National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Biohgraphies of Contributing Authors
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

Index

A

Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), 156–157

Accreditation process, 156–157

Adaptive control, 200

Administrative theory, classical, 117–119

Alcoa, 225, 232

Artificial intelligence

use of simulation models and, 207

used for schedule management, 211

B

Badore, Nancy L., 27, 36, 37, 85

Bateson, G., 62

Benchmarking.

See also Metrics

competitive, 200

explanation of, 100, 108

importance of, 63

metrics useful for, 100

process performance and, 229

Blakey, Art, 239

Bloch, E., 16, 73

Boeing, 235–236

Bowen, H. Kent, 54, 72, 93

Breakthrough planning, 200

Bridges, Bill, 192

C

Camp, R. C., 100

Capacity management. See Total capacity management (TCM)

Capacity requirements analysis, 209–210.

See also Total capacity management (TCM)

Capital expenditures, 147

Change

ongoing, 208, 233

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

promotion and management of, 233–237

risk as consequence of, 190

Change control system, 194

Chew, W. B., 48

Clark, K. B., 202

Commercialization projects, 94

Communication

and change process, 235

effect of functional groups on, 175

employee motivation through, 236–237

as key element of success, 79

transformation in manufacturing due to technological advances in, 10

Communication barriers, 160

due to different manufacturing languages, 175–176

information management systems and, 176–178

between material sourcing and procurement, 174

between product design and production, 173–174

regarding product support, 174

Communications network

to facilitate distribution of knowledge and information, 74

as principle of integrated enterprise, 161–162

Competition

goals of manufacturers regarding, 28

and time-pressure, 67

understanding capability of, 29

Competitive advantage, 68, 81, 147–148

Competitive benchmarking, 200

Competitive capability, long-term, 104–105

Competitive environment, worldwide, 10–11, 78–79, 85

Compton, W. Dale, 46, 50, 53, 55, 107

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), 204

Computer modeling, 75

Computer technology, 10, 215

Concurrent engineering, 18.

See also Simultaneous engineering

Conniff, Ray, 242

Continuous improvement, 200

Cook, Harry E., 33, 45, 48, 72–73, 116

Cost performance, 109, 168

Costs

communication problems regarding, 176

learning curve related to, 109–110

Critical variables, 57–58

Cross-functional teams, 172

Customer awards, 143

Customer complaints, 143–144

Customer satisfaction

checks on, 146

elements of, 128

for inside customers, 133

leadership in issues dealing with, 164

meaning of, 130–131

objectives involved in, 131–132

Customers

defining organization's, 128–130

as members of manufacturing system, 79

served by manufacturingor ganizations, 4–5, 30–31

understanding of, 63

Cycle time

in integrated enterprise, 159

reduction in, 146

variance of, 47

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
D

Data, strategic analysis, 225–226

Davis, S., 197, 199

Decision-expenditure curves, 53–54

Design

communication barriers between production and product, 173–174

simulation and assessment of, 208–209

Design process, 150–153

Dispatch lists, 206, 207

Double-loop learning, 63

Drucker, P. F., 32, 65

Dunlap, Michelle D., 107

E

Economic lot size model, 185

Economic warfare, 12

Edmondson, Harold E., 31, 51, 63, 128

Education.

See also Engineering education

establishment of quantitative performance objectives and goals for , 154–157

experienced-based, 178

implications of manufacturing foundations for, 26

insufficiencies in business and engineering, 149–150

need for reassessment of, 80–81

Eisenberg, E., 240

Ellington, Duke, 242

Empirical models

explanation of, 52–54

laws vs., 182–185

Employee capability, 29

Employee empowerment

critical need for, 87, 188

employee involvement vs., 86–87

importance of, 34, 37

in integrated enterprise, 161

Employee involvement

critical nature of, 87

employee empowerment vs., 86–87

environment encouraging, 79–80

explanation of, 86

importance of, 36–37, 147

objectives of, 35–36

at plant level, 88

risk and, 190

Employee motivation

management climate and, 141

through communication, 236–237

Employees

assessment of, 105

as asset of organization, 5, 35

as customers, 30–31

participation in strategic analysis by, 231–232

understanding of manufacturing foundations by, 24

Empowerment.

See also Employee empowerment

of students, 155

by world-class manufacturers, 35–37, 80

Engineering

coordination between manufacturing and, 144

and design process, 150–153

responsibility involved in, 133

Engineering education

steps to reduce Taylorism in, 154–157

Taylorism as obstacle to, 150–153

Engineering limits, 57

Engineers Council for Professional

Development, 156

Entrepreneurial surveillance, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

Ephlin, Donald F., 61, 89

Experience curve. See Learning curve

F

Factories

design of future, 59

ongoing modernization of, 196

Feedback loops

influences on, 54

learning and, 63–64

15/85 rule, 54, 58, 67, 94, 96, 98

Financial metrics

explanation of, 48–50

used for benchmarking, 101

Fisher, Philip A., 29–30, 37, 68, 137

Ford Executive Development Center, 92

Ford Motor Company, 88–92

Forecasts

development of, 226–229

summarizing, 230–231

Foreign competition, 10–11

Foster, R., 71

Functional filtering, 134

G

Garvin, D. A., 108

Gemba, 208, 234

General Electric Medical Systems, 47

Gibson, John E., 19, 80

Goals

to adopt foundations of world-class manufacturing systems, 82

for education, 154–157

metrics to define, 51

short- and long-term, 29

of world-class manufacturers, 4, 28–30

Goodman, Benny, 243

H

Hall, Jim, 239

Hanson, William C., 28–30, 33, 37, 40, 74, 158

Hayes, R. H., 202

Heim, Joseph A., 107

Herman, Woody, 243

Hewlett–Packard, 46–48

Historical time series graphs, 227

Holland, Dave, 239

House, C. H., 48

I

Imai, Masaaki, 233–234

Improvement

determining limits for, 55, 57

organizational ability for, 61

Incentives, 41

Industrial operations engineering, 172

Information-based organizations, 65

Information management systems, communication barriers and, 176–179

Integrated enterprise

framework for, 159–161

future of, 164–165

leadership in, 163–164

manufacturing as, 158–159

measures in order to attain, 33

organizational strategy and, 162–164

principles of, 161–162

Intel, 193, 194

Involvement. See Employee involvement

J

Japanese manufacturing, 32, 134

change in, 233

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

product introduction in, 169

quality control in, 144

relationship with supplier and purchaser in, 37

vendor dealings of, 145

Jazz, as metaphor for high-performance teams, 238–244

Johnson, H. T., 49

Just-in-time inventory, 45

Just-in-time manufacturing, 228

K

Kaizen,

Kaplan, R. S., 49

Kelvin, Lord, 43

Knowledge

corporate memory and, 200

experience-based vs. theory-based, 25

power and, 234–236

Krupka, Dan C., 19, 53, 57–58, 76–77

L

Labor strikes, 145

Lardner, James F., 32–33, 58, 60, 74, 173

Laws. See also Manufacturing laws

empirical models vs., 182–185

explanation of, 51–52

physical, 181–182

tautologies vs., 180–182

Leadership

in integrated enterprise, 163–164

knowledge and qualities of successful, 78–79

organization size and, 40

people, 161

product quality and, 41

technology, 161

Lean production, metrics used for, 45

Learning

foundations related to, 62–68

organizational, 61, 199–203

performance improvement as result of, 7

Learning curve

conclusions regarding, 114–115

observations regarding, 111–113, 182–183, 186

related to costs, 109–110

related to quality, 110–111

Learning curve models, 50, 53

Learning organization, strategic control in, 199–203

Learning process, 62–64, 66

Limits

engineering, 57

recognition of technological, 71

theoretical, 57

Linear programming, duality in, 185

Little, John D. C., 52–53, 55, 180, 222

Long-term goals, 29

Long-term investors, 139, 142

Loucks, Vernon R., Jr., 78

M

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, 47

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 39

Management

future vision in, 203

hierarchical and autocratic trends in, 175

impact of short-range investors on, 138–139

implementation of changes in senior, 91–92

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

in integrated enterprise, 162–164

Japanese leadership in, 32

need for future vision in, 197–198

and process of change, 234–235

responsibility of, 6

strategic planning and, 58

traditional vs. change-driven, 197, 198

understanding tasks of, 38, 40, 42

Management accounting systems, 49

Manne, Shelley, 239

Manufacturers.

See also World-class manufacturers

characteristics of post-WorldWar II, 85–86

goals and objectives of, 4

measures for rating, 117–118

realistic goals for, 55, 57

Manufacturing

conflicting interests in, 27–28

cooperation between research and, 140–141

coordination between engineering and, 144

future of competitive, 25, 160, 164–165

key terms used in, 176

life cycle and business cycle in, 189

management in future, 65

product definition and, 133

science of, 16

Taylorism as obstacle to, 150–153.

See also Taylorism

Manufacturing executives

education for, 178–179

questions asked by security analysts of, 142–148

Manufacturing foundations.

See also World-class manufacturers

audience, 24, 26

benefits of, 23–24, 26

explanation and importance of, 20–23

Manufacturing laws

empirical models vs., 182–185

outlook for, 185–186

tautologies vs., 180–182

Manufacturing opportunity, 230–231

Manufacturing process technologies, 56

Manufacturing processes

complexity of, 215

diagrams of, 168–169

performance forcasting, 227–231

use of models to understand, 208

Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II), 206, 212

Manufacturing systems.

See also Integrated enterprise

determining optimal strategy for, 43–44

development of theories in, 75

enhancement of scientific method for understanding, 75–77

explanation of, 15–20

identification of laws of, 52

identification of variables of, 57–58

interdependencies of, 7, 15, 17, 79, 149

modeling of, 186–188, 205

study of, 14–15

transformation of U.S., 9–10

Manufacturing unit, 218–220

Marketing responsibilities, 132–133

Marsalis, Wynton, 238–239

Marsing, David B., 36, 40, 46, 72, 189

Mathematical models, simulation used in, 75–76

Mathematical tautologies, 180

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

Matsushita, Konosuke, 187–188

Metrics

choice of fundamental, 119

to define goals and performance expectations, 51

to define speed of learning, 64

direct, 45–46

to evaluate product plan, 135

evaluation of competitors, 29

explanation of,

financial, 48–50

interactions between, 106

as operational guidelines, 50–51

for professional education, 154–155

proxy, 45

sources for, 44

taxonomy for, 45–46

use of appropriate, 46–48

Mitchell, Grover, 242

Mize, Joe H., 34–35, 58, 63–64, 196

Model calibration, 200

Modeling

facilitation of, 205

growth in use of, 75

of manufacturing systems, 205

Models

as basis for decisions and performance prediction, 58–60

conditional relations in manufacturing system, 75–76

dangers in use of, 216–217

empirical, 52–54, 182–185

explanation of, 52, 204–205

power of simple, 217–223

and understanding of critical variables, 57–58

used for exploration of strategic alternatives, 58

used to formalize organizational knowledge, 66–68

user understanding of, 54–55

Motivation, employee, 141, 236–237

N

Nadler, G., 59

National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), 11

National Critical Technologies Panel, 69

Nonfinancial metrics, 49–50

O

Objectives

importance of short-term, 30

of world-class manufacturers, 4, 28–30

Organization charts, 162, 163

Organization size

and access to technology, 81–82

advantages of small, 87

leadership and, 40

Organizational behavior, 160

Organizational culture, 116

Organizational development model, 89

Organizational knowledge, 66–68

Organizational structure

criteria relevant to, 117–118

as organizational barrier, 160

Organizations

dissatisfaction with functional, 116, 117

employees as asset of, 5

impact of, 31–35

information-based, 65

renewal of, 62

transition process in, 192–193

P

Participative management

of education enterprise, 156

high-performance teams in, 238–244

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

implementation of, 90–91

People leadership, 161.

See also Leadership

Performance

aggregated measures of, 104

metric of time, 171–172

Performance evaluation

explanation of, 44

process of, 6

Pestillo, Peter, 89

Physical laws, 181–182, 205

Power, knowledge and, 234–236

Price, R. L., 48

Pritsker, A. Alan B., 59, 66–67, 204

Problem-solving methods, 193

Process control systems, 193

Process improvement programs, 221

Process introduction

empirical observations for, 94–99

requirements for, 93

Process performance, forecasting, 227–229

Product definition, 132–133

Product introduction

empirical observations for, 94–99

requirements for, 93

time as element in, 169, 172

Product performance metrics, 101–102

Product plan

checks regarding, 1136

customer satisfaction and, 132–135

implementation of, 136

Product quality, 41

Product unit, 218

Production

learning curves and, 111

quality index and cumulative volume of, 114

use of simulation for control over, 206

Production process

transfer of responsibility to operators of equipment for, 193–194

use of statistical metrics in, 46

Profitability

nonfinancial indicators and longterm, 49

as proxy metric, 45

Prospect theory, 184–185

Proxy metrics, 45

Q

Quality

assessment of trends in, 108

definitions of, 108

importance of, 107–108

learning curve related to, 110–111

measures of, 108–109

Quality circles, 88

Quality control personnel, 144–145

Quality function deployment (QFD) approach, 127, 132

Quality index (QI), 111–114

Queueing models, 169–172

Queueing systems, 180–181

Queueing theory, 52

Quinn, James Brian, 27, 41

R

Research and development

cooperation between manufacturing and, 140–141

dominant role in U.S. of, 134

Research community, study of manufacturing foundations by, 26

Response flow checklists (RFCs), 193–194

Rewards, 41

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

Risk

ability to handle, 195

avoidance of, 189

as consequence of change, 190

control methodology and, 194

and effective use of people, 190–191

and planning for change, 191–193

statistics, problem solving and, 193–194

Robinson, G. H., 59

S

S–curve phenomena, 228

Satisfaction, 130–131

Scheduling

execution and dispatching in, 211

management of, 210–211

use of simulation for, 206, 210, 211

Schneiderman, A. M., 111

Scientific management principles, 22

Scientific method, 75–77

Securities and Exchange Commission, 101, 139

SEMATECH, 11

Short-range investors, 138–139

Short-term goals, 29

Simon, Herbert A., 74–75, 205

Simulation

large-scale, 186

of manufacturing systems, 60, 205

in mathematical models, 75–76

as mechanism for explaining and distributing complex rules and policies , 59

for scheduling purposes, 206, 210, 211

use of, 60, 75, 206

Simulation languages

availability of, 75

to build and analyze manufacturing models, 205

Simulation modeling, 60

Simultaneous engineering, 18

requirements of, 72

as team concept, 127

Single-loop learning, 62, 63

Size. See Organization size

Small manufacturers, 81–82

Solberg, James J., 25, 55, 75, 215

Stacy, Jess, 243

Statistical process control (SPC)

charts used for, 193–194

explanation of, 108, 109

Statistical quality control

explanation of, 143

success of, 142

Statistics

need for working knowledge of, 193

status presentation and, 211

Stock market investors

importance of manufacturing division to, 139–141

types of, 137–139

Strategic analysis, 224

at Alcoa, 225

data in, 225–226

and development of forecasts, 226–229

participation and, 231–232

summarizing forecasts and interpreting opportunities in, 230–231

Strategic control, 199–202

Strategic planning

to create planned crisis, 191–192

early process of, 199, 200

management and, 58

Student empowerment, 155

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

Student work practices, 155–156

Subsystem interfaces, 72–74

Subsystem research, 70, 72

Subsystem unit functioning, 122–124

Suppliers

barriers between purchasers and, 5–6

relationship with, 37–38

System dynamics, 186–187

System operational metrics, 103–104

System research, 74–75

System/subsystem structure

difference between function and, 124–125

functioning of, 122–124

T

Taguchi's paradigm

application of, 120–124

explanation of, 119–120

Tautologies, 180–182

Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 22, 117, 150–151

Taylorism

appropriateness of application of, 153–154

and education, 154–157

elements of, 150–153

explanation of, 150

Teams

creativity in, 240

large high-performance, 241–244

product development and cross-functional, 172

responsibility needed by, 191

small high-performance, 239–244

trust as element of, 159–160

use of statistics and problem-solving methods by, 193

Technical work force capabilities, 50–51

Technology

acceptance of changes in, 25

assessing developments in, 105

foundations related to, 68, 70–77

Japanese, 32

as key to competitive advantage, 68, 81

leadership in, 161

national critical, 69

recognition of limits to, 71

use of, 7–8, 61, 77

Theoretical limits, 57

Time

as critical metric, 76–77, 166–168

as detector of inefficiencies, 171–172

as diagnostic tool and driver ofquality and cost, 168–169

and queueing models, 169–172

Total capacity management (TCM)

architecture of, 212–213

as concept, 214

explanation of, 204

functions in, 208–211

overview of, 206–208

schedule execution and dispatching and, 211

Total quality control (TQC), 235

Transport unit, 219, 220

Transportation technology, 10

Turnbull, G. Keith, 49, 55, 57, 62, 64, 70, 224

U

Union membership, 145

Unit operation metrics, 102–103

United States

ability to take emotional risks and a competitive advantage for, 195

goals to adopt foundations of

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×

world-class manufacturing systems, 82

manufacturing gap in, 73

V

Validity-check model, 55

Vendors

barriers between purchasers and, 5–6

number of and relationships with, 145–146

relationship with, 37–38

Visioning

ability of managers to apply, 197

explanation of, 200

Visualization graphics methods, 75

W

Wall Street investors

importance of manufacturing division to, 139–141

types of, 137–139

Welliver, Albertus D., 36, 38, 63, 64–65, 233

Wheelwright, S. C., 202

Wilson, Richard C., 36, 40, 80, 238

Work force capabilities, 50–51

Work teams. See Teams

World-class manufacturers

common model as basis for achievement of, 208

elimination of barriers within organizations by, 35

employee involvement and empowerment by, 35–37, 80

goals and objectives of, 4, 28–30

leadership provided by, 164

meaning of, 28–29

and method of acquiring knowledge, 67–68

models as tools used by, 60

and relationship with customers, 4, 28–33

relationship with suppliers and vendors, 37–38

role of management for, 42

use of metrics to help define goals and performance expectations, 51

view and use of technology by, 77

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 263
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 264
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 265
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 269
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 270
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 271
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 272
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1992. Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1867.
×
Page 273
Manufacturing Systems: Foundations of World-Class Practice Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00 Buy Hardback | $50.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Some 70 percent of U.S. manufacturing output currently faces direct foreign competition. While American firms understand the individual components of their manufacturing processes, they must begin to work with manufacturing systems to develop world-class capabilities.

This new book identifies principles--termed foundations--that have proved effective in improving manufacturing systems. Authored by an expert panel, including manufacturing executives, the book provides recommendations for manufacturers, leading to specific action in three areas:

  • Management philosophy and practice.
  • Methods used to measure and predict the performance of systems.
  • Organizational learning and improving system performance through technology.

The volume includes in-depth studies of several key issues in manufacturing, including employee involvement and empowerment, using learning curves to improve quality, measuring performance against that of the competition, focusing on customer satisfaction, and factory modernization. It includes a unique paper on jazz music as a metaphor for participative manufacturing management.

Executives, managers, engineers, researchers, faculty, and students will find this book an essential tool for guiding this nation's businesses toward developing more competitive manufacturing systems.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!