National Academies Press: OpenBook

Effects of Past Global Change on Life (1995)


Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
Page 133

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NEOGENE ICE AGE IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC REGION: CLIMATIC CHANGES, BIOTIC EFFECTS, AND FORCING 131 FACTORS ever, that changes in geography are insufficient to account for general climatic cooling during the late Neogene time. A trend of decreasing atmospheric CO2 is the most likely cause of long-term climatic cooling. Spreading rates at midocean ridges have not changed enough during the past 30 m.y. to have been the primary factor. A likely cause is elevation of mountains and plateaus, which increased rates of CO2 uptake by weathering. Since extensive sea ice and glaciers first formed at high latitudes, changes in the Earth's orbital behavior have caused their volumes to oscillate periodically and further influence climate. REFERENCES Axelrod, D. I. (1950). Evolution of desert vegetation in western North America, in Studies in Late Tertiary Paleobotany, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 590, pp. 217-306. Axelrod, D. I. (1966). 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The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the last 100 million years, American Journal of Science 283, 641-683. Bonnefille, R. (1976). Palynological evidence for an important change in the vegetation of the Omo basin between 2.5 and 2 million years ago, in Earliest Man and Environments in Lake Rudolf Basin, Y. Coppens, F. C. Howell, G. L. Isaac, and R. E. F. Leakey, eds., University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 421-431. Bonnefille, R. (1985). Evolution of the continental vegetation: The palaeobotanical record from East Africa, South African Journal of Science 81, 267-270. Boyle, E. A., and L. D. Keigwin (1985). Comparison of Atlantic and Pacific paleochemical records for the last 215,000 years: Changes in deep ocean circulation and chemical inventories, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 76, 135-150. Broecker, W. S., and T.-H. Peng (1989). 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NEOGENE ICE AGE IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC REGION: CLIMATIC CHANGES, BIOTIC EFFECTS, AND FORCING 132 FACTORS Jansen, E. U., Bleil, R. Henrich, L. Kringstad, and B. Slettemark (1988). Paleoenvironmental changes in the Norwegian Sea and the northeast Atlantic during the last 2.8 m.y.: Deep-Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program sites 610, 642, 643, and 644, Paleoceanography 3, 563-581. Keigwin, L. D. (1978). Pliocene closing of the Isthmus of Panama, based on biostratigraphic evidence from nearby Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea cores, Geology 6, 630-634. Keigwin, L. D. (1982). Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and East Pacific: Role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time, Science 217, 350-353. Keigwin, L. D., and R. C. Thunell (1979). Middle Pliocene climatic change in western Mediterranean from faunal and oxygen isotopic trends, Nature 282, 294-296. Kukla, G. (1977). Pleistocene land-sea correlations, Earth-Science Reviews 13, 307-374. Kukla, G. (1987). 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Leopold, E. B., and M. F. Denton (1987). Comparative age of grasslands and steppe east and west of the northern Rocky Mountains, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 74, 841-867. Maier-Reimer, E., U. Mikolajewica, and T. Crowley (1990). Ocean general circulation model sensitivity experiment with an open Central American Isthmus, Paleoceanography 5, 349-366. Manabe, S., and A. J. Broccoli (1985). The influence of continental ice sheets on the climate of an ice age, Journal of Geophysical Research 90, 2167-2190. Mankinen, E. A., and G. B. Dalrymple (1979). Revised geomagnetic polarity time scale for the interval 0-5 m.y. B.P., Journal of Geophysical Research 84, 615-626. Marasti, R., and S. Raffi (1979). Observations on the paleoclimatic and biogeographic meaning of the Mediterranean Pliocene molluscs, state of the problem, VII International Congress on the Mediterranean Neogene, Athens, Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén Tome Hors Série 1979 2, 727-734. McDougall, I., and H. Wensink (1966). 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Fission-track dating of Haughton Astrobleme and included biota, Devon Island, Canada, Science 231, 1603-1605. Prell, W. L. (1984). Covariance patterns of foraminiferal δ18O: An evaluation of Pliocene ice volume changes near 3.2 million years ago, Science 226, 692-694. Prell, W. L., and J. D. Hays (1976). Late Pleistocene faunal and temperature patterns of the Columbia Basin, Caribbean Sea, Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 201-220. Rachelle, L. O. (1976). Palynology of the Lexler Lignite: A deposit in the Tertiary Cohansey Formation of New Jersey, U.S.A., Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 22, 225-252. Raffi, S., S. M. Stanley, and R. Marasti (1985). Biogeographic patterns and Plio-Pleistocene extinction of Bivalvia in the Mediterranean and southern North Sea , Paleobiology 11, 368-388. Raymo, M. E. (1994). The initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 22, 353-383. Raymo, M. E., and W. F. Ruddiman (1992). 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What can we expect as global change progresses? Will there be thresholds that trigger sudden shifts in environmental conditions—or that cause catastrophic destruction of life?

Effects of Past Global Change on Life explores what earth scientists are learning about the impact of large-scale environmental changes on ancient life—and how these findings may help us resolve today's environmental controversies.

Leading authorities discuss historical climate trends and what can be learned from the mass extinctions and other critical periods about the rise and fall of plant and animal species in response to global change. The volume develops a picture of how environmental change has closed some evolutionary doors while opening others—including profound effects on the early members of the human family.

An expert panel offers specific recommendations on expanding research and improving investigative tools—and targets historical periods and geological and biological patterns with the most promise of shedding light on future developments.

This readable and informative book will be of special interest to professionals in the earth sciences and the environmental community as well as concerned policymakers.

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