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Effects of Past Global Change on Life (1995)

Chapter: REFERENCES

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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 105
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 106
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
×
Page 107

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TERMINAL PALEOCENE MASS EXTINCTION IN THE DEEP SEA: ASSOCIATION WITH GLOBAL WARMING 105 salinity. This in turn, would have contributed to a decrease in the production of Antarctic deep waters to the world ocean, thus reinforcing the dominance of warm saline deep waters (Figure 5.5). A number of broad implications are suggested as a result of these discoveries. The extinction resulted from changes entirely within the Earth's environmental system, in the apparent absence of any extraterrestrial influences. Mass extinctions can be produced by large changes in the ocean. Such changes can occur very quickly under certain conditions. Mass extinction can be restricted to certain parts of the Earth's ecosystem and be effectively decoupled from other parts of the biosphere. In the case of the terminal Paleocene mass extinction, there was almost total decoupling between the deep and shallow marine ecosystems. Despite significant rapid warming in shallow and deep environments the mass extinction was limited to the deep-sea. At particular times in the geologic past, broad sectors of the Earth's environmental system, such as the global ocean, were susceptible to major reorganizations on short time scales. Brief (102 to 103 yr), intense paleoenvironmental events can have large effects on the course of biotic evolution. At the end of the Paleocene, global climate change crossed a critical threshold, causing instability and mass extinction in the deep-sea. The potential for the early Paleogene ocean to shift between high and middle-latitude dominated deep water production resulted from low vertical and meridional temperature gradients and multiple major sources of deep waters. Later in the Cenozoic, meridional and vertical temperature gradients strengthened, leading to decreased opportunities for such drastic switches in deep water sources. Thus, it is unlikely that the oceanographic changes and associated extinction event that occurred at the end of the Paleocene would have been repeated during the middle to late Cenozoic. The historic record reveals no such change. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This contribution was supported by the National Science Foundation (Division of Polar Programs) DPP-9218720 to J.P.K. and (Ocean Sciences) OCE 9101662 to L.D.S. REFERENCES Alvarez, L. W., W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, and H. V. Michel (1980). Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, Science 208, 1095-1108. Barron, E. J. (1987). Eocene equator-to-pole surface ocean temperatures: A significant climate problem? Paleoceanography 2, 729-739. Beckmann, J. P. (1960). Distribution of benthonic foraminifera at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary of Trinidad (West Indies), in Report of the 21st Session, Norden, Part V, The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary , International Geological Congress, pp. 57-69. Benson, R. H. (1979). In search of lost oceans: A paradox in discovery, in Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics, and the Changing Environment, J. A. Gray and A. J. Boucot, eds., Oregon State University Press, Eugene, pp. 379-389. Berggren, W. A., and K. G. Miller (1989). Cenozoic bathyal and abyssal calcareous benthic foraminiferal zonation, Micropaleontology 35, 308-320. Berggren, W. A., D. V. Kent, J. J. Flynn, and J. A. Van Couvering (1985). Cenozoic geochronology, Geological Society of America Bulletin 96, 1407-1418. Bernard, J. M. (1986). Characteristic assemblages and morphologies of benthic foraminifera from anoxic, organic-rich deposits; Jurassic through Holocene, Journal of Foram. Research 16, 207-215. Braga, G., R. De Biase, A. Grunig, and F. Proto-Decima (1975). Foraminiferi bentonici del Paleocene e dell'Eocene della Sezione Possagno, Schweizerische Palaeontologische Abhandlungen 97, 85-111. Brass, G. W., J. R. Southam, and W. H. Peterson (1982). Warm saline bottom water in the ancient ocean, Nature 196, 620-623. Broecker, W. S., and T.-H. Peng (1982). Tracers in the Sea, Eldigio Press, Palisades, N.Y., 690 pp. Cande, S. C., and D. V. Kent (1992). A new geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (B 10), 13,917-13,951. Case, J. A. (1988). Paleogene floras from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, in Geology and Paleontology of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, Geological Society of America Memoir 169, pp. 523-530. Childress, J. J. (1983). Oceanic biology: Lost in space? in Oceanography: The Present and Future, P. Brewer, ed., Springer, New York, pp. 127-135. Corfield, R. M. (1987). Patterns of evolution in Palaeocene and Eocene planktonic foraminifera, in Micropalaeontology of Carbonate Environments, M. M. Hart, ed., Eflis Horwood, Chichester, 93-110. Corliss, G. H., and C. Chen (1988). Morphotype patterns of Norwegian deep-sea benthic foraminifera and ecological implications. Geology 16, 716-719. Covey, C., and E. J. Barron (1988). The role of oceanic heat transport in climatic change, Earth Science Reviews 24, 429-455. Dercourt, J., et al. (1986). Geological evolution of the Tethys belt from the Atlantic to the Pamir since the Lias, Tectonophysics 123, 241-315. Flessa, K. W. (1990). The "facts" of mass extinctions, Geological Society of America Special Paper 247, 1-7. Hallam, A. (1989). Catastrophism in geology, in Catastrophes and Evolution, S. V. M. Clube, ed., Cambridge University Press, pp. 25-55. Haq, B. U. (1981). Paleogene paleoceanography—Early Cenozoic oceans revisited, Oceanologica Acta 4 (Suppl. to Vol. 4), Proceedings of the 26th International Geological Congress, pp. 71-82.

TERMINAL PALEOCENE MASS EXTINCTION IN THE DEEP SEA: ASSOCIATION WITH GLOBAL WARMING 106 Hay, W. W. (1989). Paleoceanography: A review for GSA centennial, Geological Society of America Bulletin 100, 1934-1956. Hovan, S. A., and D. K. Rea (1992). Paleocene/Eocene boundary changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation: A Southern Hemisphere record , Geology 20, 15-18. Janecek, T. R., and D. K. Rea (1983). Eolian deposition in the northeast Pacific: Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, Geological Society of America Bulletin 94, 730-738. Kaiho, K. (1988). Uppermost Cretaceous to Paleogene bathyal benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Japan and New Zealand: Latest Paleocene-Middle Eocene benthic foraminiferal species turnover, Reviews Paléobiol., Vol. Spec. 2, 553-559. Katz, M. E., and K. G. Miller (1993). Early Paleogene benthic foraminiferal assemblage and stable isotope composition in the Southern Ocean, ODP Leg 114, in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 114, P. F. Ciesielski and Y. Kristoffersen, eds., Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas. Kennett, J. P. (1977). Cenozoic evolution of Antarctic glaciation, the circumAntarctic Ocean, and their impact on global paleoceanography, Journal of Geophysical Research 82, 3843-3860. Kennett, J. P., and P. F. Barker (1990). Latest Cretaceous to Cenozoic climate and oceanographic developments in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: An ocean-drilling perspective, in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 113, P. F. Barker, J. P. Kennett, et al., eds., Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 937-960. Kennett, J. P., and N. J. Shackleton (1976). Oxygen isotopic evidence for the development of the psychrosphere 38 Myr. ago, Nature 260, 513-515. Kennett, J. P., and L. D. Stott (1990a). 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Keller (1993) Climatic and oceanographic events across the Paleocene-Eocene transition in the Antarctic Indian Ocean: Inference from planktic foraminifera, Marine Micropaleontology. Mead, G. A., D. A. Hodell, and P. F. Ciesielski (1993). Late Eocene to Oligocene vertical oxygen isotopic gradients in the South Atlantic: Implications for warm saline deep water, in The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change 2, J. P. Kennett and D. A. Warnke, eds., Antarctic Research Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. Miller, K. G. (1991). The Paleocene/Eocene boundary in the context of Paleogene global climate change. Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, A141. Miller, K. G., T. R Janecek, M. E. Katz, and D. J. Keil (1987). Abyssal circulation and benthic foraminiferal changes near the Paleocene/ Eocene boundary, Paleoceanography 2(6), 741-761. Miller, K. G., M. E. Katz, and W. A. Berggren (1992). Cenozoic deep-sea benthic foraminifera: A tale of three turnovers, in Benthos '90, Studies in Benthic Foraminifera, Tokai University Press, pp. 67-75. Nomura, R. (1991). Paleoceanography of upper Maastrichtian to Eocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages at ODP sites 752, 753 and 754, eastern Indian Ocean, in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 121, J. W. Pierce et al., eds., Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 3-30. Oberhänsli, H., and K. J. Hsü (1986). Paleocene-Eocene paleoceanography, in Mesozoic and Cenozoic Oceans, K. J. Hsü, ed., American Geophysical Union Geodynamics Series 15, Washington, D.C., pp. 85-200. Pak, D. K., and K. G. Miller (1992). Paleocene to Eocene benthic foraminiferal isotopes and assemblages: Implications for deepwater circulation, Paleoceanography 7(4), 405-422. Pospichal, J. M., and S. W. Wise, Jr. (1990). Paleocene to Middle Eocene calcareous nannofossils of ODP sites 689 and 690, Maud Rise, Weddell Sea, in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 113, P. F. Barker, J. P. Kennett, et al., eds., Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 613-638. Premoli-Silva, I., and A. Boersma (1984). Atlantic Eocene planktonic foraminiferal historical biogeographic and paleohydrologic indices, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 67, 315-356. Raup, D. M., and J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. (1984). Periodicity of extinctions in the geologic past, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 81, 801-805. Rea, D. K., J. C. Zachos, R. M. Owen, and P. D. Gingerich (1990). Global change at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary: Climatic and evolutionary consequences of tectonic events, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 79, 117-128. Reid, J. L. (1979). 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TERMINAL PALEOCENE MASS EXTINCTION IN THE DEEP SEA: ASSOCIATION WITH GLOBAL WARMING 107 Program 48, L. Montadert et al., eds., U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 377-414. Shackleton, N. J. (1986). Paleogene stable isotope events, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 57, 91-102. Shackleton, N. J., and M. A. Hall (1984). Carbon isotope data from Leg 74 sediments, in Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Program 74, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 613-619. Shackleton, N. J., and J. P. Kennett (1975). Paleotemperature history of the Cenozoic and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation: Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses in DSDP sites 277, 279 and 281, in Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Program 29, J. P. Kennett, R. E. Houtz, et al., eds., U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 143-756. Shackleton, N. J., R. M. Corfield, and M. A. Hall (1985). Stable isotope data and the ontogeny of Paleocene planktic foraminfera, Journal of Foraminiferal Research 15, 321-336. Sinha, A. and L. D. Stott (1994). The transfer of 13C change from the ocean to the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere across the Paleocene/ Eocene boundary: Criteria for terrestrial-marine correlations, in Early Paleogene Correlation in NW Europe, R. Knox, ed., Special Publication of the Geological Society, London (in press). Stanley, S. M. (1984). Mass extinctions in the ocean, Scientific American 250, 64-72. Stanley, S. M. (1987). Extinction, Scientific American Library, W. H. Freeman, New York. Stott, L. D. (1992). Higher temperatures and lower oceanic PCO2: A climate enigma at the end of the Paleocene epoch, Paleoceanography 7 (4), 395-404. Stott, L. D., and J. P. Kennett (1990). Antarctic Paleogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: ODP Leg 113, Sites 689 and 690, in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 113, P. F. Barker, J. P. Kennett, et al., eds., Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas,pp. 548-569. Stott, L. D., J. P. Kennett, N. J. Shackleton, and R. M. Corfield (1990). The evolution of Antarctic surface waters during the Paleogene: Inferences from the stable isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera, ODP Leg 113, in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 113, P. F. Barker, J. P. Kennett, et al., eds., Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 849-864. Thomas, E. (1989). Development of Cenozoic deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas in Antarctic waters, in Origins and Evolution of the Antarctic Biota, J. A. Crame, ed., Geological Society Special Publication, London 47, pp. 283-296. Thomas, E. (1990). Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene mass extinctions in the deep-sea, Geological Society of America Special Paper 247, 481-495. Thomas, E. (1992). Cenozoic deep-sea circulation: Evidence from deep-sea benthic foraminifera, in The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change, Antarctic Research Series 56, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 141-165. Tjalsma, R. C., and G. P. Lohmann (1983). Paleocene-Eocene bathyal and abyssal benthic foraminifera from the Atlantic Ocean, Micropaleontology Special Publication 4, Micropaleontology Press, New York, 94 pp. von Hildebrandt, A. (1962). Akad. Wiss. (Wien), Math.-Naturw. Klasse, Abh. n. ser. 108, 1-182. Zachos, J., D. Rea, K. Seto, R., Nomura, and N. Niitsuma (1993a). Paleogene and early Neogene deepwater paleoceanography of the Indian Ocean as determined from benthic foraminifera stable isotope records, in The Indian Ocean: A Synthesis of Results from the Ocean Drilling Program, R.A. Duncan et al., eds., Geophysical Monograph Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. Zachos, J. C., K. C. Lohmann, J. C. G. Walker, and S. W. Wise (1993b). Abrupt climate change and transient climates during the Paleogene: A marine perspective , Journal of Geology 101, 193-215.

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What can we expect as global change progresses? Will there be thresholds that trigger sudden shifts in environmental conditions—or that cause catastrophic destruction of life?

Effects of Past Global Change on Life explores what earth scientists are learning about the impact of large-scale environmental changes on ancient life—and how these findings may help us resolve today's environmental controversies.

Leading authorities discuss historical climate trends and what can be learned from the mass extinctions and other critical periods about the rise and fall of plant and animal species in response to global change. The volume develops a picture of how environmental change has closed some evolutionary doors while opening others—including profound effects on the early members of the human family.

An expert panel offers specific recommendations on expanding research and improving investigative tools—and targets historical periods and geological and biological patterns with the most promise of shedding light on future developments.

This readable and informative book will be of special interest to professionals in the earth sciences and the environmental community as well as concerned policymakers.

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