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THE LATE CRETACEOUS AND CENOZOIC HISTORY OF VEGETATION AND CLIMATE AT NORTHERN AND 169 SOUTHERN HIGH LATITUDES: A COMPARISON southward migration of many taxa and permanent disappearance from high latitudes of mesothermal forms. Superimposed on the poleward and equatorward migrations with warming or cooling trends were significant vegetational changes such as the increase of Pinaceae and Salicaceae in high latitudes and development of an evergreen, mixed conifer forest community (including Pinus, Picea, and Tsuga). During the final cooling stages, the taiga forest community developed and, subsequently, the tundra. Possible Future Changes Geological evidence such as that presented here shows that at times of global warmth, plant productivity and carbon sequestering are high in both Arctic and Antarctic regions. Should there be a future increase in mean global temperature, tundra will be replaced by conifer forest, which in continental interiors may well retain an evergreen component. However in coastal settings, where winter temperatures are likely to be ameliorated by the ocean, deciduous conifers and angiosperms are likely to fare better. This has profound implications for future forestry. Understanding the structure and dynamics of polar forests, by using the past natural systems as models, underscores the value of polar paleobotanical studies and provides a blueprint for engineered high latitude ecosystems designed for carbon capture. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This review is largely based on a presentation at a symposium, arranged by the Geophysics Study Committee, at the 1990 annual meeting of Geological Society of America. We appreciate the helpful comments of our reviewers, Drs. Charles J. Smiley and Thomas N. Taylor, and Stephen R. Jacobson for an earlier review. R.A.A gratefully acknowledges support of a National Science Foundation grant (DPP 9019378), and R.A.S. the support of a NERC grant (GR3/7939). REFERENCES Archangelsky, S. (1980). 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