Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations
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Not Eating Enough:
Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations
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Eating enough food to meet nutritional needs and maintain good health and good performance in all aspects of life--both at home and on the job--is important for all of us throughout our lives. For military personnel, however, this presents a special challenge. Although soldiers typically have a number of options for eating when stationed on a base, in the field during missions their meals come in the form of operational rations. Unfortunately, military personnel in training and field operations often do not eat their rations in the amounts needed to ensure that they meet their energy and nutrient requirements and consequently lose weight and potentially risk loss of effectiveness both in physical and cognitive performance. This book contains 20 chapters by military and nonmilitary scientists from such fields as food science, food marketing and engineering, nutrition, physiology, psychology, and various medical specialties. Although described within a context of military tasks, the committee's conclusions and recommendations have wide-reaching implications for people who find that job-related stress changes their eating habits.


  • Health and Medicine — Military and Veterans
  • Food and Nutrition — Nutrition - Other

Publication Info

500 pages | 6 x 9
ISBN: 978-0-309-05341-9

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xiii
I Committee Summary and Recommendations 1-2
1 Introduction and Background 3-40
2 Conclusions and Recommendations 41-54
II Background and Introduction to the Topic 55-56
3 Introduction to the Concepts and Issues: Underlying Underconsumption in Military Settings 57-64
4 Army Field Feeding System-Future 65-76
5 Commanders' Perceptions and Attitudes About Their Responsibilities for Feeding Soldiers 77-90
6 Nutritional Criteria for Development and Testing of Military Field Rations: An Historical Perspective 91-108
7 Evolution of Rations: The Pursuit of Universal Acceptance 109-120
8 An Overview of Dietary Intakes During Military Exercises 121-150
9 The Effects of Ration Modifications on Energy Intake, Body Weight Change 151-174
III Factors Underlying Food Intake and Underconsumption--Food 175-176
10 The Role of Image, Stereotypes, and Expectations on the Acceptance and Consumption of Rations 177-202
11 Effects of Food Quality, Quantity, and Variety on Intake 203-216
12 Effects of Beverage Consumption and Hydration Status on Caloric Intake 217-238
13 Industry Approaches to Food Research 239-250
IV Underconsumption and Performance 251-252
14 When Does Energy Deficit Affect Soldier Physical Performance? 253-284
15 Impact of Underconsumption on Cognitive Performance 285-302
16 The Functional Effects of Carbohydrate and Energy Underconsumption 303-316
V Factors Underlying Food Intake and Underconsumption--The Eating Situation and Social Issues 317-318
17 The Physical Eating Situation 319-340
18 Eating Situations, Food Appropriateness, and Consumption 341-360
19 From Biologic Rhythms to Chronomes Relevant to Nutrition 361-372
20 Social Facilitation and Inhibition of Eating 373-392
21 Lessons from Eating Disorders 393-410
22 A Plan to Overcome Ration Underconsumption 411-416
Appendixes 417-418
A Biographical Sketches 419-432
B Abbreviations 433-436
C Factors Related to Underconsumption --A Selected Bibliography 437-464
Index 465-483
Research Tools

Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine. Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1995.

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