COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH
DONNA F.ALLEN (FNB Staff, Project Assistant) is the Project Assistant for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research. Mrs. Allen is a practiced meeting coordinator, and has acquired over twenty years of administrative, supervisory, and logistics experience in business administration, and computer science. Prior to coming to the Institute of Medicine, she was the Administration Assistant to the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council and has supported several other committees in her twelve years of service at the National Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Allen is working towards her degree in Business Administration.
RICHARD L.ATKINSON is Professor of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences; Chief, Section of Clinical Nutrition; and Director, Beers Clinical Nutrition Center at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Prior to this appointment he was the Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Chief, Division of Clinical Nutrition at the Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. He also has been on the faculty of the University of Virginia and the
University of California, Davis. He served four years in the Army at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, in Washington, D.C., and at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, as Division Surgeon of the 101st Airborne Division and Chief of Medicine at the Fort Campbell Army Hospital. Dr. Atkinson is on the editorial board of the International Journal of Obesity and Obesity Research. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Society for Clinical Nutrition (ASCN), American Institute of Nutrition, American College of Physicians, the Endocrine Society, and the North American Society for the Study of Obesity (NASSO). He was the President of NASSO (1990–1991) and is the current President of ASCN (1994–1995). In addition, he is Chair of the NIH Nutrition Study Section (1993–1995). After graduating from the Virginia Military Institute, Dr. Atkinson received his M.D. from the Medical College of Virginia, where he served a Medicine Internship. He served a Medicine Residency and an Endocrine-Metabolism Fellowship at Harbor General-UCLA Hospital in Torrance, California.
WILLIAM R.BEISEL for the past 8 years has been a semi-retired Adjunct Professor at The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He was initially a career Army physician. After specialty training in Internal Medicine, wartime service in Korea, and a tour as Chief of Medicine at Fort Leonard Wood, he joined Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) and Walter Reed Army Hospital. He became Chief of Enlisted Medicine and the Metabolic Research Department. In that capacity he led a WRAIR team to initiate cholera research in Thailand. He later joined U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases to study metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects of infection, work culminating in his discovery of Interleukin-1 and its metabolic actions. These efforts also allowed him to play a pioneering role in the field of nutritional immunology. He has been a long-term member (or chairman) of committees of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the National Institutes of Health, the Veterans Administration, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and an editorial board member of three nutritional journals.
VALERIE McC.BREEN (FNB Staff, Research Assistant) is Research Assistant for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C. She received a bachelor of science degree with high scholastic achievement in biological and physical sciences from Indiana University. Before coming to the Institute of Medicine, she was on a three year diplomatic assignment in Paris, France.
GAIL E.BUTTERFIELD is the Director of Nutrition Studies at the Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center of the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Center in California. Concurrently, she is a Lecturer in the Department of Medicine at Stanford University Medical School and a Consulting Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Biology at Stanford University. Her previous academic appointments were in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the University of California-Berkeley, including Director of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics, and Assistant Professor and Assistant Nutritionist for the Agricultural Experiment Station. Dr. Butterfield belongs to the American Institute of Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Physiological Society. As a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, she serves on the Position Stands Committee, the Editorial Board for Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, and the Board of Trustees. She also was the Past President and Executive Director of the Southwest Chapter of that organization and an Ad Hoc Member for the Respiratory and Applied Physiology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Butterfield received her A.B. in biological sciences, M.A. in anatomy, and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California-Berkeley. She is also a registered dietitian and an active member of the Sports and Cardiovascular Nutritionists (SCAN) of the American Dietetic Association.
JOHANNA T.DWYER (Food and Nutrition Board, Liaison) is Professor of Medicine and Community Health at Tufts University School of Medicine and also at the Tufts School of Nutrition. She is also Senior Scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts. She holds the D.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health. Research interests include energy balance, dietary aspects of disease, and special physiological stresses and diet.
JOHN D.FERNSTROM is Professor of Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Behavioral Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; and Director, Basic Neuroendocrinology Program, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.
Dr. Fernstrom graduated in 1969 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), Cambridge Massachusetts, with an S.B. degree in biology, and obtained his Ph.D. degree in nutritional biochemistry in 1972, also from M.I.T. He was a post-doctoral fellow in neuroendocrinology at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology (Nutley, New Jersey). Before coming to the University of Pittsburgh, Dr. Fernstrom was an Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at M.I.T.
Dr. Fernstrom has served on numerous governmental advisory committees, and is presently a member of the National Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, and is chairman of the Neurosciences Section of the American Institute of Nutrition. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Physiological Society, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Society for Neurochemistry, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Endocrine Society.
Among other awards, Dr. Fernstrom received the Mead-Johnson Award of the American Institute of Nutrition, a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Wellcome Visiting Professorship in the Basic Medical Sciences, and an Alfred P.Sloan Fellowship in Neurochemistry. His current major research interest concerns the influence of the diet and drugs on the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
JOEL A.GRINKER is currently a Professor in the Human Nutrition Program, School of Public Health, a professor in Pediatrics at the Medical School, and a member of the Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan. She received a Ph.D. in experimental social psychology from New York University and was the recipient of a Russell Sage Foundation Fellowship at the Rockefeller University in biochemistry, biology, and behavior. After 15 years at Rockefeller University in the laboratory of Human Behavior and Metabolism, she moved to the University of Michigan to become Chair of the Program in Human Nutrition. Major areas of interest are in obesity, specifically the development and maintenance of obesity through the life span.
G.RICHARD JANSEN is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Science and formerly Head of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University. His Ph.D. in biochemistry was from Cornell University. His research interests deal primarily with protein nutrition, and he has co-authored a book on diet and health issues. Prior to his appointment at Colorado State, he was a research fellow at the Merck Institute. He served in the United States Air Force from 1950 to 1953.
ORVILLE A.LEVANDER is the Acting Research Leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. Previously, he was a Research Chemist at the USDA’s Human Nutrition Research Center, a Resident Fellow in biochemistry at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, and a Research
Associate at Harvard University’s School of Public Health. Dr. Levander’s prior Food and Nutrition Board involvement was on the Committee on the Dietary Allowances. He also served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Animal Nutrition, the Committee on the Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants, and the Safe Drinking Water Committee’s Subcommittee on Nutrition. His was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Nutrition Scientists and temporary advisor to the World Health Organization’s Environmental Health Criteria Document on Selenium. Dr. Levander’s former academic appointments include being a William Evans visiting fellow at the University of Otago in New Zealand, a traveling fellow for the Danish Medical Research Council, and a Burroughs Wellcome visiting professor of nutrition at Oregon State University. Additionally, he was awarded the Osborne and Mendel Award for the American Institute of Nutrition. His society memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, American Chemical Society, and American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dr. Levander received his B.A. from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
GILBERT A.LEVEILLE is Vice President of Research and Technical Services for Nabisco Brands, Inc. Prior to joining Nabisco in 1986 he was Director of Nutrition and Health for General Foods, and from 1971 to 1980 was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. He holds a Ph.D. in nutrition and biochemistry from Rutgers University. His areas of research interest include carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, obesity, and metabolic adaptations to diet.
BERNADETTE M.MARRIOTT (FNB Staff, Program Director) is Program Director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. She has a Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and B.Sc. degree in biochemistry/immunology and post doctoral laboratory experience in trace mineral nutrition. Prior to joining the Institute of Medicine staff, she held university and medical school faculty positions at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Puerto Rico Schools of Medicine, and Goucher College. Her areas of research interest include bioenergetic modeling and social influences of food selection in human and nonhuman primates.
ROBERT O.NESHEIM (Committee Chairman) He retired as Vice President, Science and Technology, for the Quaker Oats Company, Chicago, Illinois, in 1983, and in 1991, as President of Advanced HealthCare, Monterey, California. He earned a Ph.D. degree in nutrition from the University of Illinois and has had extensive experience in research management. He has been
involved in food and nutrition issues for many years, serving on many national committees, including the Food and Nutrition Board and the Food Advisory Committee, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition.
JOHN E.VANDERVEEN is the Director of the Food and Drug Administration’s Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages in Washington, D.C. His previous position at the FDA was Director of the Division of Nutrition, at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He also served in various capacities at the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has received accolades for service from the FDA and the USAF. Dr. Vanderveen is a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Institute of Nutrition, Aerospace Medical Association, American Dairy Science Association, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Chemical Society. In the past, he was the treasurer of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and a member of the Institute of Food Technology, National Academy of Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Vanderveen holds a B.S. in agriculture from Rutgers University, New Jersey and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire.
ALLISON A.YATES is Dean of the College of Health and Human Sciences at the University of Southern Mississippi and associate professor of foods and nutrition. She has a Ph.D. degree in nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley, and an M.S. in Public Health from UCLA, and is a registered dietitian. She currently serves as Project Director for the Division of Applied Research of the National Food Service Management Institute. Her areas of expertise are in food habits, diet composition, and protein and energy interrelationships.
STEPHEN T.AHLERS is the Head of the Neurochemistry Division, Thermal Stress Adaptation Program of the Naval Medical Research Institute. He received his Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Kent State University in 1987 and has served as a Commissioned Naval Officer at the Institute since he obtained his doctorate degree. For the last ten years his research has focused on the effects of thermal stress on learning and memory. In addition to an extensive research effort on the behavioral effects of exposure to thermal stress and pharmacological strategies to alleviate stress-induced cognitive
deficits, he has developed technologies to examine the affects of stress on neurochemical and neurophysiological changes in the central nervous system.
ELDON W.ASKEW is a U.S. Army Medical Service Corps Officer and Chief of the Military Nutrition Division of the Occupational Health and Performance Directorate, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. He received a Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the Institute of Nutrition, Michigan State University, in 1970. He has spent most of his career in research assignments in the Army Medical Department; assignments include the U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory, Denver, Colorado; Letterman Army Institute of Research, Presidio of San Francisco, California; Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii; and most recently to the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, where he is Chief of Military Nutrition Research. His research during his career in the U.S. Army Medical Department has involved the study of biochemical adaptations to exercise training, the role of nutrition in physical performance, assessment of nutritional status, and nutrition for environmental extremes. He and his staff have conducted cold weather and high altitude nutrition research studies in Alaska, and on Mt. Ranier, Mauna Kea, Pikes Peak, and the Bolivian Altiplano. He is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Institute of Nutrition, the Association of Military Surgeons, the International Society for Mountain Medicine, and the Wilderness Medical Society. He is a member of the Nutrition Advisory Panel to the United States Olympic Committee.
THOMAS BALKIN is the Chief of the Psychopharmacology Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He earned his Ph.D. degree in Experimental Psychology from the Bowling Green State University. His research interests include sleep, the psychopharmacology of sleep-induction, and cerebral blood flow during sleep.
GREGORY BELENKY is Chief of the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He earned his M.D. degree from Stanford University. He is clinically trained as a psychiatrist. His research interest include sleep and sleep deprivation, and combat psychiatry.
PEGGY R.BORUM is currently a Professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Florida. She received a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Tennessee. After 11 years at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in the Department of Biochemistry, she moved to the University of
Florida to continue her research in metabolic assessment and nutritional support of populations with special nutrient needs.
C.PATRICK DUNNE is a Senior Research Chemist in the Ration Systems Division, Sustainability Directorate, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center in Natick, Massachusetts. He earned the Ph.D. degree in biochemistry at Brandeis University. His research specialties are vitamin chemistry, enzymology, and physical biochemistry. Current research is focused on the design and development of nutrient-dense rations and on mechanisms of new nonthermal food processing technologies.
CYNTHIA GALINSKI is a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Indiana School of Medicine. She was previously a Research Assistant in the Continuous Operations Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. She earned her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from The Catholic University. Her research interests include marital conflict and family dynamics.
CAROL E.GREENWOOD is an Associate Professor of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Toronto’s Faculty of Medicine. She received her Ph.D. in 1980 from the University of Toronto and spent the next two years at the Laboratory for Neuroendocrine Control at MIT before returning to Toronto. She was a member of the Scientific Review Committee for Health and Welfare Canada that developed the recent Nutrition Recommendations. Her research interests focus on the inter-relationships among diet, brain biochemistry and behavior, especially as they relate to amino acid and fatty acid utilization in the brain and the impact of brain aging on these processes.
JOHN L.IVY is Professor and Director of the Exercise Science Laboratories, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education and Professor, Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. He received his Ph.D. in exercise physiology from the University of Maryland and his post doctoral training at Ball State University and Washington University School of Medicine. His major research focus is on the acute and chronic effects of exercise on muscle metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate regulation. Currently, Dr. Ivy is investigating the regulation of insulin- and contraction-stimulated muscle glucose transport, the etiology of muscle insulin resistance, and the mechanisms by which insulin resistance is reduced with exercise training. He is also investigating the regulation of muscle glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis during and immediately post exercise.
RONALD J.JANDACEK is a Principal Scientist at Procter and Gamble’s Miami Valley Laboratories in Cincinnati. After receiving a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Texas in 1968, he joined Procter and Gamble where he has studied the physical properties and biological effects of lipids. His work has focused on the relationship of the phases of lipids with their absorption from the intestine.
F.MATTHEW KRAMER is currently a Research Psychologist at the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. He received a Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from the Pennsylvania State University, and completed postdoctoral work at the University of Minnesota and the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Kramer’s interests focus on understanding human food habits, that is, the factors underlying food selection, intake, and acceptability.
JOHN LEU is a Staff Officer in the Headquarters of the United States Army Medical Research and Development Command. He was previously a Research Psychologist in the Special Studies Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He earned his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the University of Nebraska. His research interests include continuous operation, sleep and sleep deprivation, and biomedical monitoring.
HARRIS R.LIEBERMAN is currently a Research Psychologist in the Division of Military Performance and Neuroscience at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) in Natick, Massachusetts. He directs a research program that examines the effects of various food constituents, drugs, hormones and environmental variables on brain function and behavior. Dr. Lieberman is an internationally recognized expert in the area of nutrition and behavior and has published over 60 original, full length scientific papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, government research laboratories and universities.
Dr. Lieberman received his Ph.D. in physiological psychology in 1977 from the University of Florida. Upon completing his graduate training he was awarded a National Eye Institute fellowship to conduct postdoctoral research at the Department of Psychology and Brain Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
In 1980 Dr. Lieberman established an interdisciplinary research program at the MIT Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences to examine the effects of various food constituents on human behavior and brain function. Key accomplishments of the laboratory included the development of appropriate
methods for assessing the effects of food constituents and other subtle environmental factors on human brain function and the determination that specific foods and hormones reliably altered human behavior. In 1990 Dr. Lieberman joined the civilian research staff of USARIEM where he has continued his work in nutrition and behavior as well as several other related areas.
TIMOTHY J.MAHER is Professor of Pharmacology at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences. He is also on the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His area of research involves the ability of amino acids to serve as precursors for neurotransmitters, and their utility as pharmacologic agents in the treatment of disease. He served as a member of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Life Sciences Research Office’s ad hoc Expert Panel which investigated the safety of amino acids as dietary supplements for the Food and Drug Administration.
UNA MCCANN is a Research Psychiatrist in the Section on Anxiety and Affective Disorders in the National Institute of Mental Health. She earned her M.D. degree from Duke University. She is clinically trained as a psychiatrist. Her research interests include affective disorders, sleep, and human psychopharmacology.
HERBERT L.MEISELMAN is Senior Research Scientist (Behavior and Performance) at the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. His research interests include consumer and sensory research related to product development, field research, food habits and nutrition, and human factors, with emphasis on individual performance and product/system design. Dr. Meiselman served previously as Special Assistant for the Department of Defense Food Program and as Chief, Behavioral Sciences Division. He is Editor of the journal Food Quality and Preference. He earned his doctorate from the University of Massachusetts (1967, psychology) and worked as a postdoctoral fellow at Cornell University (1967–69, neurobiology/psychology) under National Science Foundation fellowships.
DAVID M.PENETAR is a Research Psychologist in the U.S. Army. He received his Ph.D. in psychopharmacology from the University of Minnesota in 1977 and has been involved in the assessment of sleep deprivation effects at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research since 1987.
REGINA PINGITORE is Health Science Officer at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, North Chicago and an adjunct faculty member in the
Department of Psychology at University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School. She earned her Ph.D. in social psychology from Loyola University of Chicago and her M.A. in clinical psychology from Edinboro University of Pennsylvania. She is a member of the American Psychological Association and the Society of Behavioral Medicine. Her research focuses on two primary interests: obesity and smoking cessation.
KATHRYN POPP is a Research Psychologist in the Continuous Operations Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. She earned her Ph.D. in psychology from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Her research interests include continuous operations, sleep and sleep deprivation, and biomedical monitoring.
DANIEL REDMOND is Chief of the Special Studies Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He earned his M.D. degree from University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School. He is clinically trained as an internist. His research interests include continuous operations and biomedical engineering.
ALINE SCHELLING is a Research Assistant with Health Information Designs, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia. She was previously a Research Assistant in the Continuous Operations Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. She earned her B.A. degree from Chatham College.
JEN SCHOENFELD is a Graduate Student in the clinical psychology Ph.D. program at the University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School. She earned a B.A. with high honors from Emory University. She is a graduate student member of the American Psychological Association. Her research interests include nutrition and behavior.
JOHN SCHROT is a Research Psychologist and Head, of the Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Thermal Stress Adaptation Program of the Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. His areas of specialty include operant conditioning, behavioral effects of thermal stress and the pathophysiology of non-freezing cold injury.
DAVID SHURTLEFF is a Research Psychologist at the Naval Medical Research Institute. He received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from The American University in 1989. His areas of expertise include the experimental analysis of behavior and behavioral pharmacology. His current research
focuses on the effects of thermal stressors on behavior and cognitive performance.
HELEN SING is a Statistician in the Continuous Operations Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. She earned her M.S. in physical chemistry from the University of Maryland, College Park. Her research interests include sleep, sleep deprivation, continuous operations, circadian rhythms, and cerebral metabolism during sleep deprivation.
BONNIE J.SPRING is Professor of Psychology at University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School and Health Sciences Officer at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, North Chicago. She earned her Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University, completed a clinical internship at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center, served as Director of Clinical Training at Texas Tech University, and has held faculty appointments at Harvard University, Columbia University, University of Maryland, and M.I.T. An elected Fellow of the American Psychological Association in Clinical Psychology and Health Psychology, she also holds the Diplomate in Health Psychology, awarded by the American Board of Professional Psychology, and serves as Field Editor for the international journal, Psychopharmacology. Her research has been concentrated in two primary areas: psychopathology, and nutrition and behavior.
IRWIN A.TAUB is a Senior Research Scientist at the U.S. Army Natick Research Development and Engineering Center. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Minnesota in 1961, and was a Resident Research Associate at Argonne National Laboratory and a Research Fellow at the Mellon Institute of Carnegie-Mellon University before becoming involved in food research at Natick. His broad range of scientific experience covers radiation phenomena, chemical kinetics, food chemistry, preservation technologies, food structure, and nutritional tailoring. He is currently coordinating efforts to formulate ration components to contain performance-enhancing natural ingredients.
JOHN R.THOMAS is Director of the Thermal Adaptation Stress program, Naval Medical Research Institute. He earned his Ph.D. degree in physiological psychology and pharmacology at the University of Maryland. He has over thirty years of experience in research concerned with the effects of pharmacological agents on behavior and physiology and effects of extreme environmental influences, such as hypobaric, hyperbaric, electromagnetic, toxicological, and thermal environments, on performance. Research efforts in
cold weather medicine over the last several years have focussed on the study and understanding of the impact of cold environments on degradation of performance and the development of technologies, such as pharmacological and nutritional supplementation, for the prevention of performance degradations.
MARIA THOMAS is the Chief of the Continuous Operations Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. She is earning her Ph.D. in psychology at George Mason University and has completed all but her dissertation. Her research interests include sleep, sleep deprivation, continuous operations, and cerebral metabolism during sleep deprivation.
DAVID THORNE is a Research Psychologist in the Continuous Operations Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He earned his Ph.D. degree in Psychology at Arizona State University. His research interests include sleep, sleep deprivation, and the measurement of human performance.
JAMES A.VOGEL is Director of Occupational Health and Performance, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, which encompasses research programs in occupational medicine, occupational physiology, nutrition and behavioral performance-neuroscience. He earned a Ph.D. degree in physiology from Rutgers University. He is the principal consultant to the Department of the Army in the biomedical aspects of physical fitness and exercise physiology and chairs a NATO Research Study Group on the Biomedical Aspects of Military Physical Training.
NANCY WESENSTEN is a Research Psychologist in the Psychopharmacology Branch in the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. She earned her Ph.D. degree in experimental psychology from Bowling Green State University. Her research interests include sleep, the psychopharmacology of sleep induction, and cerebral blood flow during sleep.
RICHARD J.WURTMAN is Professor of Neuroscience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Director of MIT’s Clinical Research center. His laboratory initially demonstrated that the rates at which neurons in the brain and elsewhere synthesize such neurotransmitters as serotonin, acetylcholine, and the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine normally depend on the concentrations of their precursors (tryptophan; choline; tyrosine) that happen to be available. Since brain levels of these precursors can be
affected by eating, food consumption can thus influence neurotransmission. These relationships, and their implications in health and disease, are considered in an eight-volume series, Nutrition and the Brain, edited by Drs. Richard and Judith Wurtman, and in perhaps half of his laboratory’s output of approximately 850 research publications. Other topics explored by this laboratory have included melatonin and biologic rhythms; neuroendocrinology; Alzheimer’s Disease; and phospholipid metabolism.
STEVEN H.ZEISEL is Professor and Chair, Department of Nutrition; and Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He received his M.D. from Harvard University, and his Ph.D. in Neuroendocrine Regulation/Nutrition from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Zeisel’s research focuses on nutrient metabolism, with special emphasis on establishing human nutrient requirements and on identifying cancer-causing agents which are produced within our bodies. His work has focused on the nutrient choline as it relates to: a) transmembrane signal transduction (diacylglycerol and protein kinase) and carcinogenesis in liver, b) perinatal brain development, c) human nutrient requirements, and d) choline and secretion of components of milk by isolated mammary epithelial cells.
Dr. Zeisel is a member of the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, American College of Nutrition, Society for Pediatric Research, and American Public Health Association. He serves on the governing council of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, on the Medical Education Committee and the Joint Membership Committee of the American Institute of Nutrition/American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dr. Zeisel is the Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.