National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Operations Training at Small Airports (2020)

Chapter: Appendix G - Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G - Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Operations Training at Small Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25948.
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93 What have you found to be the most effective manner in which to train airport operations employees with some aviation experience/education? • NA (3) • On-the-job training (78) • Review of required training with familiarization on local rules and procedures (8) • AAAE- or ACI-produced programs such as the ACE Operations courses, ANTN (10) • Classroom-style training (17) • Online (4) • Seminar/conference (8) • Interactive training video • Airport exchange program. Have them draft a memorandum stating a minimum of three things we do better and three things the other airport does better. Then a recommendation to bring new ideas into practice. Also, attendance at the GLC O&M Conference. (2) • All of the methods indicated in the survey (2) • Employees with aviation experience respond favorably to hands-on learning. Although they have aviation experience, they must complete the classroom training and field training before being released to drive on their own. I prefer to take them out on the airfield during their first week so that they may observe the operation to see the airfield during periods of daylight and darkness. • We have found the most effective training to be interactive lecture based classroom train- ing with visual aids such as power point and videos split with practical on-the-job airfield training. This allows for discussions that lead to a better understanding of the regulations and procedures. • A combination - supervisors are assigned to directly teach incoming personnel (typically 1:1 to 1:3 ratio) on subjects related to job functions. Subsequently, specific ACE and NIMS train- ing is provided to staff in the first 12 months. Computer training augments in-person training and is used heavily for recurrent training but the effectiveness of in-person training, either in a classroom or on-the-job, cannot be fully replicated. • New hire training includes 3 mo. with a Training Supervisor. Regardless of knowledge base or previous experience. Once out of initial training a peer to peer program works best. • To assign areas of responsibility with projects to help them engage with the more in-depth detail of airport management. • Assigning the airport operations employees training topics to thoroughly research then pro- duce a PowerPoint training module. Research includes FAA Part 139 regulations, applicable FAA Advisory Circulars, etc. • We developed a training curriculum that takes 6 weeks. This system has been successful for new employees with various types of aviation experience. • Still trying to figure that out. Sorry. A P P E N D I X G Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses

94 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports What have you found to be the most effective manner in which to train airport operations employees without any aviation experience/education? • On-the-job training (85) • NA, prior aviation experience is a job requirement (4) • In-house (ACM/AEP) training (4) • AAAE/online courses (23) • In-house directed study (4) • Classroom training (20) • Again, using the proven procedures outlined, although depending on the candidate, final “check ride” may occur before the end of the 8 week training period. • Classroom training, videos, listening exercises, CBT training and riding along with expe- rienced personnel have worked best for personnel without any aviation experience. After they complete their classroom training, they are then assigned to ride with a more senior [individual] for a minimum of six weeks. Initially, the focus for less-experienced personnel is on the basics, CFR Part 139, protected areas on the airfield, markings signs and lighting, and wildlife identification and hazard mitigation. • All of our training is geared toward employees starting with very little or basic aviation knowl- edge; since each airport is different everyone begins on the same level. Because of this our training methods are the same whether you have past experience/education or not. • New hire training includes 3 mo. with a Training Supervisor. Regardless of knowledge base or previous experience. Once out of initial training they are assigned a mentor for 3 months as well as monthly check-ins with Training Supervisor and Supervisor. • We do not hire entry-level airport ops employees unless they have aviation/education experience. • No ops personnel • If I had an employee without any education and experience, they’d likely be an intern and I’d have them shadow the management, operations and maintenance positions for equal periods of time for more well-rounded development and I’d afford time to take them to other airports to see how their teams operate. • Completion of all our in-house PowerPoint training modules combined with the completion of our comprehensive training/familiarization checklist, which is a one-on-one OJT with an experienced Airport Operations employee. This process can take up to 6 months or longer. All of our Aviation Department employees must learn to operate a vehicle on the movement area. We spend a great deal of time training in this area. Employees must attend a classroom- style training first and pass a written test; then complete computer-based non-movement and movement area driver’s training. They then work with their peers and supervisor learning how to safely drive on the airfield and speak to air traffic control. Once the employee feels comfortable they then must pass a practical driving test administered by the Assistant Airport Manager/Airport Operations Manager. • Interactive training video enhanced with PowerPoint/lectures and practical application with shadowing • Provide access and skills testing with current interactive training, assigned readings of policies and procedures, and job shadowing that is structured to the work areas. • It all depends on their learning style. If they are visual - then read manuals followed by hands- on OJT learning with set LO’s each week. If audio, then they get a presentation followed by hands-on OJT with set LO’s each week. Please share any unique or innovative training practices your airport has implemented to train airport operations personnel. • NA (17) • I do not believe we have implemented anything unique apart from other airports for training purposes.

Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses 95 • AAAE ANTN has been very effective in recurrent training. • Airfield tours with neighboring airports • KSJC cross trains entry-level Airport Operations personnel in Airside, Landside, Terminal Management, and Security Sections as well as our Airport Operations Center. Entry-level employees are then rotated between the Sections on a quarterly basis to ensure the KSI’s are maintained. Each entry-level employee is also required to work one shift per pay period in our Airport Operations Center to maintain those skills as well. • Purchased a learning management system, allows us to create computer-based training classes (using power point) for annual 139 training • We create interactive quizzing style presentations for individuals to complete on a computer using Articulate Storyline 2 software. It’s a great platform for airport-specific subjects or sub- jects that we’ve noticed need extra attention. • Not unique, but have different trainers work with a new hire - each of us offers different insights into what we do, so outside the basic “this is the way you do this” we can share dif- ferent experiences. • With a large military presence, we find it beneficial to train with military personnel either in their training or them with us in our training. • We have driving simulators [which] save on vehicle wear and tear, reduce emissions and allow for safe environment for initial training. • We’ve developed a job qualification document in which the person is paired with a mentor and required to demonstrate understanding of topics and procedures for over 100 sign offs. • We have a 5 airport exchange program that allows each airport to host others and do a half day tour and ride along. • Each employee has a training and orientation manager that is developed by their supervisor/ manager. • Team training • Using CBL to train ALL employees working at the airport on basic emergency response procedures. • We developed a 6 week on-boarding process for any new hire within the department. This process includes completing lesson plans with detailed lists of what to study/read to prepare for in the field training. We have been able to identify approx. how long it should take some- one to complete each lesson and topic of training. This method guarantees that all new hires should be trained to the same level and standard. It consists of individual reading/study time, job shadowing, practical hands-on training, and job oversight. • We use [Lessonly] for videos, PowerPoint and testing. • I have used “LiveATC” to teach situational awareness and radio standards. The trainees listened to ATC transmissions and were asked to identify where the aircraft was located on the Airfield. I have also used NTSB case studies and Airfield emergency simulations to train on aircraft emergencies. Additionally, we have brought in an air ambulance company to conduct training on helicopter landing zone safety and what to do in the event [of] a helicopter accident. • Prefer class room environment training for interaction. • Created an entire online library of training material, full driving simulator. • ADTS Curriculum Development • We have created our own Part 139 PowerPoint, our own driver book and driver tests. • Rather than a designated trainer we allow the new hire to work with all established members of team. This allows them to learn the substance not just a particular style. • None. • We make our AOM’s work on all 3 shifts to ensure they are familiar with the operations throughout the day, night and early morning hrs. Significant amount of time is spent on OJT (approx. 6-months) prior to the AOM becoming “certified” to operate individually.

96 Airport Operations Training at Small Airports • Contract training • We have a designated Training Supervisor that oversees 40+ staff training including new hire, recurrent, regulatory, snow, ARFF, etc. They are an advocate for the employee and push pro- fessional development programs specific for each employee. • We are currently, but slowly, working on a Jeopardy-styled game with questions and group engagement. Also, assigning specific areas of responsibility to each person and making them responsible for the onboarding of new personnel specific to their area and rotating these areas of specialty routinely. • Recognition that everyone learns in their own way, then providing them the resources and the time they need to learn. • We do like to send crew member to other airports for a week to explore other best practices. • Group training with discussion and scenarios • We do practical drivers test for initial and recurrent movement area drivers training. • FAA and airport industry presentations, webinars, seminars, training modules, organizational leadership and process improvement training • Cross training OPS/ARFF • Recurrent training split in 6 months with in house and Digicast. Every 6 months training is required. • On the job mostly with specific training tailored to meet the individual’s ability to learn. • Implemented recurring blended training for airport familiarization/self-inspection inclusive of classroom, quiz and practical exercise with supervisors for critique • We have limited travel budget so we utilize free FDOT training and webinars. • Created structured training curriculum with minimum # of hours for critical learning areas such as airfield familiarization and movement area driving. • Matchbox cars and a map for driver’s training. • Our frontline employees work shifts, with a day, swing and graveyard, so new employees will work all three to familiarize themselves with the varying job tasks and workload of each shift. • The most unique thing we do is probably shadowing personnel who have been here and are familiar. • We have 28 airports we maintain and to efficiently maintain them we teach time management. • For monthly training topics, we utilize Google slides and forms to send out the topic and material, along with the quiz. • The structure of our 6-week on-boarding program. Since implementation we have had a more consistent outcome of higher proficiency. The lesson plans are designed not only for the new [hire] but also the instructors as they are full-time coworkers and not full-time trainers. • Lots of time shadowing supervisors and AAAE ACE test helps as well. • Our Ops Dept just recently started training individuals within the dept on subjects that they had to become proficient in. Ex: one Ops Officer becomes proficient in Safety Areas and then presents to the department training material on what to look for when inspecting these areas and why. • From day-one, we have them on the airfield shadowing someone. We find it important for the new-hire to study and see how it relates to the airport operating environment for reinforcement. • Scenario-based training is great to train on thought processing.

Next: Appendix H - Sample Operations Employee Training Checklist »
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Managers of airports of all sizes face a perennial dilemma: how to efficiently train operations personnel to meet Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 requirements and ensure a safe and secure airport environment.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 112: Airport Operations Training at Small Airports focuses on airport operations employees and aims to better understand current training methods and programs in use by small airports in the United States (including nonhub, nonprimary commercial service, reliever, and general aviation) to initially and recurrently train airport operations employees.

Supplemental material to the report includes several appendices, including Appendix H, Appendix I, Appendix J, Appendix K, and Appendix L.

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