Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
OXYGEN AND PROTEROZOIC EVOLUTION: AN UPDATE 31 evolutionary innovation is usually indirect and depends on the removal of pre-existing ecological dominants to provide evolutionary opportunity. The thesis evaluated in this chapter is that the Archean and the Proterozoic Earth were differentâ that major environmental changes early in Earth history directly facilitated evolutionary innovation. The ecological specificity of many eubacteria and archaebacteria indicates that at some level this must surely be true for prokaryotic organisms (e.g., Knoll and Bauld, 1989). The Cloud model suggests that environmental-biological coevolution also applies to fundamental aspects of eukaryotic evolution, specifically to the profoundly important radiations of aerobic protists and animals. Proof of the relationship remains elusive, but accumulating evidence lends new support to the model's basic tenets. Continued research is needed to strengthen the paleontological and geochemical bases on which the empirical evidence for Proterozoic evolution and environmental change rests. Specifically, paleontological and organic geochemical research on Paleoproterozoic shales and other subtidal facies is needed to document in a more satisfactory fashion the early fossil record of eukaryotic photoautotrophs. Geochemical research on Neoproterozoic paleosols and additional indicators of PO2 are required to document the possible role of changing oxygen concentrations in latest Proterozoic environmental and evolutionary events. These outstanding questions provide an agenda by means of which we may finally be able to document what many scientists have long believedâthat two of the most significant radiations in the history of life are linked closely to secular variations in atmospheric oxygen. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge our deep debt to Preston Cloud for his articulation of fundamental problems in biological and environmental history. We thank Joseph Montoya, Mitchell Sogin, and John Postgate for useful discussions and advice. James Kasting and Kenneth Towe provided helpful reviews of the manuscript. Our research on problems of Precambrian paleontology and geochemistry is supported by NSF Grant BSR 88-17662 and NASA Grants NAGW893 (A.H.K.) and NAGW-599 (H.D.H.). REFERENCES Asmeron, Y., S. Jacobesen, and A. H. Knoll (1991). Sr isotope variations in Late Proterozoic sea water: Implications for crustal evolution, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55, 2883-2894. Berkner, L. V., and L. C. Marshall (1965). On the origin and rise of oxygen concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, Journal of Atmospheric Science 22, 225-261. Betts, J. N., and H. D. Holland (1991). The oxygen content of ocean bottom waters, the burial efficiency of organic carbon, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 97, 5-18. Borucki, W. J., and W. L. Chameides (1984). Lightning: Estimates of the rates of energy dissipation and nitrogen fixation, Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 22, 363-372. Buick, R. (1992). The antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis: Evidence from stromatolites in sulphate-deficient Archaean lakes, Science 255, 74-77. Cameron, E. M. (1983). Sulphate and sulphate reduction in early Precambrian oceans, Nature 296, 145-148. Canuto, V. M., J. S. Levine, T. R. Augustsson, C. L. Imhoff, and M. S. Giampapa (1983). UV radiation from the young Sun and oxygen and ozone levels in the prebiological atmosphere, Nature 296, 816-820. Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). The simultaneous origin of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and microtubules, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503, 55-71. Chapman, D. J., and J. W. Schopf (1983). Biological and biochemical effects of the development of an aerobic environment, in Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution, J. W. Schopf, ed., Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., pp. 302-320. Claypool, G. E., W. T. Holser, I. R. Kaplan, H. Sakai, and I. Zak (1980). The age curves of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate and their mutual interpretation, Chemical Geology 28, 199-260. Clemmey, H., and N. Badham (1982). Oxygen in the Precambrian atmosphere: An evaluation of geological evidence, Geology 10, 141-146. Cloud, P. (1968a). Atmospheric and hydrospheric evolution on the primitive Earth, Science 160, 729-736. Cloud, P. (1968b). Pre-metazoan evolution and the origins of the metazoa, in Evolution and Environment, T. Drake, ed., Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., pp. 1-72. Cloud, P. (1972). A working model of the primitive Earth, American Journal of Science 272, 537-548. Cloud, P. (1976). The beginnings of biospheric evolution and their biogeochemical consequences, Paleobiology 2, 351-387. Cloud, P. (1983). Banded iron-formationâA gradualist's dilemma, in Iron-Formation: Facts and Problems, A.F. Trendall and R. C. Morris, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 401-416. Crimes, T. P. (1987). Trace fossils and correlation of late Precambrian and early Cambrian strata, Geological Magazine 124, 97-119. Derry, L., L. S. Keto, S. Jacobsen, A. H. Knoll, and K. Swett (1989). Sr isotopic variations of Upper Proterozoic carbonates from East Greenland and Svalbard, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 53, 2331-2339. Derry, L., A. J. Kaufman, and S. Jacobsen (1992). Sedimentary cycling and environmental change in the Late Proterozoic: Evidence from stable and radiogenic isotopes, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, 1317-1329. Dimroth, E., and M. M. Kimberley (1976). Precambrian atmospheric oxygen: Evidence in the sedimentary distributions of carbon, sulfur, uranium, and iron, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 13, 1161-1185. FranÃ§ois, L. M., and J.-C. Gerard (1986). A numerical model of the evolution of ocean sulfate and sedimentary sulfur during
OXYGEN AND PROTEROZOIC EVOLUTION: AN UPDATE 32 the last 800 million years, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 50, 2289-2302. Gibbs, S. P. (1981). The chloroplasts of some algal groups may have evolved from endosymbiotic eukaryotic algae, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 361, 193-208. Glaessner, M. (1984). The Dawn of Animal Life, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,244 pp. Golubic, S., and H. J. Hofmann (1976). Comparison of modern and mid-Precambrian Entophysalidaceae (Cyanophyta) in stromatolitic algal mats: Cell division and degradation, Journal of Paleontology 50, 1074-1082. Grandstaff, D. E. (1980). Origin of uraniferous conglomerates at Elliot Lake, Canada, and Witwatersrand, South Africa: Implications for oxygen in the Precambrian atmosphere, Precambrian Research 13, 1-26. Hambrey, M. B., and W. B. Harland (1985). The Late Proterozoic glacial era, Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 51, 255-272. Han, T.-M., and B. Runnegar (1992). Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1 billion-year-old Negounee iron formation, Michigan, Science 257, 232-235. Hayes, J. M. (1983). Geochemical evidence bearing on the origin of aerobiosis: A speculative hypothesis , Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution, J. W. Schopf, ed., Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., pp. 291-301. Hofmann, H. J., G. M. Narbonne, and J. D. Aitken (1990). Ediacaran remains from intertillite beds in northwestern Canada, Geology 18, 1199-1202. Holland, H. D. (1984). The Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 582 pp. Holland, H. D., and N. J. Beukes (1990). A paleoweathering profile from Griqualand West, South Africa: Evidence for a dramatic rise in atmospheric oxygen between 2.2 and 1.9 BYBP, American Journal of Science 290A, 1-34. Holland, H. D., and E. A. Zbinden (1988). Paleosols and the evolution of the atmosphere, Part I, in Physical and Chemical Weathering in Geochemical Cycles, A. Lerman and M. Meybeck, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 61-82. Holland, H. D., C. R. Feakes, and E. A. Zbinden (1989). The Flin Flon paleosol and the composition of the atmosphere 1.8 BYBP, American Journal of Sciences 289, 362-389 Iwabe, N., K. Kuma, M. Hasegawa, S. Osawa, and T. Miyata (1989). Evolutionary relationship of archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes inferred from phylogenetic trees of duplicated genes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86, 9355-9359. Jarroll, E. L., P. Manning, A. Berrada, D. Hare, and D. G. Lindmark (1989). Biochemistry and metabolism of Giardia, Journal of Protozoology 26, 190-197. Kasting, J. F. (1987). Theoretical constraints on oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the Precambrian atmosphere, Precambrian Research 34, 205-229. Kasting, J. F. (1990). Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere, Origins of Life 20, 199-231. Kaufman, A. J., J. M Hayes, A. H. Knoll, and G. J. B. Germs (1990). Isotopic compositions of carbonates and organic carbon from Upper Proterozoic successions in Namibia: Stratigraphic variation and the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism, Precambrian Research 49, 301-327. Kirschvink, J. L. (1992). Late Proterozoic low latitude global glaciation: The snowball Earth, in The Proterozoic Biosphere, J. W. Schopf and C. Klein, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,pp. 51-57. Knoll, A. H. (1979). Archean photoautotrophy: Some limits and alternatives, Origins of Life 9, 313-327 Knoll, A. H. (1984). The Archean/Proterozoic transition: A sedimentary and paleobiological perspective, in Patterns of Change in Earth Evolution, H. D. Holland and A. F. Trendall, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 221-242. Knoll, A. H. (1992a). Biological and biogeochemical preludes to the Ediacaran radiation, in Origins and Early Evolutionary History of the Metazoa, J. H. Lipps and P. W. Signor, eds., Plenum, New York, pp. 53-84. Knoll, A. H. (1992b). The early evolution of eukaryotes: A global perspective, Science 256, 622-627. Knoll, A. H., and J. Bauld (1989). The evolution of ecological tolerance in prokaryotes, Transactions Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Science 80, 209-223. Knoll, A. H., and N. J. Butterfield (1989). New window on Proterozoic life, Nature 337, 602-603. Knoll, A. H., and J. C. G. Walker (1990). The environmental context of early metazoan evolution, Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Program 22(7), A128. Knoll, A. H., J. M. Hayes, A. J. Kaufman, K. Swett, and I. M. Lambert (1986). Secular variation in carbon isotope ratios from Upper Proterozoic successions of Svalbard and East Greenland, Nature 321, 832-838. Levine, J. S., G. L. Gregory, G. A. Harvey, W. E. Howell, W. J. Borucki, and R. E. Orville (1982). Production of nitric oxide by lightning on Venus, Geophysical Research Letters 9, 893-896. Margulis, M., J. O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, and D. I. Chapman, eds. (1989). Handbook of Protoctista, Jones and Bartlett, Boston, 914 pp. McKay, C. P., and H. Hartman (1991). Hydrogen peroxide and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, Origins of Life 21, 157-164. MÃ¼ller, M. (1988). Energy metabolism of protozoa without mitochondria, Annual Reviews of Microbiology 42, 465-488. Nursall, J. R. (1959). Oxygen as a prerequisite for the origin of the metazoa, Nature 183, 1170-1171. Pinto, J. P., and H. D. Holland (1988). Paleosols and the evolution of the atmosphere, Part II, in Paleosols and Weathering Through Geologic Time, J. Reinhardt and W. R. Sigleo, eds., Geological Society America Special Paper 216, 21-34. Postgate, J. R., and R. R. Eady (1988). The evolution of biological nitrogen fixation, in Nitrogen Fixation: Hundred Years After, H. Bothe, M. de Bruijn, and W. E. Newton, eds., Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, pp. 31-39. Raff, R. A., and E. C. Raff (1970). Respiratory mechanisms and the metazoan fossil record, Nature 228, 1003-1004. Roscoe, S. M. (1969). Huronian rocks and uraniferous conglomerates in the Canadian Shield, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 68-40, 1-205.
OXYGEN AND PROTEROZOIC EVOLUTION: AN UPDATE 33 Runnegar, B. (1982a). The Cambrian explosion: Animals or fossils? Journal of Geological Society of Australia 29, 395-411. Runnegar, B. (1982b). Oxygen requirements, biology, and phylogenetic significance of the late Proterozoic worm Dickinsonia, and the evolution of the burrowing habit, Alcheringa 6, 223-239. Schopf, J. W., ed. (1983). Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 543 pp. Schopf, J. W., and B. Packer (1987). Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from the Warrawoona Group, Australia, Science 237, 70-73. Sogin, M. L., J. Gunderson, H. Elwood, R. Alonso, and D. Peattie (1989). Phylogenetic meaning of the kingdom concept: An unusual ribosomal RNA from Giardia lamblia, Science 243, 75-77. Summons, R. E., and M. R.Walter (1990). Molecular fossils and microfossils of prokaryote and protists from Proterozoic sediments, American Journal of Science 290-A, 212-244. Towe, K. M. (1970). Oxygen-collagen priority and the early metazoan fossil record, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 65, 781-788. Towe, K. M. (1985). Habitability of the earth Earth: Clues from the physiology of nitrigen fixation and photosynthesis, Origins of Life 15, 235-250. Towe, K. M. (1990). Aerobic respiration in the Archaean? Nature 348, 54-56. Veizer, J., W. Compston, N. Clauer, and M. Schidlowski (1983). 87Sr/ 86Sr in late Proterozoic carbonates: Evidence of a ''mantle" event at 900 Ma ago, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 47, 295-302. Walker, J. C. G. (1983). Possible limits on the composition of the Archean crust, Nature 302, 518-520. Walker, J. C. G., C. Klein, J. W. Schopf, D. J. Stevenson, and M. R. Walter (1983). Environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic Earth, in Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution, J. W. Schopf, ed., Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., pp. 260-290. Whatley, J. M. (1981). Chloroplast evolution: Ancient and modern, Annals of the New York Academy of Science 351, 154-165. Windley, B. F., P. R. Simpson, and M. D. Muir (1984). The role of atmospheric evolution in Precambrian metallogenesis, Fortschritte der Mineralogie 62, 253-267. Woese, C. R. (1987). Bacterial evolution, Microbiology Review 51, 221-271. Woese, C. R., O. Kandler, and M. L. Wheelis (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87, 4576-4579. Young, G. M. (1976). Iron-formation and glaciogenic rocks of the Rapitan Group, Northwest Territories, Precambrian Research 3, 137-158. Yung, Y., and M. B. McElroy (1979). Fixation of nitrogen in a prebiotic atmosphere, Science 203, 1002-1004. Zang, W., and M. R. Walter (1989). Latest Proterozoic plankton from the Amadeus Basin in Central Australia, Nature 337, 642-645.