National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Operations Training at Small Airports (2020)

Chapter: Appendix B - Additional Literature Review

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Additional Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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65 Adult Learning Styles The visual learner “learns by seeing and benefits from demonstration. He or she forms mental pictures to make sense of what is happening” (Smith, 1995, p. 7). As such, “visual people learn from graphic illustrations to understand concepts and relationships” (Stastny, 1999, p. 1). To most effectively train visual learners, airports may consider creating visually engaging learning experiences that might include videos, images, and field demonstrations. The auditory learner “learns through verbal instruction, either from others or self” (Smith, 1995, p. 7). As a result, “people who learn from verbal methods prefer the use of text and narration to accomplish learning” (Stastny, 1999, p. 1). To most effectively train auditory learners, airports may consider lecture, audio recordings, live or recorded aeronautical radio, podcasts, music, and sound effects. The kinesthetic, or tactile, learner learns by directly interacting with the learning environ- ment. “The kinesthetic learner learns by doing and hands-on involvement. He or she feels their way through experiences and understands the big picture before detail” (Smith, 1995, p. 7). This type of learner enjoys “hands-on tutorial training involving direct interaction with the student and the instructor” (Stastny, 1999, p. 2). To most effectively train kinesthetic learners, airports may consider manufacturer demonstrations, on-the-job training, field training, and even props in the classroom. Generational Learning Preferences In addition to challenges associated with different learning styles and different levels of learner motivation, airports also face challenges with different generations in the workplace. As Iden (2016, p. 17) recognizes, “The workforce is more diverse than in the past.” Today’s workplace may have as many as four separate generations of employees: baby boomers (born 1946–1964), Generation X (born 1965–1980), millennials (born 1981–2000), and Generation Z (born after 2000). The baby boomer generation peaked at 78.8 million and is considered the largest living adult generation. Generation X peaked at 65.8 million and is considered the “middle child” generation. Millennials peaked at 76.2 million and largely entered the workforce at the height of the Great Recession. Generation Z is expected to peak at 82 million, even larger than the baby boomer generation. Less familiar to the workplace than the three previous genera- tions, Generation Z is the first generation to grow up with technology, such as the Internet and personal computers (Guidestone Financial Resources, 2014). As Robinson (2017, p. 1) shares, “Each generation has the potential to contribute to orga- nizational success or failure.” Rather than seeing the multigenerational workplace as a chal- lenge, however, airports may realize that “an organization can benefit from a multigenerational A P P E N D I X B Additional Literature Review

66 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports workforce due to the vast knowledge, creativity, and diversity that exists among the genera- tions” (Robinson, 2017, p. 19). Many airports are actively seeking a more diverse workforce because they understand the benefits of such diversity. “Understanding the multigenerational workforce and the specific leadership [and learning] styles associated with them can improve an organization’s performance and increase employees’ productivity” (Robinson, 2017, p. 1). At the same time, this generational diversity presents training challenges. It is helpful for airport trainers to understand the unique tendencies of employees of each generation. “Understanding generational characteristics gives . . . [airport operations staff] insight into how students from different generations learn best” (Johnson and Romanello, 2005, p. 212). As Holyoke and Larson (2009, p. 14) explain, “Each of these generations brings with it a special set of characteristics that tend to influence learning preferences.” For example, “all three generations (baby boomers, Generation X, millennials) . . . [are] the most engaged with new materials when they could make connections” (Holyoke and Larson, 2009, p. 20). Specifically, “for Generation X, it was personal communications, Millennials connected to hands-on experiences, and Baby Boomers connected more readily when deep life understand- ing could be made” (Holyoke and Larson, 2009, p. 20). Consider the following known attri- butes of the older three generations. Baby boomers • Believe that hard work and sacrifice are the price to pay for success. • Like teamwork, collaboration, and group decision making. • Are confident task completers. • May be insulted by constant feedback. • Have a sense of entitlement. • Are good at relationships. • Are reluctant to go against peers. • Value a chain of command. • May be technically challenged. • Expect authority. (Tolbize, 2008, pp. 2–3) Members of Generation X • Aspire to achieve a work-life balance. • Are more independent, autonomous, and self-reliant than previous generations. • Are not overly loyal to their employers. • Have strong feelings of loyalty to their family and friends. • Value continuous learning and skills development. • Have strong technical skills. • Are results focused. • Question authority figures and are not intimidated by them. • Like to receive feedback. • Are adaptable to change. • Are entrepreneurial. • Can tolerate work as long as it is fun. • Are pragmatic. • Are creative. • Are individualistic but may also like teamwork. (Tolbize, 2008, pp. 3–4) Millennials • Value teamwork and collective action. • Embrace diversity.

Additional Literature Review 67 • Are independent and desire a more balanced life. • Are adaptable to change. • Are multitaskers. • Are demanding. • Are very confident. • Are entrepreneurial. (Tolbize, 2008, p. 4) Trainers can best reach these different generations by using multiple teaching methods. “When formal training is needed, the use of multiple modes of teaching is recommended to address the needs of most workers. Workers from all generations like on-the-job learn- ing, discussion groups, peer interaction and feedback, and one-on-one coaching to learn soft skills” (Tolbize, 2008, p. 14). Tolbize (2008) discovered that all generations prefer to learn soft skills through on-the-job training, but the generations differ in how they prefer to learn hard (technical) skills. For example, baby boomers prefer to learn hard skills through formal class- room instruction, whereas members of Generation X and millennials prefer to learn hard skills through on-the-job training (Tolbize, 2008, p. 8). Each generation shares a need for immediate application of theory to practice. It is important that a teacher or trainer using the generational lens delivers materials that focus on problems as opposed to just context. Information should be individualized and personalized as much as possible. Giving adult learners assignments that pertain to their real-life situation provides a natural orientation to learn new theories for each generation. Whether delivering materials online or in-person, the teacher or trainer needs to discover factors that motivate each indi- vidual (Holyoke and Larson, 2009, pp. 20–21). Training Needs Assessment An accurate assessment incorporates at least three key elements: 1. Self-assessment. Done by using a questionnaire but is more effectively accomplished when a dedicated facilitator conducts question-and-answer sessions in an informal, workshop-type setting. 2. Work group assessment. Conducted by simple question-and-answer sessions, but it is pref- erable to have the same informal workshop setting as the individual assessment. 3. Personal observations and insights of senior leadership at the airport. Leaders of the work group or perhaps airport directors should provide any insights or perceptions they have as to the needs of the work group, in addition to the observations of the rest of the work group. (Higgins, 2006, pp. 4–5) In essence, “the goal of the trainer is to upgrade the entire skill level of the group in that par- ticular area of weakness” (Saracco, 1998, p. 7). The overall needs assessment enables a trainer to consider the areas of weakness and consider ways in which to strengthen those weak areas. It provides an opportunity for the operations department to approach training from a holistic perspective. Once the specific need for an overall airport operations training program is determined, a training needs assessment of individual employees is conducted. “Without a[n] [individual] needs assessment, there is simply no way to decide which [training] method is best in any one situation” (Quilty, 2003, p. 12). Determining training needs of an individual can be accom- plished through the following: • A personal interview • Completion of a training needs questionnaire or a checklist of skills that asks employees to identify what areas they need help with

68 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports • Testing procedures for traits, aptitudes, or attitudinal characteristics • Performance appraisal and critical instance reports • Observation and measurement of behavior through tests and questionnaires • Personal observations, an advisory committee, or input from coworkers • Assignment or projects that challenge an individual in new areas (Quilty, 1990, pp. 8–9) A more complete approach to the individual employee needs assessment is known as the ASSET Staff Training Model (Saracco, 1998, p. 7). This model is commonly used by organi- zations in developing employee training programs and requires the organization to adopt a strategic approach to training employees. This five-step process is useful not only for assessing needs but also for taking the next steps of educating employees. The ASSET model has the following five components: 1. Assess. Determine the skills needed by operations employees. 2. Strategy. Develop a training strategy, to include initial and recurrent, training methods, trainer, and so on. 3. Scheduling. Consider shift work to avoid work schedule conflicts. 4. Educate. Perform the training, including assessment of employee learning. 5. Track. Maintain training records and track employee progress. (Saracco, 1998) Training Curriculum Design There are various methods in use to develop a training curriculum. One such method is the instructional systems development (ISD) model. This model is useful in considering the design of training curriculum as a series of tasks. Often used by instructional designers, the ISD model requires a consideration of the entire training process, preventing short-sighted development of training curriculum. The ISD model consists of five areas: (a) analysis, (b) design, (c) develop- ment, (d) implementation, and (e) test and evaluation. According to Smith (1995, p. 4), “The ISD model has been used for many years by the government, military, industry, and academia.” It is helpful for airports to consider the ISD model for the design and development of airport operations training programs. Analysis First, the ISD model’s analysis phase requires consideration of job and task requirements and subject knowledge requirements. “Job/Task requirements are specific tasks required of a specific job. For example, completion of daily self-inspection forms, NOTAM forms, or daily event logs” (Smith, 1995, p. 4). Task analysis determines the specific knowledge or skills employees need to successfully perform tasks required of their position. “Subject knowledge requirements are areas that operations personnel need knowledge of in order to successfully accomplish their day-to-day duties” (Smith, 1995, p. 4). Both requirements are important to consider. Tasks required of airport operations personnel vary among airports. Some airports create very specialized operations positions, while other airports require operations personnel also to carry out maintenance and even ARFF responsibilities. Quilty (1990, p. 11) explains as follows: Some job tasks require an employee to learn facts, some require problem-solving, others require following procedures. Aspects to consider include: what kind of skills are required or involved in the performance of the job task, under what conditions are they to be performed, whether it is a simple or complex task, or whether there are few or many . . . steps to the task. For certificated airports, Part 139.303 specifies minimum knowledge requirements such as (a) airport familiarization, including airport marking, lighting, and sign systems; (b) procedures

Additional Literature Review 69 for access to, and operation in, movement areas and safety areas, as specified under Part 139.329; (c) airport communications, including radio communication between the air traffic control tower and personnel, use of the common traffic advisory frequency if there is no air traffic control tower or the tower is not in operation, and procedures for reporting unsafe airport conditions; (d) duties required under the Airport Certification Manual and the requirements of this part; and (e) any additional subject areas required under Parts 139.319, 139.321, 139.327, 139.329, 139.337, and 139.339, as appropriate. Although General Aviation airports do not have as strict standards under Part 139 as the air carrier airports, they must maintain the standards set forth by all federal and state agencies. Training for these employees will take on a different aspect. Many times the employee at a general aviation facility is a “jack of all trades,” requiring him/her to act as a manager, clerk, fueler, and maintenance worker. The new employee will be responsible for knowing the regulations regarding each activity in the realm in his/her job description. The airport Administrator should develop a detailed job description, and provide the employee with the resources to obtain the essential training required. (Saracco, 1998, p. 4) Design The actual design of training requires establishing desired skill levels for the areas determined during the analysis phase. “The purpose of establishing skill levels is to distinguish what level of knowledge or proficiency a person should obtain. This is required because it may not be neces- sary to train all personnel to the same level” (Smith, 1995, p. 5). Accordingly, four skill levels are typically considered: 1. Skill Level A. Facts. “The trainee can identify basic facts and terms about the subject and can do simple parts of the task” (Smith, 1995, p. 5). 2. Skill Level B. Partially Proficient. “The trainee can identify relationships of basic facts and state general principles about the subject. He can do most parts of the task and needs help only on the hardest parts” (Smith, 1995, p. 5). 3. Skill Level C. Competent. “The trainee can analyze facts and principles and draw conclusions about the subject. He can do all parts of the task and identify why and when the task must be done. He needs only a spot check of completed work” (Smith, 1995, p. 5). 4. Skill Level D. Highly Proficient. “The trainee can evaluate conditions and make proper deci- sions about the subject. He can do the task quickly and accurately. He can tell or show others how to do the task. Trainees must meet these levels in order to be certified on the tasks identified in the training record” (Smith, 1995, p. 5). Another way to think about the varying degrees of proficiency required for certain skills is the “training areas prioritization model.” Identified by Saracco (1998), this model identifies various skill levels currently exhibited by employees, as well as various priorities. The model pinpoints areas requiring prioritization of training, including low current skill level for basic and key requirements and moderate current skill level for key requirements. Airports may identify different skill levels required of operations employees, which will affect the level of requirement and the training prioritization. For example, consider training in safety management systems or surface movement guidance and control systems (SMGCS). Operations employees with airside responsibilities will likely need to be highly proficient, whereas being partially proficient or competent will suffice for operations personnel with only landside responsibilities. It is incumbent upon the airport trainer to determine skill levels of the various responsibilities for each operations employee. Smith (1995, p. 5) explains as follows: The trainer or supervisory person responsible for training must determine the minimum training stan- dards. The supervisor responsible for training accomplishes this by matching job or position descriptions with the tasks and subject knowledge areas that were identified earlier. Additionally, trainees know in advance what the standards are.

70 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports Development Once a design for the training curriculum is in mind, development of the training curriculum begins. As Smith (1995, p. 8) shares, “This phase is the most difficult to complete.” It requires serious thought to develop the most appropriate curriculum to accomplish the airport’s goals and contribute to the airport’s mission. It might be easier to think of this curriculum development phase as the training plan devel- opment phase. The training plan will guide training efforts of operations employees. The literature references “training plan” more than it does “curriculum development.” For example, Smith (1995, p. 8) notes that “It is recommended that a training plan or outline be developed for each task/subject knowledge area identified in the training program.” Regardless of the term used, airports expend considerable energy in developing a training curriculum that will meet the needs of regulators, the airport, and employees. Although airport training plans are unique, they should include certain elements. These ele- ments include (a) title, (b) training or learning objective, (c) skill level, (d) training technique, (e) estimated training time, and (f) references (Smith, 1995, pp. 8–9). By organizing the train- ing plan in the suggested format, an airport will ensure that all elements of the training plan are considered. Developing training objectives does require some consideration. Specific training objectives lead to more specific assessment of student learning. A checklist for training objectives (as iden- tified by Quilty, 1990, p. 14) includes the following: • The objective clearly states what the employee must do at the end of the training session. • It has an action verb to describe the behavior. • It includes standards of satisfactory performance on the job. • Employees have the resources necessary to satisfactorily perform the behavior. • The behavior can readily be tested to specified standards under specified conditions. The development of training goals can also aid in the training plan development process. Without goals, training may appear disorganized, sporadic, or lacking in purpose. Developing training goals requires management to consider (a) who is receiving the training, (b) knowledge or skills to be developed, (c) specific training to produce required knowledge and skill develop- ment, (d) expected employee performance, and (e) the conditions under which the behavior is to be performed (Quilty, 1990, p. 13). The process of development requires consideration of methods of training and information to be learned, as well as an evaluation of the learning that takes place. Although this develop- ment phase can be rather involved, it is important for airports to consider. The following six steps of development can guide airport personnel: 1. Assemble and condense the information gathered during the needs assessment. 2. Consider the culture of the organization. 3. Identify what resources are to be used. 4. Identify what factors are critical to the success of the supervisor in a work group at a specific airport. 5. Establish a rough estimate of costs to implement the training program. 6. Develop a timeline to provide the training. (Higgins, 2006, pp. 5–6) Training Implementation Once the training curriculum has been developed, implementation of the training occurs. This phase requires airports to consider how best to accomplish the goals of the training

Additional Literature Review 71 program, as related to implementation. This implementation phase involves the following important steps: 1. Obtain acceptance and support from the top leadership at the airport. 2. Obtain approval for the budget, the participants’ time, the implementation schedule, and other required resources. 3. Determine who will conduct the actual training. 4. Select the training location. 5. Develop training materials and choose training techniques. 6. Develop a feedback document, such as a workshop critique or evaluation form. 7. Develop the training schedule and place the finalized dates on the calendar. 8. Decide whether or not attendance will be mandatory or, alternatively, if attendance and participation are to serve as a reward. 9. Present the training session. 10. Conduct participant evaluation and follow through on suggestions. (Higgins, 2006, pp. 9–10) With the effort invested in developing the training program, it is important to seriously consider how implementation will occur. Most important, “having the complete support from senior leadership is essential for a supervisor training program to be effective” (Higgins, 2006, p. 10). Without this support, the training of airport operation employees will be an after- thought and will not bring about the desired results. Training Test and Evaluation Last, step five of the ISD model requires testing and evaluation of the training. Smith (1995, p. 10) notes: A critical part of any training system is testing and evaluating the results of training. By developing a series of tests, a supervisor can determine if a person is qualified and can be certified on specific tasks and subject knowledge areas. Although some tasks are not conducive to developing written tests, a review of the training objectives outlined in the training plan should reveal which tasks should be evaluated by testing. Assessment is just as important as the training provided. Without it, there is no way to gauge the degree of learning taking place. It is quite common for airports to develop training checklists that indicate all required knowledge and skill areas required of employees. “Once an individual meets the standards set forth in the training plan, he or she should be signed off and certified” (Smith, 1995, p. 10). This testing and evaluation phase includes not only testing employees to ascertain their knowledge and proficiency level but also evaluating the overall training program. By giving employees an opportunity to provide feedback on the effectiveness of the training curriculum and delivery methods, the airport receives information for further refining the training pro- gram. Evaluation of the training program is an ongoing process. Training Methods It is important to understand the two main types of training methods, as outlined by Sree and Basariya (2019): (a) on the job and (b) off the job. According to Sree and Basariya (2019, p. 211): On-the-job training (OJT) refers to activities carried out at a person’s workplace to develop work related knowledge and skills that are required for employees to perform a specific job within the work environment. Employees learn in an environment in which they will need to practice the knowledge and

72 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports skills taught in the on-the-job training. On-the-job training uses the regular or existing workplace tools, machines, documents, equipment, knowledge, and skills necessary for an employee to learn to effectively perform his or her job. Available on-the-job training methods include the following: • Coaching. [The] trainee will be attached to a particular supervisor who will coach, assess and provide feedback to the trainee. Coaching is used with employees who already know the job and have proven themselves capable with possibly one or two areas where the employee needs strengthening. • Mentoring. Mentoring is one-to-one interaction between a senior employee and a junior employee. This type of training focuses on the development of attitude. • Job rotation. Training will be given to employees on different job assignments. This will help [them] to understand the difficulties in the other job assignments as well as [learn] different skills. • Job instruction technology. A step-by-step instruction will be given by the trainer to the learner. • Apprenticeship. [This] is a formalized method of training program that will comprise . . . both class- room education and formalized on-the-job training methods under close supervision. • Understudy. The subordinate is an understudy to the supervisor. The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling [day-to-day] problems. (Sree and Basariya, 2019, p. 212) With these various on-the-job training methods, employees benefit from hands-on learning, especially kinesthetic, or tactile, learners. Sree and Basariya (2019, p. 212) explain: On-the-job training gives employees motivation to start the job. Some reports indicate that people learn more efficiently if they learn hands-on, rather than listening to an instructor. However, this method might not be for everyone, as it could be very stressful. A large majority of employee learning is accom- plished through on-the-job training. Well-designed OJT programs are well planned and resourced, staff managers with competent coaching ability, and define the criterion for performance standards. Iekel (n.d., p. 7) explains that “job related training is any amount or type of training which will cause the employee to be more useful in the work situation into which he has been hired.” It is this usefulness of an employee that has led numerous airports to implement on-the-job training among airport operations personnel. Following certain steps can make for a more effective on-the-job training program. “The OJT program should be preplanned to the greatest extent possible and should relate specifi- cally to each major function of the job” (Iekel, n.d., p. 7). Steps to creating and implementing an on-the-job training program include the following: 1. Select a set of current employees who need the training. 2. Choose a mentor from the team who has the skills and knowledge to train. 3. The mentor will explain, demonstrate the work, and have the learner practice the same under the mentor’s guidance. 4. The mentor will provide feedback on the trainee’s performance. 5. The trainee employee will correct him- or herself according to feedback given by the mentor. (Sree and Basariya, 2019, p. 212) The same process can be followed to train a new employee. Even with the effectiveness of on-the-job training, many airports also use some degree of off-the-job training. Off-the-job training refers to training accomplished in either a classroom or various industry conferences and similar settings. Although this training may occur in the workplace, it is not considered on-the-job training. Available off-the-job training methods include (a) lectures and conferences, (b) vestibule training, (c) simulation exercises, (d) sensi- tivity training, and (e) transactional training. One innovative type of off-the-job training is simulation. Simulation “increase[es] training effectiveness at a much lower cost and in risk-free environments” (Updegrove and Jafer, 2017, para. 2). For example, some airports use airfield driver trainer simulators. Allowing an employee

Additional Literature Review 73 to gain confidence through a simulator can make learning more efficient (easily pausing the scenario to discuss, for example) and does not affect airfield safety. Another innovative type of training involves the use of augmented virtual reality systems. Specifically, a student team of researchers at Purdue University proposed an augmented reality airport training system that won first place in the Airport Operations and Maintenance chal- lenge area of the 2019 FAA Airport Design competition. In this winning proposal, the student team proposed that “virtual and augmented reality technologies will improve the effectiveness of new hire training, recurrent training, and reduce the amount of knowledge lost when senior employees leave” (Borgen, Minarik, and Weldon, 2019, pp. 4–5). The solution proposed by this student team can be created with existing software development platforms. “These tech- nologies will augment tabletop and current simulation-based training, allowing for more immersive and collaborative training” (Borgen, Minarik, and Weldon, 2019, p. 5). Although not yet deployed at airports nationally, this concept holds great promise. Some airports have adapted virtual reality (VR) for training. Active shooter training can be accomplished in a realistic fashion using VR headsets. Immersive training scenarios based on real events provide employees with high-level learning experiences. Gaming elements have now been added to VR training experiences to create realistic training scenarios. Studies have shown the benefits of VR for training and education efforts. For instance, when using head-mounted displays in a serious game, users were more engaged and more likely to play the game again (or to complete training), which leads to reinforcement of knowledge and even creation of new knowledge (attributable to the adaptive nature of the game) (Buttussi and Chittaro, 2018). Some airports use unmanned aerial systems (or drones) to enhance training efforts. By creating high-resolution videos of the airfield, these systems allow new employees to visualize airfield layout, markings, and signage. Recording ARFF training exercises allows new employees to visualize the actions of first responders. And recording wildlife movements allows new employees to better understand the importance of the airport’s wildlife mitigation strategies. Often, airports combine on-the-job and off-the-job training. Airfield familiarization can be accomplished via classroom study and field training. Employees will have an opportunity on the field to apply concepts learned in the classroom. Field training experiences may include work exercises, hands-on training, scenarios, fieldwork, and so on. It is important that these experiences simulate real-world situations that employees may be expected to encounter. Airports often use typical off-the-job classroom lecture. Despite some drawbacks of this training method, “[the] classroom part of the training lays the foundation in which the student builds on and will continue to refer during the training process” (Skelton, 1996, p. 11). Even so, “the unique make-up of an Airport Operations Department does not easily mesh with a standard classroom setting” (Saracco, 1998, p. 8). Addressing this challenge requires some innovative approaches by trainers. Additionally, there are variations on a theme, related to both on-the-job training and off- the-job training. For example, “cross-training” of operations department employees may prove helpful. “A benefit to this ‘cross training’ is that it provides the trainee with the opportunity of associating names with faces which is beneficial since the Operations Department deals on a daily basis with so many different departments, organizations, and agencies” (McElvaney, 1990, p. 15). “Cross training the employees in an organization is involving the team members to learn different skills of the same domain. Employee A will learn the skill of employee B and vice versa. This provides the flexibility to the employees to respond to fluctuating work situations” (Sree and Basariya, 2019, p. 210). Likewise, the use of team training, which simulates real-world situations and has employees work together in work groups, has proved effective for aviation employees. “Although some

74 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports skills needed for effective team performance are generic in nature and can be trained in a variety of contexts, more specialized skills are task contingent and are best trained in situa- tions that closely match the environment” (Littlepage et al., 2016, p. 1277). By creating simu- lations of real-world situations that airport operations employees might expect to encounter, such as response to an Alert II, airports can greatly enhance their training protocol. Some airports have created e-learning training programs that are accessible via distance learning. With these programs, employees can complete training at their own workstations. Employees commonly access e-learning via mobile devices (such as tablets and smartphones). Stastny (1995, p. 25) states: Studies have shown that distance learning can actually be as effective as traditional face-to-face class- room settings as long as the method and technologies used are appropriate to the education programs and the interactions both between student-to-student and teacher-to-student feedback is adequate and timely. E-learning creates efficiencies for the airport trainer as well. Content is easier to modify. Additionally, it is easier to keep content relevant and current. Numerous cloud-based learning management systems and software packages make creating e-learning courses within reach of even the smallest airports. Incorporating videos can also enhance the training experience for employees. Stastny (1999, p. 3) notes that a well-produced video “can be visually and audibly more stimulating than con- ventional training from a lecture. A video’s graphic displays, motions, colors, sounds and music can hold and enrich the trainees’ attention more than an instructor’s speech.” He also explains: Most organizations within an airport can benefit from the advantages of training with video. A video is cost effective by allowing flexibility and minimal use of airport resources during training programs. It is calculated that video training can save as much as 75% of training time for employees, which means new employees are productive sooner and new skills are taught faster. Videos can be presented at any time to hundreds of employees. The video presentation is more cost effective than traditional methods of training such as lecture, tutorial, and discussion. (Stastny, 1999, p. 2) There are numerous methods to effectively train airport operations employees. Higgins (2006, pp. 14–24) proposes a number of different training methods to reach adult learners, including (a) case studies, (b) computer-based training, (c) discussions, (d) games, (e) lectures, (f ) on-the- job training, (g) peer-assisted learning, (h) quizzes, (i) role playing, (j) seminars, (k) simulations, (l) symposiums, (m) tutorials, and (n) workshops. Trainer Assessment In assessing the trainer, consider the following points: • Clearly explain the ground rules for the session. • Encourage everyone to participate. • Be sensitive to the needs of each individual. • Maintain the focus of the class. • Lead the discussions and do not lose control. • Speak slowly and say just enough to keep the session moving. • Appropriately acknowledge contributions. • Listen to others with purpose. • Take an occasional silence positively. • Maintain the attention of participants. • Share a story. • Effectively close the training session. • Provide sufficient breaks. (Szymanski, 1992, p. 12)

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Managers of airports of all sizes face a perennial dilemma: how to efficiently train operations personnel to meet Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 requirements and ensure a safe and secure airport environment.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 112: Airport Operations Training at Small Airports focuses on airport operations employees and aims to better understand current training methods and programs in use by small airports in the United States (including nonhub, nonprimary commercial service, reliever, and general aviation) to initially and recurrently train airport operations employees.

Supplemental material to the report includes several appendices, including Appendix H, Appendix I, Appendix J, Appendix K, and Appendix L.

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