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Effects of Past Global Change on Life (1995)

Chapter: REFERENCES

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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 153
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 154
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 155

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THE RESPONSE OF HIERARCHIALLY STRUCTURED ECOSYSTEMS TO LONG-TERM CLIMATIC CHANGE: A CASE 152 STUDY USING TROPICAL PEAT SWAMPS OF PENNSYLVANIAN AGE ecological status quo, the role of the existing biotic structure is reduced. This may be a threshold response (i.e., the biotic fabric exists or it does not). If the fabric is severely disrupted, as evidently happened during the early Stephanian within peat swamps, the selective filter becomes coarse meshed as numerous opportunities are created for the survival of divergent forms. It is during such times that the role of interspecific competition would be expected to be most powerful as an active agent of selection. This scenario integrates environmental change with the evolving lineages. It is in effect the model presented by Valentine (1980) for the origin of putative higher taxa. Higher taxa may certainly have a greater chance of survival during times of ecosystem disruption than during periods of long-term stability; however, the model applies to speciation in general. The patterns of the fossil record may require little more than an understanding that ecosystems have not been in constant flux for the past 600 m.y. Recognition that opportunities for survival of divergent phenotypes have varied enormously through time may help reconcile mechanisms based on studies of living organisms with patterns in the fossil record. REFERENCES Bertram, U. (1989). Untersuchungun an coal balls aus dem Namur A von Ostrau Unter Spezieller Berucksichtigung der Gattungen Heterangium, Lyginopteris, und Microspermopteris, Palaeontographica 214B, 125-244. Calder, J. (1993). The evolution of a ground water-influenced (Westphalian B) peat-forming ecosystem in a piedmont setting: The No. 3 seam, Springhill Coal Field, Cumberland Basin, Nova Scotia, Geological Society of America, Special Paper. Cecil, C. B. (1990). Paleoclimate controls on stratigraphic repetition of chemical and siliciclastic rocks, Geology 18, 533-536. Cecil, C. B., J. C. Renton, R. W. Stanton, and F. T. Dulong (1979). Some geologic factors controlling mineral matter in coal, in Carboniferous Coal Short Course Guidebook, A. C. Donaldson, M. W. Presley, and J. J. Renton, eds., West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Bulletin B-37-1, pp. 224-239. Cecil, C. B., R. W. Stanton, S. G. Neuzil, F. T. Dulong, L. F. Ruppert, and B. S. Pierce (1985). Paleoclimate controls on late Paleozoic sedimentation and peat formation in the central Appalachian Basin (U.S.A.), International Journal of Coal Geology 5, 195-230. Cleal, C. J. (1987). This is the forest primaeval, Nature 326, 828. Corsin, P. (1951). Flore Fossile du Bassin de la Sarre et de la Lorraine, 4me Fascicule, Pecopteridees. Etudes des Gites Mineraux de la France, 370 pp. Costanza, S. H. (1985). Pennsylvanianioxylon of middle and upper Pennsylvanian coals from the Illinois Basin, and its comparison with Mesoxylon, Palaeontographica 197B, 81-121. Courvoisier, J. M, and T. L. Phillips (1975). Correlation of spores from Pennsylvanian coal-ball fructifications with dispersed spores, Micropaleontology 21, 45-59. Cridland, A. A. (1964). Amyelon in American coal balls, Palaeontology 7, 186-209. Damuth, J. (1985). Selection among "species": A formulation in terms of natural functional units, Evolution 39, 1132-1146. Delcourt, P. A., and H. R. Delcourt (1987). Long-Term Forest Dynamics of the Temperate Zone, Springer-Verlag, New York, 439 pp. Digby, P. G. N., and R. A. Kempton (1987). Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Communities, Chapman and Hall, London,206 pp. DiMichele, W. A., and R. B. Aronson (1992). The Pennsylvanian-Permian vegetational transition: A terrestrial analogue to the onshore- offshore hypothesis, Evolution 46, 807-824. DiMichele, W. A., and P. J. DeMaris (1987), Structure and dynamics of a Pennsylvanian-age Lepidodendron forest: Colonizers of a disturbed swamp habitat in the Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, PALAIOS 2, 146-157. DiMichele, W. A., and W. J. Nelson (1989). Small-scale spatial heterogeneity in Pennsylvanian-age vegetation from the roof shale of the Springfield Coal (Illinois Basin), Palaios 4, 276-280. DiMichele, W. A., and T. L. Phillips (1981). Stratigraphicgeographic patterns of change in Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation, Botanical Society of America, Miscellaneous Series Publication 160, 44 (Abstract). DiMichele, W. A., and T. L. Phillips (1985). Arborescent lycopod reproduction and paleoecology in a coal-swamp environment of late middle Pennsylvanian age (Herrin Coal, Illinois, U.S.A.), Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 44, 1-26. DiMichele, W. A., and T. L. Phillips (1988). Paleoecology of the middle Pennsylvanian-age Herrin coal swamp (Illinois) near a contemporaneous river system, the Walshville paleochannel, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 56, 151-176. DiMichele, W. A., J. F. Mahaffy, and T. L. Phillips (1979). Lycopods of Pennsylvanian age coals: Polysporia, Canadian Journal of Botany 57, 1740-1753. DiMichele, W. A., T. L. Phillips, and R. G. Olmstead (1987). Opportunistic evolution: Abiotic environmental stress and the fossil record of plants, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 50, 151-178. DiMichele, W. A., T. L. Phillips, and D. A. Willard (1986). Morphology and paleoecology of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp plants, University of Tennessee, Department of Geological Sciences, Studies in Geology 15, 97-114. DiMichele, W. A., T. L. Phillips, and G. E. McBrinn (1991). Quantitative analysis and paleoecology of the Secor coal and roof shale floras (Pennsylvanian-age, Oklahoma), Palaios 6, 390-409. Driese, S. G. (1985). Interdune pond carbonates, Weber Sandstone (Pennsylvanian-Permian), northern Utah and Colorado, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 55, 187-195.

THE RESPONSE OF HIERARCHIALLY STRUCTURED ECOSYSTEMS TO LONG-TERM CLIMATIC CHANGE: A CASE 153 STUDY USING TROPICAL PEAT SWAMPS OF PENNSYLVANIAN AGE Dulong, F. T., and C. B. Cecil (1989). Stratigraphic variation in bulk sample mineralogy of Pennsylvanian underclays from the Central Appalachian Basin, Carboniferous Geology of the Eastern United States, 28th International Geological Congress, Field Trip Guidebook T143, pp. 112-118. Eble, C. F., and W. C. Grady (1993). Paleoecological interpretation of two middle Pennsylvanian coal beds in the central Appalachian Basin, Geological Society of America, Special Paper. Eggert, D. L. (1982). A fluvial channel contemporaneous with deposition of the Springfield Coal Member (V), Petersburg Formation, Northern Warrick County, Indiana, Indiana Geological Survey Special Report 28, 20 pp. Esterle, J. S., and J. C. Ferm (1986). Relationship between petrographic and chemical properties and coal seam geometry, Hance Seam, Breathitt Formation, southeastern Kentucky, International Journal of Coal Geology 6, 199-214. Farley, M. B. (1989). Palynological facies fossils in nonmarine environments in the Paleogene of the Bighorn Basin, Palaios 4, 565-573. Galtier, J., and T. L. Phillips (1985). Swamp vegetation from Grand Croix (Stephanian) and Autun (Autunian), France and comparisons with coal-ball peats of the Illinois Basin, C.R. 9th International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology 4, 13-24. Gastaldo, R. A. (1986). Implications on the paleoecology of autochthonous lycopods in clastic sedimentary environments of the early Pennsylvanian of Alabama, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 53, 191-212. Gastaldo, R. A. (1987). Confirmation of Carboniferous clastic swamp communities, Nature 326, 869-871. Goebel, K. A., E. A. Bettis III, and P. H. Heckel (1989). Upper Pennsylvanian paleosol in Stranger Shale and underlying Iatan Limestone, southwestern Iowa, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 59, 224-232. Grady, W. C., and C. F. Eble (1990). Relationships among macerals, miospores and paleoecology in a column of the Redstone coal (upper Pennsylvanian) from north-central West Virginia (U.S.A.), International Journal of Coal Geology 15, 1-26. Grime, J. P. (1979). Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 222 pp. Heckel, P. H. (1986). Sea-level curve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along midcontinent outcrop belt, North America, Geology 14, 330-334. Heckel, P. H. (1989). Updated middle-upper Pennsylvanian eustatic sea-level curve for midcontinent North America and preliminary biostratigraphic characterization, Compte Rendu, XI International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, Beijing 4, 160-185. Hess, J. C., and H. J. Lippolt (1986). 40Ar/39Ar ages of tonstein and tuff sanidines: New calibration points for the improvement of the upper Carboniferous time scale, Isotope Geoscience 59, 143-154. Holmes, J. C., and M. Fairon-Demaret (1984). A new look at the flora of the Bouxharmont coal balls from Belgium, Annals de la Societe Geologique de Belgique 107, 73-87. Horne, J. C., J. C. Ferm, F. T. Caruccio, and B. P. Baganz (1978). Depositional models in coal exploration and mine planning in Appalachian region , American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 62, 2379-2411. Johnson, P. R. (1979). Petrology and environments of deposition of the Herrin (No. 6) Coal Member, Carbondale Formation, at the Old Ben Coal Company Mine No. 24, Franklin County, Illinois, M.S. thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 169 pp. Johnson, S. Y. (1987). Sedimentology and paleogeographic significance of six fluvial sand bodies in the Maroon Formation, Eagle Basin, northwest Colorado, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1787-A, 1-18. Johnson, S. Y. (1989a). Significance of loessites in the Maroon Formation (middle Pennsylvanian to lower Permian), Eagle Basin, northwest Colorado, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 59, 782- 791. Johnson, S. Y. (1989b). The Frying Pan Member of the Maroon Formation, Eagle Basin, northwest Colorado, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1787-1, 1-11. Klein, G. deV., and D. A. Willard (1989). Origin of the Pennsylvanian coal-bearing cyclothems of North America, Geology 17, 152-155. Knoll, A. H. (1984). Patterns of extinction in the fossil record of vascular plants, in Extinctions, M. Nitecki, ed., University of Chicago Press., Chicago, pp. 21-68. Kvale, E. P., and A. W. Archer (1990). Tidal deposits associated with low-sulfur coals, Brazil Fm. (lower Pennsylvanian), Indiana, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 60, 563-574. Lesnikowska, A. D. (1989). Anatomically preserved Marattiales from coal swamps of the Desmoinesian and Missourian of the midcontinent United States: Systematics, ecology and evolution. Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 227 pp. Mahaffy, J. F. (1985). Profile patterns of coal and peat palynology in the Herrin (No. 6) Coal Member, Carbondale Formation, middle Pennsylvanian of southern Illinois, Ninth International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, C.R. 5, 25-34. Overpeck, J. T., R. S. Webb, and T. Webb III (1992). Mapping eastern North American vegetation change of the past 18 ka: No-analogs and the future, Geology 20, 1071-1074. Parrish, J. M., J. T. Parrish, and A. M. Ziegler (1989). Permian-Triassic paleogeography and paleoclimatology and implications for therapsid distributions, in The Biology and Ecology of Mammal-Like Reptiles, J. Roth, C. Roth, and N. Hotton III, eds., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Parrish, J. T. (1982). Upwelling and petroleum source beds, with reference to the Paleozoic, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 66, 750-774. Peppers, R. A. (1979). Development of coal-forming floras during the early part of the Pennsylvanian in the Illinois Basin, Ninth International Congress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and Geology, Guidebook to Field Trip 9, part 2, 8-14. Pfefferkorn, H. W., and M. C. Thomson (1982). Changes in dominance patterns in upper Carboniferous plant-fossil assemblages, Geology 10, 641-644.

THE RESPONSE OF HIERARCHIALLY STRUCTURED ECOSYSTEMS TO LONG-TERM CLIMATIC CHANGE: A CASE 154 STUDY USING TROPICAL PEAT SWAMPS OF PENNSYLVANIAN AGE Phillips, T. L. (1974). Evolution of vegetative morphology in coenopterid ferns, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 61, 427-461. Phillips, T. L., and C. B. Cecil (1985). Paleoclimatic controls on coal resources of the Pennsylvanian System of North America: Introduction and overview of contributions, International Journal of Coal Geology 5, 1-6. Phillips, T. L., and W. A. DiMichele (1981). Paleoecology of middle Pennsylvanian age coal swamps in southern Illinois/Herrin Coal Member at Sahara Mine No. 6, in Paleobotany, Paleoecology, and Evolution, Volume I, K. J. Niklas, ed., Praeger Press, New York, pp. 205-255. Phillips, T. L., and W. A. DiMichele (1989). From plants to coal: Peat taphonomy of upper Carboniferous coals, 28th International Geological Congress Abstracts 2, 605 (Abstract). Phillips, T. L., and W. A. DiMichele (1992). Comparative ecology and life-history biology of arborescent lycopods in Late Carboniferous swamps of Euramerica, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79, 560-588. Phillips, T. L., and R. A. Peppers (1984). Changing patterns of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation and implications of climatic control on coal occurrence, International Journal of Coal Geology 3, 205-255. Phillips, T. L., R. A. Peppers, M. J. Avcin, and P. F. Laughnan (1974). Fossil plants and coal: Patterns of change in Pennsylvanian coal swamps of the Illinois Basin, Science 184, 1367-1369. Phillips, T. L., A. B. Kunz, and D. J. Mickish (1977). Paleobotany of permineralized peat (coal balls) from the Herrin (No. 6) Coal Member of the Illinois Basin, Geological Society of America, Microform Publication 7, 18-49. Phillips, T. L., R. A. Peppers, and W. A. DiMichele (1985). Stratigraphic and interregional changes in Pennsylvanian coalswamp vegetation: Environmental inferences, International Journal of Coal Geology 5, 43-109. Pigg, K. B. (1987). Paleozoic seed ferns: Heterangium kentuckyensis sp. nov., from the upper Carboniferous of North America, American Journal of Botany 74, 1184-1204. Prather, B. E. (1985). An upper Pennsylvanian desert paleosol in the D-zone of the Lansing-Kansas City Groups, Hitchcock County, Nebraska, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 55, 213-221. Raymond, A. (1987). Interpreting ancient swamp communities: Can we see the forest in the peat? Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 52, 217-231. Raymond, A. (1988). Paleoecology of a coal-ball deposit from the middle Pennsylvanian of Iowa dominated by cordaitalean gymnosperms, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 53, 233-250. Remy, W., and R. Remy (1977). Die Floren des Erdaltertums, Verlag Gluckauf GMBH, Essen, 468 pp. Rothwell, G. W. (1981). 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THE RESPONSE OF HIERARCHIALLY STRUCTURED ECOSYSTEMS TO LONG-TERM CLIMATIC CHANGE: A CASE 155 STUDY USING TROPICAL PEAT SWAMPS OF PENNSYLVANIAN AGE White, D. (1933). Some features of the Early Permian flora of North America, 16th International Geological Congress 1, 679-689. Willard, D. A. (1989). Source plants for Carboniferous microspores: Lycospora from permineralized Lepidostrobus , American Journal of Botany 76, 820-827. Willard, D. A. (1993). Vegetational patterns in the Springfield Coal (Middle Pennsylvanian; Illinois Basin): Comparison of miospore and coal-ball records, in Modern and Ancient Coal-Forming Environments, J. C. Cobb and C. B. Cecil, eds., Geological Society of America Special Paper 286, Boulder, Colo., pp. 139-152. Willard, D. A., and T. L. Phillips (1993). Paleobotany and palynology of the Bristol Hill Coal Member (Bond Formation) and Friendsville Coal Member (Mattoon Formation) of the Illinois Basin (upper Pennsylvania), Palaios 8, 574-586. Wing, S. L. (1988). Taxon-free paleoecological analysis of Eocene megafloras from Wyoming, American Journal of Botany 75 (6-part 2), 120 (Abstract). Wing, S. L., and B. H. Tiffney (1987). The reciprocal interaction of angiosperm evolution and tetrapod herbivory, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 50, 179-210. Winston, R. B., and R. W. Stanton (1989). Plants, coal, and climate in the Pennsylvanian of the central Appalachians, in Carboniferous Geology of the Eastern United States, 28th International Geological Congress, Field Trip Guidebook T143, pp. 118-126. Wnuk, C. (1985). The ontogeny and paleoecology of Lepidodendron rimosum and Lepidodendron bretonense trees from the middle Pennsylvanian of the Bernice Basin, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, Palaeontographica 195B, 153-181. Wnuk, C., and H. W. Pfefferkorn (1987). A Pennsylvanian-age terrestrial storm deposit: Using plant fossils to characterize the history and process of sediment accumulation, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 57, 212-221. Wolfe, J. A., and G. R. Upchurch (1986). Vegetation, climatic and floral changes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Nature 324, 148-152. Ziegler, A. M. (1990). Phytogeographic patterns and continental configurations during the Permian Period, in Palaeozoic Palaeogeography and Biogeography, W. S. McKerrow and C. R. Scotese, eds., Geological Society of London Memoir, pp. 363-379. Ziegler, A. M., R. K. Bambach, J. T. Parrish, S. F. Barrett, E. H. Gierlowski, W. C. Parker, A. Raymond, and J. J. Sepkoski (1981). Paleozoic biogeography and climatology, in Paleobotany, Paleoecology and Evolution, Volume 2, K.J. Niklas, ed., Praeger, New York, pp. 231-266.

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What can we expect as global change progresses? Will there be thresholds that trigger sudden shifts in environmental conditions—or that cause catastrophic destruction of life?

Effects of Past Global Change on Life explores what earth scientists are learning about the impact of large-scale environmental changes on ancient life—and how these findings may help us resolve today's environmental controversies.

Leading authorities discuss historical climate trends and what can be learned from the mass extinctions and other critical periods about the rise and fall of plant and animal species in response to global change. The volume develops a picture of how environmental change has closed some evolutionary doors while opening others—including profound effects on the early members of the human family.

An expert panel offers specific recommendations on expanding research and improving investigative tools—and targets historical periods and geological and biological patterns with the most promise of shedding light on future developments.

This readable and informative book will be of special interest to professionals in the earth sciences and the environmental community as well as concerned policymakers.

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