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Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea

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Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans

Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea (1995)
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Overview

Contributors

Description

Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

Topics

Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4769.

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Publication Info

384 pages | 6 x 9
ISBNs:
  • Hardcover: 978-0-309-05137-8
  • Ebook: 978-0-309-17677-4
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/4769
Contents

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xxiv
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-1
FATES AND EFFECTS OF MARINE DEBRIS 2-2
THE VESSEL GARBAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 3-5
EDUCATION AND TRAINING 6-6
OVERARCHING ISSUES 7-7
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT ACTION 8-8
National Leadership 9-9
Coast Guard 10-10
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 11-11
Maritime Administration (MARAD) 12-12
1 Dimensions of the Challenge and U.S. Progress 13-14
INTERNATIONAL AND U.S. MANDATES 15-20
PROGRESS IN U.S. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 21-22
U.S. Navy Compliance 23-24
State Initiatives 25-25
Pilot Programs by Community and Environmental Groups 26-26
Special Situations: The Gulf of Mexico 27-27
THE CHALLENGES AHEAD 28-28
REFERENCES 29-31
2 Sources, Fates, and Effects of Shipborne Garbage 32-32
IDENTIFYING VESSEL GARBAGE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 33-34
SOURCES OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE 35-39
Recreational Boats 40-40
Commercial Fisheries 41-42
Cargo Ships 43-43
Small Public Vessels 44-44
Offshore Industry Rigs, Platforms, and Supply Vessels 45-45
Passenger Cruise Ships 46-46
Research Vessels 47-47
General Observations 48-49
Implications for Special Areas 50-50
Implications for Implementation of Annex V 51-51
Human Health Problems 52-52
Ecological Effects 53-53
Entanglement of Marine Animals 54-54
Ingestion of Plastics by Marine Species 55-55
SUMMARY 56-56
REFERENCES 57-62
3 Implementation 63-63
HAZARD EVOLUTION MODEL 64-65
Interventions to Remedy the Hazard 66-67
Technological Innovations 68-68
Organizational and Operational Changes 69-75
Educational Communication 76-77
Economic Incentives 78-78
Application of the Model to the Seafarer Communities 79-79
SUMMARY 80-80
REFERENCES 81-82
4 Elements of an Implementation Strategy 83-83
INTRODUCTION 84-84
Intelligence 85-85
Analysis of Interventions 86-86
Intelligence 87-92
Control 93-93
Analysis of Interventions 94-98
Intelligence 99-99
Control 100-100
Analysis of Interventions 101-105
Intelligence 106-106
Intelligence 107-109
Control 110-110
Intelligence 111-113
Control 114-115
Analysis of Interventions 116-116
Control 117-120
Analysis of Interventions 121-124
Intelligence 125-125
Analysis of Interventions 126-126
Intelligence 127-131
Control 132-132
Analysis of Interventions 133-135
REFERENCES 136-139
5 Integrating Vessel and Shoreside Garbage Management 140-140
PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT 141-142
Source Reduction 143-143
On-Board Storage 144-144
Shoreside Recycling 145-146
Compactors 147-147
Comminuters, Pulpers, and Shredders 148-149
Incinerators 150-153
Enhancing Shipboard Technology Development and Use 154-154
GARBAGE MANAGEMENT IN PORTS 155-156
Garbage Management Strategies 157-158
ENHANCING THE VESSEL GARBAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 159-159
Quarantine Requirements 160-162
Port Accountability 163-164
Liability 165-165
Who Should Pay? 166-166
SUMMARY 167-168
REFERENCES 169-172
6 Education and Training 173-173
Public Awareness Campaigns 174-174
Management Education and Training 175-175
EXPERIENCE BASE RELATED TO ANNEX V 176-176
Marine Debris Information Offices 177-177
Efforts Targeting Boaters 178-178
Port Projects 179-179
Efforts Involving Industry 180-180
Public Awareness Programs 181-181
Information Exchange 182-182
A MODEL ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM 183-184
Leadership 185-186
Secure Funding 187-187
SUMMARY 188-188
REFERENCES 189-190
THE NEED FOR LEADERSHIP 191-195
U.S. ENFORCEMENT OF ANNEX V 196-197
Clarify Extent of Port State Authorities 198-198
Simplify Handling of Civil Cases 199-199
Track and Punish Repeat Violators 200-200
Monitor Garbage Handling Practices 201-201
Surveillance by Ship Operators 202-202
ISSUES RELATED TO SPECIAL AREAS 203-205
Implementation of Annex V in the Wider Caribbean 206-207
SUMMARY 208-208
REFERENCES 209-209
8 Measuring Progress in Implementation of Annex V 210-210
RECORD KEEPING AS A MEASURE OF IMPLEMENTATION 211-211
Assessing Annex V Implementation Internationally 212-213
Surveys of Beach Debris 214-215
Monitoring Trends in Biological Impacts 216-216
Monitoring Plastics in the Marine Environment 217-217
Benthic Surveys of Plastic Debris 218-218
Data Collection and Management 219-219
REFERENCES 220-221
9 National Strategy 222-222
IDENTIFYING AND EVALUATING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS 223-224
Recreational Boats and Their Marinas 225-225
Commercial Fisheries and Their Fleet Ports 226-228
Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports 229-230
Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Their Terminals 231-231
Small Public Vessels and Their Home Ports 232-232
Offshore Platforms, Rigs, Supply Vessels, and Their Shore Bases 233-233
Navy Surface Combatant Vessels and Their Home Ports 234-235
Passenger Cruise Ships and Their Itinerary Ports 236-237
Research Vessels and Their Ports of Call 238-239
10 Federal Action to Improve Implementation of Annex V 240-240
SCIENTIFIC MONITORING 241-241
VESSEL/SHORE INTERFACE 242-244
ON-BOARD TECHNOLOGIES 245-246
ENFORCEMENT 247-248
EDUCATION AND TRAINING 249-249
NATIONAL LEADERSHIP 250-254
APPENDIXES 255-256
APPENDIX A Committee on Shipborne Wastes Biographical Information 257-262
Regulation 1 263-263
Regulation 4 264-264
Regulation 5 265-266
Regulation 6 267-267
Regulation 7 268-268
1 Introduction and definitions 269-271
2 Training, education and information 272-273
3 Minimizing the amount of potential garbage 274-275
4 Shipboard garbage handling and storage procedures 276-282
5 Shipboard equipment for processing garbage 283-287
6 Port reception facilities for garbage 288-288
7 Ensuring compliance with Annex V 289-292
Appendix Form for reporting alleged inadequacy of port reception facilities for garbage 293-293
Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 294-294
1 Scope 295-295
2 Definitions 296-296
3 Materials and manufacture 297-300
4 Operating requirements 301-301
5 Operating controls 302-303
7 Tests 304-304
9 Marking 305-305
Minimum information to be provided 306-309
A2 - Fire protection requirements for incinerators and waste stowage spaces 310-310
A4 - Flue gas temperature 311-311
Annex 312-312
APPENDIX C The International Law of the Sea: Implications for Annex V Implementation 313-314
COASTAL STATE AUTHORITIES 315-316
PORT STATE CONTROL 317-317
MORE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS 318-319
STRENGTHENING THE FORCE OF IMO RULES 320-320
APPENDIX D Time Line for U.S. Implementation of Annex V 321-323
Antarctic Ocean 324-324
The Baltic Sea 325-325
Caribbean Sea 326-326
Gulf of Mexico 327-327
Persian Gulf 328-328
Red Sea 329-330
REFERENCES 331-331
ENTANGLEMENT OF MARINE SPECIES 332-334
INGESTION OF PLASTICS BY MARINE SPECIES 335-337
GHOST FISHING 338-338
REFERENCES 339-342
Index 343-355
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