders have also taken a range of actions to secure freight rail, many of which have focused on securing certain toxic material rail shipments and have been implemented by industry voluntarily; however, TSA lacks a mechanism to monitor security actions and evaluate their effectiveness, and new requirements could pose challenges for future security efforts. GAO’s Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government calls for controls to be designed to ensure ongoing monitoring. While the freight rail industry has taken actions to better secure shipments and key infrastructure, TSA has limited ability to assess the impacts of these actions because it lacks a mechanism to systematically track them and evaluate their effectiveness. Having such information could strengthen TSA’s efforts to efficiently target its resources to where actions have not been effective. New, mandatory security planning and procedural requirements will also necessitate additional federal and industry efforts and resources, and may pose some implementation challenges for both federal and industry stakeholders. Federal and industry stakeholders have also taken a number of steps to coordinate their freight rail security efforts; however, federal coordination can be enhanced by more fully leveraging the resources of all relevant federal agencies. GAO previously identified a number of leading practices for effective coordination that could help TSA strengthen coordination with federal and private sector stakeholders. Cybersecurity Resources Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer (2016) Citation. NCHRP Web-Only Document 221/TCRP Web-Only Document 67: Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer, Transportation Research Board, 2016. Available: https://www.nap.edu/download/23516 Synopsis. This Primer provides transportation organizations with reference materials concerning cybersecurity concepts, guidelines, definitions, and standards. It delivers strategic, management, and planning information associated with cybersecurity and its applicability to transit and state DOT operations. It includes definitions and rationales that describe the principles and practices that enable effective cybersecurity risk management. The primer provides transportation managers and employees with greater context and information regarding the principles of information technology and operations systems security planning and procedures. The report is supplemented with an Executive Briefing for

use as a 20-minute presentation to senior executives on security practices for transit and DOT cyber and industrial control systems. Guide To Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Second Edition Citation. Special Publication 80-82, Guide To Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Second Edition, National Institute For Standards And Technology, 2015. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/ drafts/800-82r2/sp800_82_r2_second_draft.pdf Synopsis. The ICS security guide advises on how to reduce the vulnerability of computer-controlled industrial systems to malicious attacks, equipment failures, errors, inadequate malware protection and other threats. The Second Edition of the Guide includes new guidance on how to tailor traditional IT security controls to accommodate unique ICS performance, reliability and safety requirements, as well as updates to sections on threats and vulnerabilities, risk management, recommended practices, security architectures and security capabilities and tools. Recommended Practice: Securing Control And Communications Systems In Transit Environments Citation. APTA Standards Development Program Recommended Practice: Securing Control And Communications Systems In Transit Environments, APTA. Available: Part I: http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/documents/apta-ss-ccs-rp-001-10.pdf Part II: http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/documents/apta-ss-ccs-rp-002-13.pdf Part IIIa and IIIb in development Synopsis. This document covers recommended practices for securing control and communications systems in transit environments.These Recommended Practices address the importance of control and communications security to a transit agency, provide a survey of the various systems that constitute typical transit control and communication systems, and identify the steps that an agency would follow to set up a successful security program. The documents address the security of the following passenger rail and/or bus systems: SCADA, traction power control, emergency ventilation control, alarms and indications, fire/intrusion detection systems, train control/signaling, fare collection, automatic vehicle location (AVL),physical security feeds (CCTV, access control), public information systems, public address systems, and radio/wireless/related communication. NIST Cybersecurity Framework Available: http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/ The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), with transportation specific guidance available from APTA and FHWA, have developed recommended practices and standards. There are international standards and recommendations from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the Information Systems Audit and the Control Association (ISACA), and Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT). US Department of Transportation (USDOT) Cybersecurity Action Team The US Department of Transportation (USDOT) developed a Cybersecurity Action Team, as part of

Executive Order 13636, to implement o the Department’s Cyber Incident Response Capability Program. The team monitors, alerts and advises the ITS and surface transportation communities of incidents and threats, and leverages the extensive body of assessments and research done by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) staff related to the security threats and vulnerabilities of the United States’ transportation systems. US-CERT and Industrial Control Systems (ICS-CERT) Cyber Information Sharing and Collaboration Program Incident Hotline: 1-888-282-0870 Website: https://www.us-cert.gov/ The US Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT), part of DHS' National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC), provides technical assistance, coordinates cyber information sharing and proactively manage cyber risks through its 24x7 operations center. US-CERT distributes vulnerability and threat information through its National Cyber Awareness System (NCAS), and operates a Vulnerability Notes Database to provide technical descriptions of system vulnerabilities. Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Available: https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/ The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) operates cybersecurity operations centers focused on control systems security as part of the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC). The team: • Responses to and analyses industrial control systems (ICS) related incidents • Provides onsite support for incident response and forensics • Conducts malware analysis • Coordinates responsible disclosure of ICS vulnerabilities/mitigations • Shares vulnerability information and threat analysis through information products and alerts • Provides security awareness training courses (see http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/Training- Available-Through-ICS-CERT). Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Transportation Systems Sector Cybersecurity Working Group (TSSCWG) Available: https://www.dhs.gov/publication/cipac-trans-cybersecurity-agendas The TSA has authority to regulate cybersecurity in the transportation sector and provides cybersecurity pamphlets, a weekly newsletter, cybersecurity exercise support, and incident- specific threat briefings. TSA has pursued collaborative and voluntary approaches with industry. TSA DHS facilitates the Cybersecurity Assessment and Risk Management Approach (CARMA) for companies requesting assessments. TSA has hosted cybersecurity- focused Intermodal Security Training and Exercise Program (I-STEP) exercises, most recently in August 2014. TSA and its industry partners established the Transportation Systems Sector Cybersecurity Working

Group (TSSCWG) to advance cybersecurity across all transportation modes. The TSSCWG strategy, completed in mid-2012, stated, “The sector will manage cybersecurity risk through maintaining and enhancing continuous awareness and promoting voluntary, collaborative, and sustainable community action.” The TSSCWG is developing implementation guidance for adoption of the NIST Framework. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework Available: http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/ The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The Computer Security Division (CSD), a component of NIST’s Information Technology Laboratory (ITL), provides standards and technology to protect information systems against threats to information and services. Executive Order 13636, Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (2013) directed NIST to work with stakeholders to develop a voluntary cybersecurity framework – based on existing standards, guidelines, and practices - for reducing cyber risks to critical infrastructure. Cybersecurity Framework (CSF) Reference Tool Available: http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/csf_reference_tool.cfm A runtime database solution, have been created the allows the user to browse the Framework Core by functions, categories, subcategories, informative references, search for specific words, and export the current viewed data to various file types. NIST National Vulnerability Database Available: http://nvd.nist.gov National Vulnerability Database (NVD) is the U.S. government repository of standards-based vulnerability management data that includes databases of security checklists, security-related software flaws, misconfigurations, product names, and impact metrics. NIST Computer Security Division's Computer Security Resource Center (CSRC) Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/index.html This Center facilitates broad sharing of information security tools and practices, provides a resource for information security standards and guidelines, and identifies key security web resources to support users in industry, government, and academia. The CSRC is the primary gateway for gaining access to NIST computer security publications, standards, and guidelines plus other useful security- related information. NIST Security Publications Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsSPs.html NIST has published over 300 Information Security guides that include Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), the Special Publication (SP) 800 series, Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) Bulletins, and NIST Interagency Reports (NIST IR). Most commonly referenced NIST publications include: • Special Publication 800-12: An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook (1995). Elements of security, roles and responsibilities, common threats, security policy,

and program management. Initially created for the federal government, most practices are applicable to the private sector. • Special Publication 800-14 Generally Accepted Principles and Practices for Securing Information Technology Systems (1996) describes common security principles that are used. It provides a high level description of what should be incorporated within a computer security policy. It describes what can be done to improve existing security as well as how to develop a new security practice. Eight principles and fourteen practices are described within this document. • Special Publication 800-16 Information Technology Security Training Requirements: A Role- and Performance-Based Model (2014). Learning-continuum model, security literacy and basics, role-based training. • Special Publication 800-30, Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems (2012). Risk management, assessment, mitigation. • Special Publication 800-37 Guide for Applying the Risk Management Framework to Federal Information Systems (2010) • Special Publication 800-39 Integrated Enterprise-Wide Risk Management: Organization, Mission, and Information System View (2011). • Special Publication 800-53, Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations (2013). Security control fundamentals, baselines by system- impact level, common controls, and tailoring guidelines that are applied to a system to make it "more secure". • Special Publication 800-60, Revision 1, Guide for Mapping Types of Information and Information Systems to Security Categories, (2008). Security objectives and types of potential losses, assignment of impact levels and system security category. • Special Publication 800-82, Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security (2014). Overview of industrial control systems (ICS), threats and vulnerabilities, risk factors, incident scenarios, security program development. • Special Publication 800-97, Establishing Wireless Robust Security Networks: A Guide to IEEE 802.11i (2007) • Special Publication 800-100, Information Security Handbook: A Guide for Managers (2006). Governance, awareness and training, capital planning, interconnecting systems, performance measures, security planning, contingency planning. • Special Publication 800-122, Guide to Protecting the Confidentiality of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) (2010). Identifying, PII, impact levels, confidentiality safeguards, incident response. • Special Publication 800-150 Guide to Cyber Threat Information Sharing, (2016) • Special Publication 800-160 Systems Security Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Building Trustworthy Resilient Systems, Second Public Draft (2016) National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force – Analytical Group Available: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/ncijtf In 2008, the U.S. President mandated the National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force (NCIJTF) to be the focal point for all government agencies to coordinate, integrate, and share information related

to all domestic cyber threat investigations. The FBI is responsible for developing and supporting the joint task force, which includes 19 intelligence agencies and law enforcement. Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) Available: http://www.ic3.gov/default.aspx The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) is a partnership between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C). Internet crime complaints are reported online on the IC3 site. IC3 analysts review and research the complaints, disseminating information to the appropriate federal, state, local, or international law enforcement or regulatory agencies for criminal, civil, or administrative action, as appropriate. InfraGard Available: https://www.infragard.org/ InfraGard is a partnership between the FBI, state and local law enforcement agencies, and the private sector - businesses, academic institutions and other participants - dedicated to sharing information and intelligence to prevent hostile acts against the U.S. With over 80 chapters, InfraGard chapters conduct local meetings pertinent to their area. National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) Available: http://nccoe.nist.gov/ Established in 2012 through a partnership among NIST, the State of Maryland and Montgomery County, the National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence is dedicated to furthering innovation through the rapid identification, integration and adoption of practical, standards-based cybersecurity solutions.

C. Emergency Management Program Transportation plays a critical and unique role in emergency response. As the National Response Framework (NRF) states, “The ability to sustain transportation services, mitigate adverse economic impacts, meet societal needs, and move emergency relief personnel and commodities will hinge on effective transportation decisions at all levels.” Transportation’s unique role stems from the broad range of capabilities and responsibilities a transportation agency has: large and distributed workforces, easy access to heavy equipment and a robust communications infrastructure. To be ready for the agency’s role, a comprehensive emergency management program must be in place within the agency. As a part of their function, state DOTs are responsible for creating all-hazards plans and ensuring that employees have the ability to implement them. These all-hazards plans must conform with and complement the planning activities of the rest of the state’s operations and agencies as well as those of regional authorities. DOTs may coordinate planning efforts with other state agencies, including the state's Emergency Management Agency; county highway departments; with various agencies of the U.S. Department of Transportation; and with DOTs from other states to ensure activities can be easily integrated when necessary. DOTs also need to plan to receive and use resources provided by other states and the federal government during operations. In conducting these activities, DOTs should consider applicable standards and best practices for incorporating risk and resilience into functions and systems. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 201, Second Edition (2013) Citation. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 201, Second Edition, FEMA, 2013. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library- data/8ca0a9e54dc8b037a55b402b2a269e94/CPG201_htirag_2nd_edition.pdf Synopsis. The Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) provides for the development of local, state, tribal, territorial, and insular area emergency operations plans. FEMA released CPG 201 in 2012, with a Second Edition following in 2013. The First Edition of CPG 201 presented the basic steps of a Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) that included a process for identifying community- specific threats and hazards. It addressed setting capability targets for each core capability identified in the National Preparedness Goal; the Second Edition of CPG 201 included an estimation of resources needed to meet those capability targets. The Second Edition also included changes to the THIRA process, streamlining the number of steps to conduct a THIRA and providing additional examples. THIRA Information Sheet Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1388146249060- 7b2abfe6be10c67c4070ed42deaaadf1/THIRA%20Information%20Sheet_20131104.pdf CPG 201 Supplement 1: THIRA Guide Toolkit Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1831-25045- 0138/cpg_201_supp_1_thira_guide_toolkit_final_040312.pdf

Information Sheet ESF #1 Transportation Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1913-25045- 2201/final_esf_1_transportation_20130501.pdf Managing Catastrophic Transportation Emergencies: A Guide for Transportation Executives Citation. Managing Catastrophic Transportation Emergencies: A Guide for Transportation Executives. AASHTO, 2015. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/171299.aspx Synopsis. This Guide provides guidance to new chief executive officers (CEOs) about the roles and actions that CEOs take during emergency events. A Pre-Event Recovery Planning Guide For Transportation Citation. NCHRP Report 753 A Pre-Event Recovery Planning Guide For Transportation, Transportation Research Board, 2013. Available: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_753.pdf Synopsis. This Guide discussed the impact that response can have on recovery, noting that the response efforts can mitigate the damages and consequences of an event, and potentially reduce the time to recovery, such as quickly assessing damage and removing debris. Some response decisions, such as where to put debris, can have an impact on both short-term and long-term recovery, as learned during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Highlighting the differences between response and recovery, Report 753 also noted the importance of response and recovery team members understanding each other’s roles and responsibilities, because often the two functions overlap. Considering Security And Emergency Management In The Planning Of Transportation Projects: A Guide For Planners Of New Transportation Projects, FHWA (2012) Citation. Considering Security And Emergency Management In The Planning Of Transportation Projects: A Guide For Planners Of New Transportation Projects, FHWA 2012. Available: http://www.planning.dot.gov/documents/consideringsecurityandem.pdf Synopsis. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration has released this report designed to help ensure that security and emergency management are considered during the planning phase of highway-related infrastructure projects. Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/156212.aspx Synopsis. This Guide supports development of a formal program for the improved management of traffic incidents, natural disasters, security events, and other emergencies on the highway system. It outlines a coordinated, performance-oriented, all-hazard approach called “Emergency Transportation Operations” (ETO). The guide focuses on an enhanced role for state departments of transportation as participants with the public safety community in an interagency process.

Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series Citation. Houston, Nancy. Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series. No. FHWA-HOP-06-109. 2006. Available: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/00_evac_primer.htm Synopsis. Evacuations may involve hundreds or hundreds of thousands of people. Regardless of the numbers, in each and every instance, the transportation network plays a key role in evacuating people out of harm’s way. Recognizing the unique challenges posed by the disaster environment on mobility and the safe and secure movement of people and goods, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) seeks to improve evacuation planning and implementation by bringing to the emergency management community new ways of better using the transportation network before and during evacuations. This document constitutes the first of a primer series entitled “Routes to Effective Evacuations.” This primer is intended as a tool to aid local and state planners to maximize the use of the highway network in the development and execution of evacuation plans for their communities, states or regions. Final Report for the Application of Technology to Transportation Operations in Biohazard Situations Citation. Final Report for the Application of Technology to Transportation Operations in Biohazard Situations, FHWA, 2005. Available: http://www.its.dot.gov/eto/docs/transops_biohazard/executive.htm Synopsis. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration has released a report that examines the role of transportation agencies during a biohazard situation. The report is designed to help state and local transportation agencies perform the roles expected of them during all phases of a biohazard incident. According to the report, those roles can differ significantly from the ones they typically perform during other types of emergencies. A Guide to Transportation’s Role in Public Health Disasters Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 10: A Guide to Transportation’s Role in Public Health Disasters. Transportation Research Board, 2006. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/156474.aspx Synopsis. This Guide examines development of transportation response options to an extreme event involving chemical, biological, or radiological agents. The report contains technical information on chemical, biological, and radiological threats, including vulnerabilities of the transportation system to these agents and consequence-minimization actions that may be taken within the transportation system in response to events that involve these agents. The report also includes a spreadsheet tool, called the Tracking Emergency Response Effects on Transportation (TERET), that is designed to assist transportation managers with recognition of mass-care transportation needs and identification and mitigation of potential transportation-related criticalities in essential services during extreme events. The report includes a user’s manual for TERET, as well as a PowerPoint slide introduction to chemical,

biological, and radiological threat agents designed as an executive-level communications tool based on summary information from the report.. Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Professionals Citation. Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Professionals, FHWA, 2006. Available: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ics_guide/index.htm Synopsis. The purpose of this Simplified Guide is to introduce the ICS to stakeholders who may be called upon to provide specific expertise, assistance, or material during highway incidents but who may be largely unfamiliar with ICS organization and operations. These stakeholders include transportation agencies and companies involved in towing and recovery, as well as elected officials and government agency managers at all levels. This document may also be beneficial to public safety professionals, who are familiar with ICS but may not fully understand how ICS concepts are applicable to transportation agencies. Public Transportation Emergency Mobilization and Emergency Operations Guide Citation. TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, Volume 7: Public Transportation Emergency Mobilization and Emergency Operations Guide, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/156130.aspx Synopsis. This report examines activities that may be taken by public transportation agencies working with their local communities to promote the early recognition of emergency events, expedite response to emergency events, establish multi-agency coordination, and ensure that public transportation resources are available to support the response to an emergency event. Incorporating Security into the Transportation Planning Process Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 3: Incorporating Security into the Transportation Planning Process, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/155903.aspx Synopsis. This report examines the status, constraints, opportunities, and strategies for incorporating security into transportation planning at the state and metropolitan levels. The report also examines security-related projects in state and metropolitan priority programming decisions. Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies Citation. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 8: Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies, Transportation Research Board, 2005. Available: http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/156474.aspx

Synopsis. The report is designed to assist transportation agencies in evaluating and modifying existing operations plans, policies, and procedures, as called for in the National Incident Management System. The planning guidelines in this report are supplemented online with downloadable worksheets, a template for a completed COOP plan, a series of brochures that can be used to explain the COOP planning process to staff, a draft PowerPoint presentation that may be customized and presented to transportation executive leadership, and more than 300 resource documents organized in an electronic COOP library. FHWA Emergency Transportation Operations Website Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/index.htm The Office of Operations Emergency Transportation Operations (ETO) home page, features information on the ETO for Disasters, Traffic Planning for Special Events (PSE) and Traffic Incident Management (TIM) programs. The site provides tools, guidance, capacity building and good practices that aid local and State DOTs and their partners in their efforts to improve transportation network efficiency and public/responder safety when a non-recurring event either interrupts or overwhelms transportation operations. Non-recurring events may range from traffic incidents to traffic Planning for Special Event (PSE) to disaster or emergency transportation operations (Disaster ETO). Work in ETO program areas focuses on using highway operational tools to enhance mobility and motorist and responder safety. Traffic Incident Management (TIM) Traffic incident management (TIM) is a planned and coordinated program to detect and remove incidents and restore traffic capacity as safely and quickly as possible. Traffic Incident Management Gap Analysis Primer Available:http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/about/tim.htm#t3 Synopsis. This document provides guidance to federal, State and local TIM programs and their involved partners on the components needed to develop and sustain a successful full-fledged TIM program. The objectives of this primer are to: • Identify and summarize the current state of TIM practice and activities at the national and State/local levels. • Identify and summarize gaps found in TIM activities/information for national and State/local departments and agencies. • Identify and outline a framework for achieving a complete TIM program for the different levels of government utilizing national guidelines. • Outline the key elements that are contained in successful TIM programs. The information contained within this document is geared towards multidisciplinary TIM stakeholders from both the public and private sectors. This includes but is not limited to personnel from transportation agencies, law enforcement, fire and rescue, emergency medical services (EMS), public safety communications, emergency management, towing and recovery, hazardous materials (HazMat), utilities, contractors, and traffic information media.

Making the Connection: Advancing Traffic Incident Management in Transportation Planning Citation. Making the Connection: Advancing Traffic Incident Management in Transportation Planning, FHWA, 2013. Available: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop13044/index.htm Synopsis. The intent of this primer is to inform and guide traffic incident management (TIM) professionals and transportation planners to initiate and develop collaborative relationships and advance TIM programs through the metropolitan planning process. The primer aims to inspire planners and TIM professionals to create transportation plans and programs that support regional TIM programs through TIM-focused objectives, performance measures, and TIM strategies and projects. The ultimate goal of this primer is to strengthen, support, and elevate regional TIM programs as a crucial, lower-cost strategy for reliability, safety, environmental improvements, and mobility. Senior Executive Transportation & Public Safety Summit Report Citation. Senior Executive Transportation & Public Safety Summit: National Traffic Incident Management Leadership & Innovation Roadmap for Success, FHWA, 2012. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/publications/publicsafetysummit/index.htm Synopsis. The 2012 Senior Executive Transportation & Public Safety Summit Report summarizes the proceedings, findings, and recommendations from a two-day Senior Executive Summit on Transportation and Public Safety, held June 26 and 27, 2012 at the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) in Washington, D.C. This forum of senior-level, multi-disciplinary executives representing the transportation, law enforcement, fire and rescue, and emergency medical services communities addressed major challenges and innovative solutions in enhancing the state of the practice nationally in Traffic Incident Management (TIM). Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Deputy Administrator Greg Nadeau, and FHWA Executive Director Jeff Paniati provided opening remarks expressing the commitment of the entire Department to support safe, quick traffic incident response on the Nation's roadways. Participants at the Summit discussed innovative practices in TIM policies, legislation, training and outreach. Summit highlights included discussions and presentations on the following issues: Improving responder and motorist safety and consistency among jurisdictions; Supporting TIM outreach initiatives and messaging; Enhancing State and local legislation and policies that advance TIM planning and operations, including Driver Removal and Authority Removal legislation; Supporting urgent and clearly-defined research strategies, such as model Move Over and Driver Removal laws, the effects of emergency lighting, and the impact of TIM performance measures; Implementing the National TIM Responder Training course developed through the Transportation Research Board’s Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2); Improving the efficiency of the highway system through possible cost-recovery strategies, better investment of cost-efficient resources, and improved communication among responders about roles and responsibilities; and Developing an action-based executive group equipped to provide leadership, support, and guidance in advancing priority actions.

Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation for Traffic Incident Management Applications Citation. Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation for Traffic Incident Management Applications, FHWA, 2012. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop12045/index.htm Synopsis. Traffic incidents are a major source of congestion. Implementing traffic incident management (TIM) strategies has proven to be a highly cost effective way of reducing non-recurrent congestion. This publication provides the current state of practice of various analytical methodologies and related TIM applications. It, also, identifies some research activities to improve analysis of incident impacts and TIM strategies. This document provides a synthesis of analysis, modeling, and simulation (AMS) methods for incident impacts. The focus is on incidents effects on congestion and reliability as well as secondary incidents, for the purpose of estimating TIM benefits and evaluating programs and proposed strategies. Traffic Incident Management Cost Management and Cost Recovery Primer Citation. Traffic Incident Management Cost Management and Cost Recovery Primer, FHWA, 2012. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop12044/index.htm Synopsis. This publication provides mid-level managers at transportation and other stakeholder agencies with the resources they need to explain the benefits of traffic incident management (TIM) and TIM cost management and cost recovery to executive leadership. It also provides the same mid-level managers with information that will help them implement TIM cost management and cost recovery techniques. This document focuses on "recoverable costs" related to TIM, as there are costs associated with TIM that cannot accurately be measured or replaced; however, costs related to responder and motorist injury, disability, fatality, and the related medical and societal costs are not addressed here as those issues are addressed in a variety of ways in the existing literature. Best Practices in Traffic Incident Management Citation. Best Practices in Traffic Incident Management, FHWA, 2010. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop10050/index.htm Synopsis. This report describes task-specific and cross-cutting issues or challenges commonly encountered by TIM responders in the performance of their duties, and novel and/or effective strategies for overcoming these issues and challenges (i.e., best practices). Field Operations Guide for Safety/Service Patrols Citation. Field Operations Guide for Safety/Service Patrols, FHWA, 2009. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop10014/index.htm Synopsis. This guide was produced by the Federal Highway Administration and was developed for use by Safety/Service Patrol operators and supervisors. It is expected that Safety/Service Patrol personnel will carry the guide in their vehicle to use as a quick reference while performing patrol tasks. They should refer to this guide on a regular basis as a refresher on steps and tasks associated with managing incidents - particularly for those situations not encountered every day. This guide is not designed to stand alone, but in conjunction with training and exercises that will indoctrinate the Safety/Service

patrol operators into these good practices as well as Agency formal Standard Operating Guidelines or Procedures. Traffic Incident Management Handbook Citation. Traffic Incident Management Handbook, FHWA, 2010. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/publications/timhandbook/index.htm Synopsis. The Traffic Incident Management Handbook (TIM) (the Handbook or TIM Handbook) includes the latest advances in TIM programs and practices across the country, and offers practitioners insights into the latest innovations in TIM tools and technologies. Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Report Citation. Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Report, US Department of Justice, 2009. Available: https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/fa_323.pdf Synopsis. The study report highlights the results of a U.S. Department of Justice - National Institute of Justice (NIJ) supported project intended to enhance emergency vehicle and roadway operations safety for firefighters, law enforcement officers, and other emergency responders. This report discusses best practices in emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity, including cutting edge international efforts. It covers retroreflective striping and chevrons, high-visibility paint, built-in passive light, and other reflectors for law enforcement patrol vehicles, fire apparatus, ambulances and other EMS vehicles, and motorcycles. National Preparedness and National Planning Frameworks The federal government requires State DOTs to incorporate principles and concepts of national initiatives that provide common approaches to incident management and response in emergency response plans and operations. National initiatives include the National Response Framework (NRF) with its designated emergency support functions (ESFs) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS) with its protocols for multiagency interaction and communication. State and local NIMS compliance is a prerequisite for federal preparedness funds. The National Disaster Recovery Framework includes designated recovery support functions (RSFs). Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (2011) http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/presidential-policy-directive-8-national-preparedness.pdf National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2015, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1443624338930- 32e9ed3ac6cf8e95d7d463ed9b9685df/NationalPreparednessGoal_InformationSheet_2015.pdf Synopsis. The 2011 National Preparedness Goal was updated in 2015. The key changes are described in the National Preparedness Goal, Second Edition – What’s New Fact Sheet. The National Preparedness Goal itself has not changed:

“A secure and resilient nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.” The following changes were made to the National Preparedness Goal document: • Introduction: Language added to stress the importance of community preparedness and resilience. • Risk and the Core Capabilities: Enhanced items on cybersecurity and climate change. • Preliminary Targets: Updated preliminary targets. • New Core Capability: A new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression, was added. • Core Capability Titles: Revised the following core capability titles: o Threats and Hazard Identification (Mitigation) – revised to Threats and Hazards Identification; o Public and Private Services and Resources (Response) – revised to Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On- scene Security and Protection (Response) – revised to On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health and Medical Services (Response) – revised to Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. • Core Capability Definitions: Several of the core capability definitions were revised. Overview of the National Planning Frameworks (2013) http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1914-25045- 2057/final_overview_of_national_planning_frameworks_20130501.pdf National Planning Frameworks: • National Prevention Framework • National Protection Framework • National Mitigation Framework • National Response Framework • National Disaster Recovery Framework National Prevention Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Prevention Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466011024787- 91b8e49bf7344dd6dadca441c26272ad/InformationSheet_Prevention_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Prevention Framework focuses on terrorism and addresses the capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop imminent threats or attacks. Some core capabilities overlap with the Protection mission area. The updates include edits to the Nation Preparedness Goal, and lessons learned. Other edits include: “Updates to Coordinating Structure language on Joint Operations Centers and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative. Clarification on the relationship and differences between the Prevention and Protection mission areas. Updated language on the National Terrorism Advisory System

(NTAS) as part of the Public Information and Warning core capability. Additional language on science and technology investments within the prevention mission area.” National Protection Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Protection Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466013587164- 86696df20638bbf24e25d70070eda114/InformationSheet_Protection_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Protection Framework focuses on “actions to deter threats, reduce vulnerabilities, and minimize the consequences associated with an incident.” The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. In addition, the following changes have been made: “Updated Cybersecurity Core Capability Critical Tasks to align with the Mitigation, Response, and Recovery Mission Areas. Additional language on science and technology investments to protect against emerging vulnerabilities are included within the protection mission area. Additional language on interagency coordination within the protection mission area to support the decision-making processes outlined within the framework.” National Mitigation Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Mitigation Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466014552462- 1b78d1a577324a66c4eb84b936c68f16/InformationSheet_Mitigation_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Mitigation Framework covers the capabilities necessary to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the effects of disasters, and focuses on risk (understanding and reducing it), resilience (helping communities recover quickly and effectively after disasters), and a culture of preparedness. The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned including a revised core capability title, Threats and Hazards Identification. In addition, the following changes have been made: “Additional language on science and technology efforts to reduce risk and analyze vulnerabilities within the mitigation mission area. Updates on the Mitigation Framework Leadership Group (MitFLG), which is now operational. Updates to the Community Resilience core capability definition to promote preparedness activities among individuals, households and families.” National Response Framework, Third Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Response Framework, Third Edition – Information Sheet,” Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-

data/1466014891281- 6e7f60ceaf0be5a937ab2ed0eae0672d/InformationSheet_Response_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The NRF is aligned with NIMS and provides capabilities to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs. Response activities occur before, during, and after an incident and can overlap with the start of Recovery activities. The following changes were made to the Framework: • The addition of a new core capability, Fire Management and Suppression. • Three revised core capability titles o Logistics and Supply Chain Management; o On-scene Security, Protection, and Law Enforcement; and o Public Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Medical Services. • Three revised core capability definitions o Environmental Response/ Health and Safety; o Fatality Management Services; and o Logistics and Supply Chain Management. National Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet Citation. “National Disaster Recovery Framework, Second Edition – Information Sheet,” Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, DC, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.fema.gov/media- library-data/1466017528262- 73651ed433ccfe080bed88014ac397cf/InformationSheet_Recovery_Framework.pdf Synopsis. The National Disaster Recovery Framework describes “how the whole community works together to restore, redevelop, and revitalize the health, social, economic, natural, and environmental fabric of the community.” The new Framework incorporates the edits to the National Preparedness Goal and new lessons learned. Additional changes made to the Framework include “Increased focus on Recovery’s relationship with the other four mission areas. Updated Recovery Support Functions (RSFs) to reflect changes in Primary Agencies and Supporting Organizations. Additional language on science and technology capabilities and investments for the rebuilding and recovery efforts.” Resilience Resilience is “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events” (Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, National Research Council 2012). The National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC), a presidential advisory council, conducted a study on resilience that was published under the title Critical Infrastructure Resilience, Final Report and Recommendations (2009). NIAC defines infrastructure resilience as the “ability to reduce the magnitude and/or duration of disruptive events”.

In the context of transportation systems, increasing the resilience of transportation networks could include adaptations or elements that can be incorporated into the planning and design of specific asset types. For example, TRB Report 750: Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, And The Highway System: Practitioner’s Guide And Research Report provided specific guidance on potential adaptions for bridges, culverts, storm water infrastructure, slopes/walls, and pavement in light of extreme weather events. The most recent transportation reauthorization legislation, titled “Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act” or the “FAST Act”, became public law on December 4, 2015 and includes, in SEC. 1201. Metropolitan Transportation Planning, an addition to Title 23 US Code Section 23 requiring MPOs to consider investments that “improve the resiliency and reliability of the transportation system and reduce or mitigate stormwater impacts of surface transportation.” Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative Citation. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, The National Academies, 2012. Available: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13457/disaster-resilience-a-national-imperative Synopsis. Resilience is defined in this report as “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events.” It provides a discussion of how to increase the nation’s resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year 2030. Systems Resilience and Climate Change Citation. Systems Resilience and Climate Change, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Volume 2532, 2015. Available: http://trrjournalonline.trb.org/toc/trr/2532 Synopsis.This edition of TRB’s Transportation Research Record includes 18 papers that examine resilience and climate change issues related to transportation: • Roadmaps for Adaptation Measures of Transportation to Climate Change. • Resilience Versus Risk: Assessing Cost of Climate Change Adaptation to California’s Transportation System and the City of Sacramento, California. • Barriers to Implementation of Climate Adaptation Frameworks by State Departments of Transportation. • Resilience of Coastal Transportation Networks Faced with Extreme Climatic Events • Analysis of Transportation Network Vulnerability Under Flooding Disasters • Vulnerability Evaluation of Logistics Transportation Networks Under Seismic Disasters • Integrating Stochastic Failure of Road Network and Road Recovery Strategy into Planning of Goods Distribution After a Large-Scale Earthquake • Multimodal Transit Connectivity for Flexibility in Extreme Events • Risk and Resilience Analysis for Emergency Projects • Unmanned Aircraft Systems Used for Disaster Management • Multimodal Evacuation Simulation and Scenario Analysis in Dense Urban Area: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Case Study • Spatiotemporal Population Distribution Method for Emergency Evacuation: Case Study of New Orleans, Louisiana

• Joint Evacuation and Emergency Traffic Management Model with Consideration of Emergency Response Needs • Supporting Mobility-Impaired Populations in Emergency Evacuations • Agent-Based Evacuation Model Considering Field Effects and Government Advice • Selecting Four-Leg Intersections for Crossing Elimination in Evacuations • Using Dynamic Flashing Yellow for Traffic Signal Control Under Emergency Evacuation • Hurricane Evacuation Route Choice of Major Bridges in Miami Beach, Florida Resilience: Key Products and Projects Citation. Resilience: Key Products and Projects, TRB, updated monthly. Available: http://www.trb.org/SecurityEmergencies/Blurbs/166648.aspx. Synopsis. Updated monthly, this presentation is a slideshow summary of the Transportation Research transportation security and resilience activities. These cross the main areas of TRB inquiry (freight, transit, highways and airports). Fundamental Capabilities of Effective All Hazards Infrastructure Protection, Resilience and Emergency Management for State DOTs Citation: Fundamental Capabilities of Effective All Hazards Infrastructure Protection, Resilience and Emergency Management for State DOTs, AASHTO, 2015. Available: http://scotsem.transportation.org/Documents/SCOTSEM/Fundamental%20Capabilities%20of%20Effecti ve.pdf Synopsis. A Guide prepared to assist State DOTs understand the fundamentals of preventing incidents within their control, protect transportation users, supporting other responders, recover from incidents and evaluate responses. It also introduces concepts supporting resilience programs. This is an update to the 2007 publication Fundamentals of Effective All-Hazards Security Management for State DOTs. Integrating Hazard Mitigation and Comprehensive Planning Workshop Citation. Integrating Hazard Mitigation and Comprehensive Planning Workshop, Philadelphia, PA, April 25, 2016. Available: http://www.dvrpc.org/Resiliency/HMP/pdf/2016-04-25_Workshop_Summary.pdf Synopsis. The workshop emphasized the important relationship between land use planning and hazard mitigation, noting that how we design, build, and regulate our communities impacts their ability to withstand hazards. Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters Citation. Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters, Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. Available: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/PGA/COSEPUP/nationalresilience/index.htm Synopsis. The ad hoc committee conducted a study and issued a consensus report that integrates information from the natural, physical, technical, economic and social sciences to identify ways in which to increase national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. The ad hoc committee report:

• Defines “national resilience” and frames the primary issues related to increasing national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. • Provides goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for resilience at the U.S. national level. • Describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. • Outlines additional information or data and gaps and obstacles to action that need to be addressed in order to increase resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. • Presents conclusions and recommendations about what approaches are needed to elevate national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States. Crisis Response and Disaster Resilience 2030: Forging Strategic Actio