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Effects of Past Global Change on Life (1995)

Chapter: REFERENCES

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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 219
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4762.
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Page 220

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BIOTIC RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY CHANGES DURING LAST DEGLACIATION, GULF OF MEXICO 218 form Globigerinoides ruber increased to its greatest abundances of 70% during a period of low-salinity meltwater influx. Warm-water forms increased in abundance at 13 ka as the cool-water species Globigerina falconensis decreased in response to warmer SSTs. A brief reappearance of the glacial species Gr. inflata at the expense of warmwater forms at 11.4 ka marks a rapid, temporary migration of cold surface water into the Gulf of Mexico. This event is followed immediately by an interval of increased abundances of Gg. falconensis, and decreased abundances of N. dutertrei and Pu. obliquiloculata, and heralds the beginning of the Younger Dryas cooling in the Gulf of Mexico. Late deglacial warming at about 10.2 ka fostered the appearance of warm-water Holocene assemblages including Gr. menardii. Further warming at 5.5 ka distinguishes a warmer subzone in the late Holocene. The euryhaline species Gs. ruber bloomed during the early portion of the meltwater spike. After surface waters had warmed sufficiently at 13 ka, the low-salinity tolerant species N. dutertrei also showed higher abundances due to some combination of lower salinities and warmer temperatures. Lowest salinities at 12 ka favored the pink form of Gs. ruber. There is no faunal evidence that surface waters were cooled directly by meltwater influx. In fact, warm-water assemblages are present during the interval of lowest salinity. However, field observations suggest that most planktonic foraminifera probably migrated to deeper waters below the relatively fresh surface waters that were perhaps cooler. These results demonstrate the need for further high-resolution work on the response of oceanic fauna to rapid environmental changes associated with deglaciation, including temperature and salinity. As our understanding of past global change improves through paleontological, geochemical, and modeling efforts, the effect of particular combinations of environmental parameters becomes clearer. Insight into the controlling combinations in the past will assist in the assessment of the biotic response to present and future anthropogenically forced global change. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported by National Science Foundation grants OCE88-17135 and DPP89-11554. REFERENCES Andrée, M., H. Oeschger, U. Siegenthaler, T. Riesen, M. Moell, B. Amman, and K. Tobolski (1986). 14C dating of plant macrofossils in lake sediment, Radiocarbon 28, 411-416. Bard, E., B. Hamelin, R. G. Fairbanks, and A. Zindler (1990). Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals, Nature 345, 405-410. Bé, A. W. H., and D. S. Tolderlund (1971). Distribution and ecology of living planktonic foraminifera in surface waters of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in The Micropaleontology of Oceans, B. M. Funnell and W. R. Riedel, eds., Cambridge University Press, London,pp. 105-149. Bé, A. W. H., S. M. Harrison, and L. Lott (1973). Orbulina universa d'Orbigny in the Indian Ocean, Micropaleontology 19, 150-192. Becker, B., and B. Kromer (1986). Extension of the Holocene dendrochronology by the Preboreal pine series, 8800 to 10,100 BP, Radiocarbon 28, 961-967. Bijma, J., W. W. Faber, Jr., and C. Hemleben (1990). Temperature and salinity limits for growth and survival of some planktonic foraminifers in laboratory cultures, Journal of Foraminiferal Research 20, 95-116. Boltovskoy, E. (1990). Late Pleistocene-Holocene planktic foraminifera of the western equatorial Pacific, Boreas 19, 119-125. Broecker, W. S., D. M. Peteet, and D. Rind (1985). Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature 315, 21-25. 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BIOTIC RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY CHANGES DURING LAST DEGLACIATION, GULF OF MEXICO 219 Deuser, W. G., and E. H. Ross (1989). Seasonally abundant planktonic foraminifera of the Sargasso Sea: Succession, deep-water fluxes, isotopic compositions, and paleoceanographic implications, Journal of Foraminiferal Research 19, 268-293. Duplessey, J.-C., M. Arnold, P. Maurice, E. Bard, J. Duprat, and J. Moyes (1981). Direct dating of the oxygen-isotope record of the last deglaciation by 14C accelerator mass spectrometry, Nature 320, 350-352. Emiliani, C. (1969). A new paleontology, Micropaleontology 15, 265-300. Fairbanks, R. G. (1989). A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic sea-level record: Influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation, Nature 342, 637-642. Fairbanks, R. G. (1990). The age and origin of the ''Younger Dryas Climate Event" in Greenland ice cores, Paleoceanography 5, 937-948. Fairbanks, R. G., M. Sverdlove, R. Free, P. H. Wiebe, and A. 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BIOTIC RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY CHANGES DURING LAST DEGLACIATION, GULF OF MEXICO 220 Muerdter, D. R., J. P. Kennett, and R. C. Thunell (1984). Late Quaternary sapropel sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Faunal variations and chronology, Quaternary Research 21, 385-403. Oeschger, H., M. Welten, U. Eicher, M. Möll, T. Riesen, U. Siegenthaler, and S. Wegmüiller (1980). 14C and other parameters during the Younger Dryas cold phase, Radiocarbon 22, 299-310. Oglesby, R. J., K. A. Maasch, and B. Saltzman (1989). Glacial meltwater cooling of the Gulf of Mexico: GCM implications for Holocene and present-day climates, Climate Dynamics 3, 115-133. Overpeck, J. T., L. C. Peterson, N. Kipp, J. Imbrie, and D. Rind (1989). Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation, Nature 338, 553-557. Pedersen, T. F., M. Pickering, J. S. Vogel, J. N. Southon, and D. E. Nelson (1988). The response of benthic foraminifera to productivity cycles in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Faunal and geochemical constraints on glacial bottom water oxygen levels , Paleoceanography 3, 157-168. Prest, V. K. (1970). Quaternary geology, in Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, R. J. W. Douglas, ed., Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, pp. 675-764. Prest, V. K., D. R. Grant, and V. N. Rampton (1968). Glacial Map of Canada, Map 1253A, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. Ruddiman, W. F. (1969). Planktonic foraminifera of the subtropical North Atlantic gyre, Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, New York, 291 pp. Ruddiman, W. F., and A. McIntyre (1981). The mode and mechanism of the last deglaciaton: Oceanic evidence, Quaternary Research 16, 125-134. Sancetta, C. (1979). Oceanography of the North Pacific during the last 18,000 years: Evidence from fossil diatoms, Marine Micropaleontology 4, 103-123. Shackleton, N. J. (1977). The oxygen isotopic stratigraphic record of the late Pleistocene, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 280, 169-182. Sidner, B. R., and C. W. Poag (1972). Late Quaternary climates indicated by foraminifers from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 22, 305-313. Spero, H. J., and M. J. DeNiro (1987). The influence of symbiont photosynthesis on the δ18O and δ13C values of planktonic foraminiferal shell calcite, Symbiosis 4, 213-228. Spero, H. J., and D. F. Williams (1988). Extracting environmental information from planktonic foraminiferal δ13C data, Nature 335, 717-719. Spero, H. J., and D. F. Williams (1990). Evidence for low-salinity surface waters in the Gulf of Mexico over the last 16,000 years, Paleoceanography 5, 963-975. Thunell, R. C. (1976). Calcium carbonate dissolution history in late Quaternary deep-sea sediments, Western Gulf of Mexico, Journal of Quaternary Research 6, 281-297. Thunell, R. C. (1978). Distribution of Recent planktonic foraminifera in surface sediments of the Mediterranean Sea, Marine Micropaleontology 3, 147-173. Thunell, R. C., D. F. Williams, and J. P. Kennett (1977). Late Quaternary paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and sapropel history in eastern Mediterranean deep-sea sediments , Marine Micropaleontology 2, 371-388. Thunell, R. C., W. B. Curry, and S. Honjo (1983a). Seasonal variation in the flux of planktonic foraminifera: Time series trap results from the Panama Basin, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 64, 44-55. Thunell, R. C., W. B. Curry, and S. Honjo (1983b). Seasonal changes in the isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera collected in Panama Basin sediment traps, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 64, 33-43. Tolderlund, D. S., and A. W. H. Bé (1971). Seasonal distribution of planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic, Micropaleontology 17, 297-329.

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What can we expect as global change progresses? Will there be thresholds that trigger sudden shifts in environmental conditions—or that cause catastrophic destruction of life?

Effects of Past Global Change on Life explores what earth scientists are learning about the impact of large-scale environmental changes on ancient life—and how these findings may help us resolve today's environmental controversies.

Leading authorities discuss historical climate trends and what can be learned from the mass extinctions and other critical periods about the rise and fall of plant and animal species in response to global change. The volume develops a picture of how environmental change has closed some evolutionary doors while opening others—including profound effects on the early members of the human family.

An expert panel offers specific recommendations on expanding research and improving investigative tools—and targets historical periods and geological and biological patterns with the most promise of shedding light on future developments.

This readable and informative book will be of special interest to professionals in the earth sciences and the environmental community as well as concerned policymakers.

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