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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Appendix I Committee Members and Staff Biographies Committee Victoria A. Greenfield (Chair) is a visiting scholar in the Department of Criminology, Law, and Society at George Mason University. She specializes in national security and international social and economic issues, including transnational crime, with a particular interest in drug production and trafficking. In addition, she advises federal agencies and others on strategic planning, performance evaluation, and program management. Some of her latest publications explore means of assessing the harms of criminal activities and the seriousness of crime, the supply chain for doping products, mechanisms for reducing opium-poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, and benefits and costs of terrorism regulation and border security. Victoria has also written extensively on international trade, globalization, and defense economics. In recent years, she has held the positions of senior economist, RAND Corporation (currently adjunct), and Admiral Crowe Chair of the Economics of the Defense Industrial Base, U.S. Naval Academy. She also served on the National Academies’ Committee on Estimating Costs to the Department of Justice of Increased Border Enforcement. Previously, she was the senior economist for international trade and agriculture, the President's Council of Economic Advisers, White House; chief international economist, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, U.S. Department of State; and the principal analyst, U.S. Congressional Budget Office. Victoria holds a BS in agricultural economics (Cornell University) and a PhD in agricultural and resource economics (University of California–Berkeley). Robert G. Best is a DOD civilian with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Joint Improvised- Threat Defeat Organization (JIDO), hired as a highly qualified expert to design and implement a joint- forces counter-IED signatures program. In this role, he applies his comprehensive knowledge of spectral phenomenology and evolving processes, expert knowledge of state-of-the-art MASINT component and system development, and skill in effective program management techniques. He leads the multiagency IPT and coordinates the development of the C2S2 system and the critical signatures measurement program. In addition, he serves as an interface between the intelligence community, R&D community, and JIEDDO to help identify, evaluate, and coordinate the technical development of new MASINT sensors and/or exploitation hardware/software systems. He works closely with the JIEDDO Intel Division and COIC analysts to help them develop an operational understanding of the observables and exploitable signatures suitable for network attack. Robert has more than thirty years of experience in remote sensing, digital image processing, and spatial information systems. His career has been primarily PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS 171

172 Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals focused on applications in counterterrorism, counter-CC&D, counter-narcotics, counter-IED, and radiological emergency response. He is a recognized subject matter expert in MASINT signatures phenomenology, sensor systems, digital image processing, and exploitation. Robert has a proven history in developing concepts into viable programs. He has designed, integrated, and deployed MASINT systems into operational environments for the intelligence community and U.S. military services. Robert has BS degrees from South Dakota State University in wildlife and fisheries science and general chemistry (both 1974), an MS in wildlife and fisheries science from South Dakota State University (1979), and a PhD in environmental engineering (1988) from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Leo E. Bradley is an independent consultant and owner of LE Bradley Consulting LLC. He is currently consulting with the Energetics Research Group at Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering as well as several private companies. He speaks and writes frequently on counter-IED, combating weapons of mass destruction, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), and explosives safety. He has extensive knowledge on EOD gained during his twenty-nine years as part of the U.S. Army. He served as the commander of the 184th Ordnance Battalion from 2004 to 2006 out of Fort Gillem, Georgia, and when deployed to Iraq. He then served as the chief of the army’s EOD Division from 2006 to 2008 and worked with NATO groups to establish common policies and standards relating to EOD and for countering IEDs. From 2008 to 2010 he was assigned to the Office of the Secretary of Defense as chief of EOD and Humanitarian Mine Action. In 2011 and 2012 he led the Combined Joint Task Force Paladin (counter-IED) in Afghanistan, which was charged with defeating IEDs, with marked success. From 2010 to 2012 he served as the commander of the 71st Ordnance Group out of Fort Carson, Colorado, and worked with local, state, and federal law enforcement in the United States for safe and effective EOD. In 2012 he was assigned to the DOD Explosives Safety Board and worked to standardize explosive disposal procedures. Leo was a cofounder of the group Return to Adventure in 2011, which is a charity with the goal of assisting the recovery and rehabilitation of wounded EOD and law enforcement bomb squad personnel through outdoor activities and adventure sports. Leo completed a BS in science at Pennsylvania State University in 1985. John C. Brulia worked in the commercial explosives industry from 1973 to 2016, most recently at the Austin Powder Company (now retired). Prior to his commercial explosives career, John served as a demolitionist with the U.S. Army Special Forces from 1967 to 1969 in Asia, including duty in Special Operations in Vietnam. After his discharge, he continued his military service as a demolitionist in various National Guard and Reserve Special Forces units until 1977. From 1973 to 2002, John worked for the Atlas Powder Company (and its successors, ICI Explosives and Orica USA) in multiple roles, including one as a manager of technical development in the area of emulsion explosives, another leading a team of scientists and engineers as a manager of bulk explosives, and another as a vice president of a wholly owned subsidiary responsible for the purchase, storage, transportation, sale, and use of explosives. He worked internationally for eight years with Orica prior to his retirement in 2002. Subsequently, he served three years as the president of Maurer and Scott Inc., a privately held company involved in commercial explosives distribution and specialized blasting services for mining operations. At Austin Powder from 2005 to 2016, John was the director of Safety and Compliance, working with regulatory agencies and responsible for developing security plans, including those for several explosives manufacturing facilities. While at Austin Powder, he also worked as a member representative with the Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME), where he served a term as the chairman of its Security Committee. Throughout his career, John presented technical papers and wrote multiple articles and handbook chapters on explosives safety, security, and regulation. Since his retirement in February, John has worked with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) to provide advanced PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Appendix I 173 explosives training, volunteers with the International Society of Explosives Engineers (ISEE), and continues to serve in his 28th year on the New York State Blasters Examination Board. He has held a blasting license in New York for over forty years. John obtained a BA in government in 1972 at Pennsylvania State University. Carrie L. Castille is an agriculture and natural resources consultant in Louisiana. She served as the former associate commissioner for the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry for public policy and as senior adviser to Commissioner Mike Strain. She assumed the role at the department after a ten year tenure as an assistant professor at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Agricultural Center. She holds a BS in engineering from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, an MS in environmental toxicology from LSU, and a PhD in renewable natural resources with a minor in political science from LSU. She is a fellow of the Food Systems Leadership Institute and serves as the chair-elect on the National Agriculture Research Extension Education and Economics Board appointed by USDA Secretary Vilsack. She also served on the National Council on Environmental Policy and Technology convened by EPA Secretary Gina McCarthy. She created the very successful Louisiana Master Farmer Program while at LSU and continues to work closely with agriculture and forestry producers on national and state policy issues, including agricultural economic development, food safety, environment and natural resources, international trade and agriculture labor. David G. Delaney has been a senior fellow at the Center for Health and Homeland Security since 2016. Previously, he taught at Indiana University while serving as the deputy director and senior fellow of the Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research. David served as a deputy associate general counsel at the Department of Homeland Security where he advised and coordinated efforts related to security and law enforcement. After law school he was a law clerk to Judge James E. Baker of the US Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. Previously, he had been a military police officer from 1994-1999 at positions in the United States and Europe. David earned a B.S. from the US Military Academy at West Point, an M.A. in Law and Diplomacy from Tufts University, and a J.D. from Boston College. Arthur G. Fraas joined Resources for the Future (RFF) as a Visiting Fellow in April 2009 after a distinguished career in senior positions within the federal government. In 2008, he retired after 21 years as chief of the Natural Resources, Energy, and Agriculture Branch, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. Much of his work has examined the federal regulatory process, with a particular focus on the impact of environmental regulations. At RFF, Arthur works on a variety of issues related to energy and the environment, including projects looking at the trade-offs between using biomass in transportation and in electronic applications, the treatment of uncertainty in regulatory analysis of major rules, and the potential regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. Before Joining the OMB, Arthur was a senior economist at the Council on Wage and Price Stability, a staff member of the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, an assistant professor of economics at the U.S. Naval Academy, and a staff economist with the Federal Reserve System. He graduated from Cornell University in 1965 with a bachelor’s degree in engineering physics, and earned his doctorate in economics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1972. William J. Hurley has been with the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) since 1985 and is currently an adjunct research staff member in the Joint Advanced Warfighting Division. Prior to coming to IDA, William was with the Center for Naval Analyses. His research has addressed a wide variety of defense issues with emphases on joint forces, analytical methods, concept development, and advanced technologies. He has directed or coauthored over fifty studies sponsored principally by offices within the DOD. Recent focal points have included urban operations, irregular warfare, and countering IEDs. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

174 Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals William has participated on several study panels addressing these areas and organized by the Defense Science Board, the Academies, and NATO. In addition to his research responsibilities, William was the associate program director and then program director of the Defense Science Study Group (DSSG) from 1991 to 1998. The DSSG is an ongoing program of education and study that introduces outstanding young professors of science and engineering to current issues of national security and military systems and organizations. The program is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. William’s academic background is in theoretical physics. He received a BS in physics from Boston College (1965) and a PhD in physics from the University of Rochester (1971), and held research positions at Syracuse University and the University of Texas. Karmen N. Lappo graduated from the University of Michigan with Bachelors of Science degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering. She then completed a Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas in Austin. Ms. Lappo has been on staff at Sandia National Laboratories since late 2003 working with a variety of energetic materials technical groups. She has worked on explosive component design and production, hydrocode modeling, field test design, explosive tool development and characterization, explosive mixture characterization, and energetic threats evaluation. In 2010, Ms. Lappo accepted and commenced a two year assignment with the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate as an energetic materials subject matter expert. She served on requirements review panels and several interagency working groups focused on ammonium nitrate safety, security vulnerabilities and its malicious use in explosive mixtures/devices. After returning to Sandia in 2012 she has lead test series to evaluate ammonium nitrate mixtures detonability in support the Department of Homeland Security proposed ruling on ammonium nitrate. The test results were used to advise DHS policy decisions regarding ammonium nitrate security. Karmen continues to lead high fidelity explosive test activities to include technical evaluations focused on helping industry and government better understand the security vulnerabilities of ammonium nitrate based products. Becky D. Olinger is detailed to the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Counter Terrorism and Counter Proliferation as a science adviser. Previously, she was a program manager at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Global Security Office, where she managed efforts in nuclear security. From 1991 to 1998 Becky was a research assistant at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center studying HMEs and explosive materials. She worked as a senior scientist and program manager from 2004 to 2006, working on projects to counter IEDs for law enforcement and the DOD. In 2006 Becky started working at Los Alamos as a nuclear weapons engineer and project leader on National Nuclear Safety Administration projects. From 2007 to 2009 she was the DE-1 deputy group leader and program manager, supervising a team of researchers studying problems related to counterterrorism and HMEs. Becky received a PhD in physical chemistry from the University of New Mexico–Albuquerque in 2005, where she utilized infrared spectroscopy techniques to study a variety of materials, including explosives. Jimmie C. Oxley is a professor of chemistry at the University of Rhode Island (URI), codirector of the Forensic Science Partnership of URI, and team-lead for and former director of the DHS Center of Excellence for Explosives Detection, Mitigation, and Response. Jimmie’s lab specializes in the study of energetic materials including explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics. Jimmie has organized and chaired numerous symposia and short courses for government and industrial laboratories on topics ranging from hazards analysis to bomb threats, has testified before Congress on the topic of explosive materials and detection, and has authored numerous papers on energetic materials. She is an elected PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Appendix I 175 fellow of the North American Thermal Analysis Society and a reviewer for FBI, NSF, and the Academies. Jimmie has served on six NRC panels including the Military Science Board advising the army on chemical weapon destruction (1998–99); the Chemistry Board advising ATF and Congress, on the Committee on Marking, Rendering Inert, and Licensing of Explosive Material (1997–98); the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) advising the FAA, on the Committee on Commercial Aviation Security (1995–98); the Manufacturing Board’s Committee on Advanced Energetic Materials (2001–2); the Naval Studies Board’s Determining Basic Research Needs to Interrupt the Improvised Explosive Device Delivery Chain (2005–2008); and the Army Research Lab’s Armor and Armaments panel (2009–2011). Jimmie earned a PhD in chemistry from the University of British Columbia in 1983. Kevin F. Smith is a career supply chain practitioner and the President and CEO of Sustainable Supply Chain Consulting. Sustainable Supply Chain Consulting was founded in 2009 to provide advice and guidance to large scale supply chains and related businesses concerning strategic planning and organizational development. Kevin served for eight years as Senior Vice President of Supply Chain & Logistics for CVS/pharmacy, the retail arm of CVS Caremark, where his role was to facilitate changes in the overall supply chain. Kevin has been a longtime board member for the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), Special Advisor to Supply Chain 50, and contributor to the Retail Industry Leaders Association (RILA). Additionally, Kevin is vice chair of the Distribution Business Management Association (DBMA) Supply Chain Leaders in Action Executive Committee. Kevin is a graduate from the University of Massachusetts with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English. Kirk Yeager has been a senior forensic scientist at the Federal Bureau of Investigation since 2010. Kirk completed his BS in chemistry in 1987 at Lafayette College and obtained his PhD in inorganic chemistry at Cornell University in 1993. From 1994 to 1995 he worked as a postdoctoral research scientist at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and researched the hazards and terrorist potentials of energetic materials. Starting in 1995 he held an adjunct faculty appointment at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and taught several courses on energetic chemistry in addition to conducting research on the production of explosive materials and their safe utilization. In 2000 Kirk joined the FBI as a physical scientist and forensic examiner with the explosives unit. In this capacity he conducted examinations of crime scenes involving bombing and arson, and developed training procedures for law enforcement bomb squads. As a senior scientist with the explosives unit he served as an international expert in explosive and hazardous devices and managed research programs dedicated to creating characterization techniques for emerging HME materials. In 2010 Kirk was promoted to the executive service, holding positions as the FBI’s chief explosives scientist and as a senior-level science adviser. Kirk has provided expert testimony in criminal cases involving explosives, and technical presentations to government agencies, law enforcement organizations, and Congress. He has published many articles, research reports, and book chapters on the topic of explosives and has been recognized with several awards, including the FBI Director’s Award twice. Kirk also serves on the International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators advisory committee. Staff Camly Tran joined the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2014 as a postdoctoral fellow after receiving her PhD in chemistry from the Department of Chemistry at Brown University and is currently a program officer. During her time at Brown, she received various honors including the Elaine Chase Award for PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

176 Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals Leadership and Service, the American Chemical Society Global Research Exchanges Education Training Program, and the Rhode Island NASA grant. Camly completed the workshop summaries and reports of Mesoscale Chemistry (2015) and The Changing Landscape of Hydrocarbon Feedstocks for Chemical Production (2016). She has also supported the consensus studies Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines: A Comparative Study of Environmental Fate, Effects, and Response (2016); Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security: A Guide to Developing Standard Operating Procedures (2016); Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments (2016); and Communicating Chemistry: A Framework for Sharing Science: A Practical Evidence-Based Guide (2016). She is currently supporting activities on chemistries of the microbiomes, chemical weapons, and precursor chemicals for IEDs. Teresa Fryberger came to the National Academies in 2013 to serve as director of the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. She is an accomplished research program and policy manager in the chemical, environmental, and energy sciences, with experience at NASA, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Department of Energy, and the Brookhaven and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. Earlier in her career, Teresa was an associate editor at Science and a National Research Council postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute for Science and Technology. Teresa earned her PhD in physical chemistry from Northwestern University and her BS in chemistry from the University of Oklahoma. Samuel Goodman joined the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology as a postdoctoral fellow in 2016. He graduated with a BS in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2012 and continued his graduate studies at the University of Colorado–Boulder. Samuel completed his PhD in chemical engineering in 2016, with a research focus on the biological impacts of semiconducting nanomaterials. Jarrett Nguyen is a program assistant for the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. He began working for the National Academies in October of 2016. He graduated from James Madison University in 2015 with a BS in geology and environmental science and a minor in geographic science. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions required to make IEDs are highly accessible. In many cases, precursor chemicals enable this criminal use of IEDs because they are used in the manufacture of homemade explosives (HMEs), which are often used as a component of IEDs.

Many precursor chemicals are frequently used in industrial manufacturing and may be available as commercial products for personal use. Guides for making HMEs and instructions for constructing IEDs are widely available and can be easily found on the internet. Other countries restrict access to precursor chemicals in an effort to reduce the opportunity for HMEs to be used in IEDs. Although IED attacks have been less frequent in the United States than in other countries, IEDs remain a persistent domestic threat. Restricting access to precursor chemicals might contribute to reducing the threat of IED attacks and in turn prevent potentially devastating bombings, save lives, and reduce financial impacts.

Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals prioritizes precursor chemicals that can be used to make HMEs and analyzes the movement of those chemicals through United States commercial supply chains and identifies potential vulnerabilities. This report examines current United States and international regulation of the chemicals, and compares the economic, security, and other tradeoffs among potential control strategies.

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