National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: References
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
×
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
×
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
×
Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
×
Page 126

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Appendix A Acronyms ACC American Chemistry Council AN ammonium nitrate AN/FO ammonium nitrate fuel oil ANNIE ammonium nitrate nitrobenzene improvised explosive ANSP Ammonium Nitrate Security Program AQAP Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula ATF Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives BAU+ business as usual plus BCA benefit cost analysis BP black powder CAN calcium ammonium nitrate CBP United States Customs and Border Protection CDL commercial drivers’ license CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CFATS Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards CHP concentrated hydrogen peroxide COAG Council of Australian Governments C-TPAT Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism DA Department of the Army DEA Drug Enforcement Administration DHS United States Department of Homeland Security DOC United States Department of Commerce DOJ United States Department of Justice DOL United States Department of Labor DOT United States Department of Transportation EAP emergency action plan EC European Commission EGDN ethylene glycol dinitrate EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS 123

124 Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals ET exploding target EU European Union EU MS European Union Member States FALN Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional FARC Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FDA United States Food and Drug Administration FGAN fertilize grade ammonium nitrate FMCSA Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration GPS global positioning system HM hazardous materials or hazmat HME homemade explosive HMTD hexamethylene triperoxide diamine IATA International Air Transport Association ID Identification IED improvised explosive device IME Institute of Makers of Explosives IS icing sugar ISIS Islamic State KSP Known Shipper Program MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration MTSA Maritime Transportation Security Act NACD National Association of Chemical Distributors NFPA National Fire Protection Association NG Nitroglycerine NPPD Nation Protection and Programs Directorate OMB Office of Management and Budget OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PBIED person-borne improvised explosive device PETN petraerythritol tetranitrate PGS Programme Global Shield PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration PIRA Provisional Irish Republican Army PPF powder, paste, and flake RC Radio controlled PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Appendix A 125 SCP Standing Committee on Precursors SOCMA Society of Chemical Manufacturers and Affiliates SSAN security sensitive ammonium nitrate TATP triacetone triperoxide TFI The Fertilizer Institute TGAN technical grade ammonium nitrate TNT Trinitrotoluene TSA Transportation Security Administration TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TWIC Transportation Workers Identification Credential UAN urea ammonium nitrate UFF United Freedom Front UN United Nations U.S. United States USBDC United States Bomb Data Center USCG United States Coast Guard UPS United Parcel Service USPS United States Postal Service VBIED vehicle-borne improvised explosive device PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Next: Appendix B Risk and Risk Management »
Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals Get This Book
×
Buy Prepub | $64.00 Buy Paperback | $55.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions required to make IEDs are highly accessible. In many cases, precursor chemicals enable this criminal use of IEDs because they are used in the manufacture of homemade explosives (HMEs), which are often used as a component of IEDs.

Many precursor chemicals are frequently used in industrial manufacturing and may be available as commercial products for personal use. Guides for making HMEs and instructions for constructing IEDs are widely available and can be easily found on the internet. Other countries restrict access to precursor chemicals in an effort to reduce the opportunity for HMEs to be used in IEDs. Although IED attacks have been less frequent in the United States than in other countries, IEDs remain a persistent domestic threat. Restricting access to precursor chemicals might contribute to reducing the threat of IED attacks and in turn prevent potentially devastating bombings, save lives, and reduce financial impacts.

Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals prioritizes precursor chemicals that can be used to make HMEs and analyzes the movement of those chemicals through United States commercial supply chains and identifies potential vulnerabilities. This report examines current United States and international regulation of the chemicals, and compares the economic, security, and other tradeoffs among potential control strategies.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!